Thursday, 4 July 2013

study of iron in Bible, Israel Iron Age I,

study by Pasi K Pohjala July 2013, of Verre et Bible 16 campaign, the 6:16 emphasising AHJH YMK WHKJT AT MDJN KAJS AHD Also here the AHD appears, and in the context of Book of Judges we should remember the leader EHUD of Judges 3, and also here in Judges 6 described leader EHUD of MEDINA; thus this prophesy assigns to Gideon apparently role of leadership denoted in term AHD. Here is in 6:8 in prophetic words also referred to that God had rescued Israelites from Egyptian slavery; in the life of Palestinian early Iron Age this is indeed quite apparent, because Egyptian strong domination of Palestine during Bronze Age quite ended in the early Iron Age of Palestine. With regard to these cultural and ethnographic notices, now is specially worth noticing Judges 6:11 describing the divine vision of GIDEON in words WJBA MLAK JHWH WJSB THT HALH ASR BYPRH ASR LJWAS ABJ HYZRJ Maybe we recognise in word HALH reference to ALLAH in these descriptions of culture and religion of these ISHMAELITES; and the YPR notices some special stone (see BDB 780; and the ALH traditionally is rendered “terebinth” in Biblical translations). Apparently important for this group of ISHMAELITES led by Gideon was the valley of JEZREEL; the 6:33 notices that the troops of MEDINA, Amaleq and Eastern QEDAR people, encamped in valley of JEZREEL. (Here we find one geographical definition of the regions of THIS particular group of ISHMAELITES, that the JEZREEL region was for them important; e.g. region of JEZREEL town in Negeb of Judah, that could be relevant considering this MEDINA campaign aiming at GAZA harbour. Palestinian political realities of those times are reflected e.g. in the Stela of Pharaoh Merenptah (of Nineteenth Dynasty, ruled 1212-1202 BCE) where are exulted Pharaoh’s victory over larger coalition including also some forces from Gezer, Canaan, Yenoam, Israel, and Syria; in Egyptian sources this is probably only occurrence of name Israel). We now study more histories of ISRAEL and ISMAEL, and we here still repeat to Readers that IN OLD TESTAMENT WHEREVER IS NOW THE NAME ISRAEL WRITTEN, THAT NAME IN EARLY WRITS CAN HAVE BEEN THE NAME ISMAEL, BECAUSE THE HEBREW MEM LETTER IS EASILY EDITED TO LETTER RES (appearing in name Israel). EARLY POLITICO-RELIGIOUS SITUATION CAN HAVE MOTIVATED SUCH ERASING OF MEMORIES OF ISMAEL AND ISMAELITES FROM PAGES OF HEBREW BIBLE (AND THIS ALSO REALISING PRACTICAL EXPULSION OF ISMAELITES FROM BIBLE-READING COMMUNITIES.) The probable early change of name ISMAEL to name ISRAEL has several very serious consequences. Generally, Judaism claims their special status being inheritors of the promise given to patriarch Abraham, by tracing their history to the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob-Israel. This is in also prominent in Jewish liturgy and especially in prayer Avot (Fathers). That claim of inheritance of status of inheriting promises to Abraham are founded upon the status of Isaac having been recognised as the inheritor of Abraham. But Bible well remembers that actually ISHMAEL was the first-born child of Abraham (Gen 16) and thus the rights of first-born actually belonged to ISHMAEL. But in Biblical history, ISHMAEL became sidelined from Jewish history, and ISHMAELITE groups became in practical situations sidelined. This process was in ancient times of course of much practical consequences, and realising that included several stages in Biblical INTERPRETATION. Firstly, INTERPRETERS established the comprehension that ISHMAEL’s mother HAGAR was merely “concubine” of Abraham and that HAGAR had been merely servant to Sarah; and thus INTERPRETERS by this INTERPRETATION of some words in Old Testament realised sidelining ISHMAEL from being of Abraham’s first-born child. Thus was ISHMAEL sidelined with some INTERPRETATIONS of Hebrew words, and that brought ISAAC to the prominent status of first-born child of Abraham- thus the INTERPRETERS could effectively make the claim that the inheritance rights of first-born belonged to ISAAC. Thus were the Biblical ISHMAEL and ethnic groups ISHMAELITES sidelined from possibilities of the rights of first-born. SECOND stage was general erasing of memories of ISHMAEL from Old Testament; the Genesis 16 was allowed however to tell the history of birth of ISHMAEL, although in such manner that Gen 16 established the inferior role of ISHMAEL as son of merely “concubine” HAGAR who reasonably was not regarded in questions of inheritance and rights of the first-born son of Abraham. Generally other memories of ISHMAEL were easily erased from Old Testament by simple editing trick: in Hebrew write name ISHMAEL was changed to name ISRAEL by simple editorial trick changing letter Mem to letter Res. Thus were generally memories of ISHMAEL erased from Old Testament histories, and thereafter everywhere in Old Testament is told histories of ISRAEL. However, in Book of Judges 6-8 is importantly preserved memories of the ancient situation of the group politically recognised as ISRAEL but the members of that group were recognised as ISHMAELITES, especially with regard to their ethnicity, ethnically specific practises and habits. And the THIRD stage of this editorial process considered ancient creating ISRAEL as description of ethnicity, not merely being term designating political group. Thus, the patriarch JACOB was emphasised having been given the name ISRAEL, in the specially important history of Genesis 32:23-33. Because Jacob was in this foundational episode given the new name ISRAEL, all descendants of Jacob could thereafter claim of belonging to ISRAEL; this Genesis 32 is very important episode of creating the term ISRAEL as description of ETHNOS, describing ETHNIC GROUP. However, also here we recognise that name ISHMAEL so notoriously easily is changed into the name ISRAEL. Thus, the episode Genesis 32 may in early times have described that Jacob was in this episode given the name ISHMAEL! And apparently this is completely logical in the situation described in the Genesis 32, because name ISHMAEL indeed WAS known in the family of Abraham, being the name of first-born child of Abraham (the name ISRAEL was according to Old Testament previously NOT known in the family of Abraham). For numerous years Jacob had been dwelling in the house of Laban the Syrian, and there became married and started his family. And Genesis 32 describes of events when Jacob was making return to his ancestral regions with his family and with his properties. In this situation it is actually fully logical and even to every contemporary reader clearly comprehensible that when entering to those ancestral regions, JACOB WAS RECOGNISED AS BELONGING TO THE FAMILY RULING THOSE PLACES, JACOB WAS RECOGNISED AS ISHMAELI. Apparently the description of Gen 32:23-33 thus describes some ancient ritual where Jacob was formally reminded of his FAMILY NAME ISHMAELI, in the situation when Jacob was returning to his ancestral regions. But later editing and interpreters presented this event Genesis 32:23-33 as ascribing the novel name “Israel” to Jacob, so that thereby would have been founded the new Israelite ethnicity, according to the claims of ancient editing and interpreting. But Jewish liturgy always reminds of the ancient situation in the centrally important recitation of SHEMA, ISRAEL, where Hebrew readers during every recitation are firmly reminded of the ancient realities: the word SHEMA compared with name ISRAEL reminds to Hebrew readers every time of the name ISMAEL- and thus during the recitation of the SHEMA, ISRAEL these enormously important questions become recognised and enlivened. Palestine is strategically important region of Mediterranean coastal line and thus connects eastern trade networks with Mediterranean sea routes. Bersheba is along main road towards Mediterranean coast, and in eleventh century BCE the early fortifications of Bersheba were built, in the early Iron Age. The name Bersheba is comprehensible noticing FORTRESS OF SABA, or BURJ-SABA, even if usually the name is etymologically comprehended noticing “seven wells”. Apparently the Arabic trades of SABA in those ancient times made considerable efforts to secure trade route connections to the Mediterranean coastal line and Mediterranean harbour network, and were in Palestine increasingly active during decline of Egyptian rule of Palestine. Well known are also the famous copper mines of Timna mines that were for Egyptians important source of copper; archaeological excavations of pottery have confirmed that already those times numerous people of NW Arabia were in Timna mines active, together with Egyptians. The Book of Judges describes much interestingly ancient metalworking. The HLM notices hammering, and we now proceed to consider apparently important mythological event in Book of Judges, the narrative of Judges 3 describes important help to these ancient Israelites by warrior and judge the Yemenite JEHUD. Here Judges 3:15ff describes how Eglon king of Moab seriously warred against Israelites, but Israelites cried to the Lord and He raised JEHUD to deliver them, narrated in Hebrew Bible WJZYQW BNJ JSRAL AL JHWH WJQM JHWH LHM MWSJY AT AHWD BN Gera BN HJMJNJ AJS ATR JD JMJNJ WJSLHW BNJ JSRAL BJDW MNHH LYGLWN (Eglon) MLK Moab WJYS LW AHWD HRB WLH SNJ PJWT GMD ARKH WJHGR AWTH MTHT LMDJW YL JRK JMJNJ (Judges 3:15-16) This is very archaic description. We notice here how JHWH raised to Israelites LHM MWSJY AT AHWD, and this Jehud made a sword (WJYS LW AHWD HRB). In this archaic mythological description from very old times of early iron age, we read myth of helper JEHUD who was Smith LOHEM and how he made (YSH) a sword. Importantly, this description presents this Jehud being Yemenite, so that this is archaic description of Arabic metal worker in Israel who delivered Israel with this then very high technology, producing sword. The descriptions of ethnicity of this EHUD are here important and interesting. Hebrew Bible writes his name and describes his character AHWD BN Gera BN HJMJNJ AJS ATR JD JMJNJ In this sentence BN HJMJNJ is clearly compared with here noticed group BNJ JSRAL, the “Israelites”, so that in this sentence the BN HJMJNJ emphatically notices his belonging to certain ethnic group; probably here was originally written of ISHMAELITES and thus noticed that there living ISHMAELITE population was then rescued by special metalworking knowledge and activity of this specialist EHUD from Yemeni. His name is here vocalised traditionally Ben Hajemini; but the consonantal text of Hebrew Bible being sacred, the vocalisations more express certain traditions of reading the consonants and usually in interpretations are questioned and much pondered. Similarly motivated we here can read the Hebrew BN HJMJNJ vocalised Ben Hajemeni, that exactly refers to YEMEN and ethnicity of this EHUD in the group of YEMENITE-ARABS then settled in Palestine. And thus specially worth is noticing that Septuagint here indeed reads HUION GEERA HUIOU TOU IEMENI (thus Codex Alexandrinus; importantly, Codex Vaticanus reads similarly except reading accusative HUION- importantly, also the Codex Vaticanus has preserved this tradition of Yemenite Jehud). In this study we soon consider more attestations of Yemenites in Septuagint. This statement presents this EHUD being BN HJMJNJ, Yemenite, and notices in Hebrew Bible also that AJS ATR JD JMJNW and this description now much more characterises this JEHUD; Septuagint renders this ANDRA AMFOTERODEKSION. Thus we find that this EHUD is described skilled YEMENITE artisan handiworker, the JAD here apparently refers to EHUD’s professional doing handiwork. Alas, in modern translations this is often rendered merely as noticing EHUD as “left-handed” man. This logically understandable description then here is completed with describing how this EHUD made himself a sword- in those times, doing metalwork of smiths was really the high-tech and thus overwhelmingly appreciated. Of course in many texts such rendering is reasonable, but in this statement JD JMJNW is apparent description of his practise of art of smiths of YEMENITE technology. This description in Book of Judges describes life of early Israelite Iron age, the early period that in research often is denoted Iron Age 1. There are then important questions concerning beginnings of iron working in Israel; usually is comprehended that such advanced technologies were learnt from Northern cultures, especially from scions of Hittite culture; often invention of iron and iron working is ascribed in research to Hittites. But this tradition of Judges 3 describing those early times clearly shows that historiography of Bible here describes in early pre-monarchic Israel active settled YEMENITE smith EHUD who made himself sword. And this EHUD is also characterised here being ATR; it is important to remember that in Hebrew Bible smiths and artisans usually are called HRS, and this much resembles this ATR especially noticing the usual S/T interchange of letters; and ATR can also denote place thus describing this EHUD as in Israel settled local metalsmith. Here we learn importantly of doings of YEMENITE metalsmith JEHUD Because this archaic iron age myth of deliverer Jehud specifically notices how this Jehud MADE FOR HIMSELF A SWORD (YSH), we are specially motivated to comprehend this LHM as LOHEM, presenting this mythological early iron age hero JEHUD as LOHEM SMITH. Apparently his metal working knowledge was Arabic technology because this Jehud was Yemenite. This is apparently very important very archaic early iron age Israelite myth of Yemenite SMITH JEHUD who produced for himself a sword and thereafter delivered Israel from oppression of this EGLON king of Moab. (We later more discuss traditions of ancient famous iron mining and iron working in AJLUN of Transjordania; and Judges 1:35 notices Amorites dwelling in AYALON at Mount Heres (also rendered as Mount of Iron, because Heres is one ancient designation also for iron objects, iron working, and iron generally); earlier in Abraham’s journeys ALWN the “terebinth” is mentioned in Gen 12:6)- already Late Bronze Age iron SMELTING was in these regions practised, attested in finds of Tel Yinam of Galilee; IF this name TEL YINAM continues some ancient tradition, the name notices interesting reference to YEMENITES and iron working; it is certainly important to remember mention of YENOAM in Egyptian Merenptah Stela (of Nineteenth Dynasty, of reign 1212-1202 BCE) in list of coalition the Pharaoh Merenptah had won- that coalition included also Gezer, Canaan, Israel, Yenoam, and Syria and others). In the Hebrew Bible, we find this AHWD name only here in Judges 3, thus describing this Jehud son of Gera; and once such name occurs in 1 Chron 7:10 in list of sons of Yediael (maybe we hear a tradition of Jeddah). And the name Ohan (thus the AHD consonants differently vocalised) is found in Gen 46:10 and Exodus 6:15 in lists of sons of Simeon- importantly, both lists mention Yemen (JMJN) and Ohad and others. Also Isaiah 44:12 is now of considerable interest, we find the Tanakh rendering this description of working of ironsmith in words JHD The craftsman in iron, with his tools, works it over charcoal And fashions it by hammering working with the strength of his arm For the current discussion of the myth of Ehud in Judges 3 here commented, it is notably important that this description of Isaiah 44:12 of ironsmith is in Hebrew Bible preceded with the Hebrew word JHD. Once more we remind to the Readers that division into verses is quite late invention introduced as a “help” to Readers (it is not at all considered holy), but it is famous for often destroying semantics of the Hebrew text (and those of ancient translations). In scholarly Bible study thus is always and everywhere the first procedure to forget the division into verses and to read the text in the manner the ancient Readers were encountering the text (indeed, they were often reading lectio continua; and even the handwritings of copyists were slightly different). Now we thus find in this Isaiah 44:12 notoriously clear statement of JHD or JEHUD, “craftsman in iron”, and his working methods! Usually modern Bible translations (thus also Tanakh) follow division into verses, and read this JHD in preceding 44:11 and comprehending this JHD meaning “together”; these are different vocalisations of this JHD word. But importantly, thus we here find in Isaiah 44:12 description of ironsmith JEHUD and his working methods. Terminology in Hebrew Bible here is clear, writing of HRS BRZL the ironsmith. We recognise that the term JEHUD may have been developing to professional title of originally Arabic metalsmiths in those regions. The Book of Judges writes numerous specially interesting notices concerning early metal working and ironworking of those ancient times of Early Iron age of Palestine. Already in 1:3 we learn of notorious developments of ancient metallurgy that WJMZAW AT ADNJ BZQ BBZQ WJLHMW BW The LHM or LOHEM denotes often the activities of smiths in metalworking and thus also here. Notoriously important reading this statement now is consideration of meaning of the BZQ, and Readers certainly in this word hear reference to the ZQQ activities of melting in furnaces, the specific technology of metalworking. Developments of furnaces was for proper iron working one very central technological development in moving from working copper and bronze to working iron, because the necessary temperature in iron smelting is far higher. One notoriously important question in developments of technologies of early iron age is provision of iron ores. Where did the earliest metal workers find the iron ore? Widely is recognised that the earliest source of iron was the meteorites; the meteorites notoriously are almost always very good alloy of iron usually with nickel or cobalt, so that meteorite iron produces especially good quality iron, almost like the quality of the modern steel, because the meteorite iron contains that alloy of iron metal that was only recently mastered in metalworking. But thus we here in Judges 1:3 notice the word BZQ or BEZEQ. This reflects of course very ancient traditions of early iron age. But it is remarkably important to notice that BEZEQ in relatively ancient Aramaic texts does notice pebbles, or cast or shoot of mass of fragments (see J 154), and Arabic FARAQA notices also scattering and dispersing and distributing (compare F/P with B letter and Z with the R letter). In North Jordan also is located modern town Mafraq! Apparently Judges 1:3 here refers to METEORITES BEZEQ and practising metalworking LOHEM with the iron material of METEORITES. This description in Judges 1:3 thus importantly reflects much of the widely recognised practises of earliest iron working- iron material found in meteorites. Thus we also notice mention in Judges 1:9 that WAHR JRDW BNJ JHWDH (Jehuda) LHLHM BKNYNJ JWSB HHR WHNGB (Negeb) During the current study we are finding many references to the metalworking practises of EHUD individuals, or JEHUD, and thus is also here apparently importantly noticed that these JEHUD people practised LHM LOHEM doing, metalworking. Also are here important places noticed. BKNYNJ word when pronounced sounds notoriously much like BAHNANJ. In traditions of ancient metalworking and iron working this is especially important find, because the rich iron mines of FEYNAN east of Jordan river were truly important. Of course the name Canaan is important, but THIS SPECIAL CONTEXT of Book of Judges now calls specific attention to this form BKNYNJ or BAHNANJ because in those regions from times old the notoriously rich FEYNAN mines very specially important source of iron ore. Important archaeological excavations have been conducted in sites around WADI FIDAN and important finds of ancient practises of metallurgy and smelting facilities there have been unearthed; and specialists of archaeology have much been comparing ancient metallurgy of that region of WADI FIDAN with ancient metallurgy of Beersheba region. The Judges 1:9 notices the LOHEM metal working activity of JEHUDA people in BAHNANJ, probably thus in FEYNAN regions east of Jordan, near to the rich mines, and also notices their LOHEM metalworking in NEGEB area. Apparently the LOHEM activity is in the descriptions of Book of Judges presented distinctively specific activity of metalworking and activities of smiths (even if often read merely as L with pl.3 suffix “to them”, or as possessive “their”). Thus we importantly notice description in Judges 1:19 of horrifying weaponry of Canaanite troops that RKB BRZL LHM- apparently the LHM here expresses that these iron chariots of Canaanite troops were produces of SMITHS practises LOHEM. Interestingly, we thus here encounter very ancient term of FORGED IRON, BARZEL LOHEM. Usually is of course the BARZEL here comprehended as denoting IRON, BUT this text of Judges 1:19 is here apparently very specific in stating BARZEL LOHEM, that we may now render to modern readers understandable FORGED AND HAMMERED IRON. Importantly, this description of iron chariots directly shows that this culture necessarily at those times must have known sources of iron more amply than the tiny and scattered pebbles of meteorites; and thus we understand their having then used MINED IRON ORES, e.g. the iron ore from the nearby ample and ancient FEYNAN mines. Indeed, in the histories of Sisera the Judges 4:13 notices that his troops had NINE HUNDRED iron chariots that represents in those times really enormous number of iron strengthened chariots (here is mentioned place Haras-Goyim, and it is thus important to remember that HRZ words in Hebrew Bible usually refer to various iron objects, and notice their sharp qualities, and also notice trenches and thus some old IRON MINES). The terminology of LHM LOHEM is written also in the 2:16 noticing LHM WJZR LHM Meod. The JAZAR is the usual Biblical word noticing form-giving, forming and producing and apparently

No comments: