Thursday, 4 July 2013

study of iron in Bible 5

But this would lead to more developed discussions of philosophy of senses and sensation, and describing sensation occurring through ”touch” and ”touching”. This is fundamental comprehension of working of senses, and the media, and Readers may read more e.g. in Aristotle’s De Anima II.5 where sensation is described arising in process of acting and being acted upon (POIEIN, PASKHEIN), or PASKHEIN and KINEISTHAI; and De Sensu 442b is detailed discussion with other theories that base all sensation on “touch”. (Aristotle discusses in II.12 also the important Platonic description of receiving in soul imprints of visible objects like in the imprinting of signet ring on wax, and thus arising sensation of visible object). And thus we consider questions of touching and medium and we notice APTOMAI touching and ARTAOO attracting. Especially, in De Anima II.11, Aristotle states that AISTHANOMETHA GE PANTOON DIA TOU MESOU (423b7) thus emphasising that we perceive all things through medium. Here Aristotle especially considers question that some senses (e.g. taste and touch) seem to act by contact, but other senses act at distance. Discussing this fundamental question, he emphasises in 423b7 the centrally important role of medium in ALL sensation. And Aristotle specifies here in De Anima II.11 also ALLA DIAFEREI TO APTON TOON ORATOON KAI TOON PSOFEETIKOON OTI EKEINOON MEN AISTANOMETHA TOO (dat) TO METAKSU POIEIN TI HEMAS, TOON DE HAPTOON OUKH HUPO TOU METAKSU ALL’ AMA TOO (dat) METAKSU Visible and audible things are perceived when the medium (TO METAKSU) affects us (POIEIN TI HEMAS); but those of touch are not perceived by the medium affecting us, but at the same time with the medium (AMA). (De Anima II.11 423b12ff). In theory of sensations, this is important description of affecting via medium, or directly. In theory of visual perceptions, centrally important is role of the Transparent (TO DIAFANES) medium; and e.g Aristotle’s De Sensu III is detailed discussion of visual perception of “colour” and “colour” in the Transparent DIAFANES. These philosophical distinctions are important also in ancient considerations of role of the medium in that a magnet apparently can cause movements (or iron pieces, or iron needles) from some distance, without visibly touching the iron piece, but apparently acting from much distance. But these are questions of philosophy of sensation and philosophy of KINESIS. Here we shortly consider the ARTAOO. One interesting aspect of ancient magical use of magnets was that they were known with title BREATHING STONES. Thus describes the Great Magical Papyrus of Paris PGM 4.1716ff ritual of breathing, with placing piece of magnetite breathing stone under the tongue, with apparent aim of creating attraction; this describes attempts of calling for the attracting forces of magnets in circumstances of human life. It is hereby also worth considering that Aristotle in De Sensu 444 discusses how some sensations can occur only if some “lid” is removed from top of the sense organ; thus in the case of eyes that can see only if the eye lids are opened, or sense of smell only occurs if “lid” is removed by breathing (TOIS MEN ANAPNEOUSI TO PNEUMA AFAIREI TO EPIKEIMENON OOSPER POOMA TI and KATHAPER EPI TOON OFTHALMOON TA MEN EKHEI BLEFARA TOON ZOON OON MEE ANAKALUFTHENTOON OU DUNATAI ORAN). Readers may here hear some possible echo of the Egyptian fundamental Opening of Mouth ritual, and the important role of adze or staff in this ritual. And in the Timaeus 80C writes Plato importantly concerning HERACLEAN STONES that KAI DEE KAI TA TOON HUDATOON PANTA REUMATA ETI DE TA TOON KERAUNOON PTOOMATA KAI TA THAUMAZOMENA EELEKTROON PERI TEES ELKSEOOS KAI TOON HERAKLEIOON LITHOON, PANTOON TOUTOON OLKEE MEN OUK ESTIN OUDENI POTE Here the power of attraction by the magnetic stone, called also here the Heraclean stone, is noticed in the term ELKSIS and OLKEE, of the Greek verb ELKOO. Also here is clearly noticed that such magnetic stones, or stones called Heraclean stones, are noticed to have ELKO power, power of attraction and pulling. The detail of mentioning the ELECTRON metal and magnets Heraclean stones here compared is of huge importance also. Nomenclature of ancients was somewhat unspecific. The ELECTRON metal is alloy of silver and gold and quite looks like silver. Especially in ancient Egyptian culture the ELECTRON metal is important. But ancients also knew that many magnets looked like silver metal, thus notices Theophrastus in his De LAPIDIBUS. The current study shall make also some remarks of Egyptian ELECTRON metal, especially because of quite similar outlook of ELECTRON metal and some magnetic material. In Egyptian archaeological finds objects that are in archaeological descriptions classified as ELECTRON objects are somewhat usual, and are thus here worthy of much consideration because of similarity with some magnetic objects. This brings to question of ancient Egyptian magnets, here shortly noticed. The Egyptian funerary cult was much centered in role of Osiris, and often Egyptian funerary recitations mentioned different bodily parts of Osiris, and notably, usually were noticed OSIRIS’ FINGERS OF ELECTRON METAL. Notoriously thus is in Egyptian culture one important and often uttered mention of ELECTRON METAL noticing metal objects of form of FINGER; such formed metal objects namely are much possible for being also COMPASS NEEDLES. And parts of the huge obelisk monuments were in Egypt also covered with ELECTRON metal; also this indicates special known meaning of electron metal- both finger and the enormous obelisks are somewhat of similar form, similar to tiny needles that could be watched in compass needles. Important discussion also of electron metal is in the book Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries by A. Lucas (revised ed. by J.R. Harris). Importantly, “there cannot be any doubt that electrum is found in the country and it seems highly probable that the supply sufficed to meet the local needs” (Lucas 1962, 235). Metal electrum is alloy of gold and silver, and for modern goldsmiths such alloy poses task of refining silver and gold separately; but this alloy is harder than gold and thus was suitable for many jewellery making and so used in ancient Egypt. If the alloy contains more than 20per cent silver and is of light yellow colour, it can be called electrum, thus also following Pliny’s terminology in NH XXXIII.23. Ancient records mention that electrum was brought to Egypt from Kush, Punt, Emu and from some other southern regions; this ancient knowledge of electrum is also now notoriously interesting, because also ancient magnets were found in those areas, e.g. Ethiopian magnets being famous for their good quality; and the outlook of some magnets was quite resembling silver (and thus also near to outlook of electrum), so that also some magnets could be brought as such electrum transports to Egypt. In the ancient Egyptian, the word DB( denotes fingers, thus e.g. fingers of Horus and fingers of hand of Re, and Aramaic quite similar ADB( is the word for fingers (in Biblical Hebrew, the AZBY word). It is thus worth noticing that gold is in ancient Aramaic called DHB, (or Hebrew ZHB where the usual change of Z and D is occurring). And Egyptians often called silver as the “white-metal”. Thus also words for finger and gold are quite similar, or gold in the alloy with silver, the ELECTRUM. Among known archaeological finds of electrum material, are some finger rings of electrum in Cairo museum, and also some bowls and cups. Importantly, in the tomb of Psusennes I (1045-994BC), there in the grave of general Undjebauendjet were found interesting silver cups (diameter appr. 16cm) where the bottom of those cups is decorated with beautiful ROSETTE figures. These now are displayed in the Egyptian Museum. Cups and bowls with beautiful rosette decoration in the bottom of the cup or bowl are known also e.g. in many ancient finds in Cyprus and Syria. The rosette apparently is one specially suitable decoration of a bowl or cup used as ancient compass. And among the finds in the grave of that general Undjebauendjet is beautiful cup made of gold and electrum, the cup being of 13.3cm diameter; the cup is of form of flower where alternatively three petals are of gold material and the other three petals are of ELECTRUM. Inscription in this cup contains cartouches of Psusennes I and his wife Mutnedjemet. Also this find emphasises that in the time of reign Psusennes I (1045-994 BC) the metal electrum was thus importantly used by Egyptian silversmiths. Also this beautiful cup is now in the Egyptian Museum. In the Palestinian history, this period is early beginning of iron age in Palestine; and Egyptians had important strong presence in Palestine in much of their Bronze age. And the Egyptian royal crown, the pshent double crown, symbolised unification of Upper and Lower Egypt; and the HEDJET White crown of Upper Egypt is quite similar with the usual Osiris’ crown ATEF (that has more typical details); and the double Crown of Egypt is e.g. in the magnificent Throne of Tutankhamun is depicted on the heads of two winged serpents that form the armrests of the Throne- and in this PSHENT double crown the white HEDJET crown seems like silver crown, or possibly iron crown silver plated. And in Egyptian religion very usual was the symbol DJED pillar that symbolised stability; the DJED especially was form of appearance of Osiris all around the country; and DJED pillar was pillar decorated with four balks crossing the pillar (Christian cult of afterlife in certain meanings continues the cult of Osiris, or at least is by many so interpreted; and e.g. the typical cross of Eastern Orthodox Church contains two, or three, balks). And the Book of the Dead (the Going Forth by Day) specifically mentions the special ore of Upper Egypt. Silver, or electrum, is in many ancient Egyptian finds importantly present, even if gold metal is more usual in ancient precious Egyptian finds. Discussion of finds of silver and electrum are in the current study very important in consideration of ancient magnets and ancient use of magnets, because ancient nomenclature and classification only was in stages of development and being settled, and silver material quite looks like some magnetic ores and thus some confusion easily occurs; this is discussion that requires much attention. Important ancient knowledge of making MAGNETIC STATUES OF OSIRIS is preserved in the Great Magical Papyrus of Paris, the PGM IV. PLASON ANDRIANTA PALAISTOON G EETOO DE TRIKEFALOS HE MESEE KEFALEE EETOO HIERAKOS HE DE DEKSIA KUNOKEFALOU HE DE ARISTERA IBEOOS. EKHETOO DE EKSEEPLOOMENA PTERA TESSARA EKTETAMENAS TAS DUO KHEIRAS EPI TOO STEETHEI EN AIS KRATEITOO KRATOS AUTOS DE ESTOO PERIESTALMENOS OOS OSIRIS. EKHETOO DE O MEN HIERAKS BASILEION OOROU O DE KUNOKEFALOS BASILEION HERMANOUBIDOS HE DE IBIS EKHETOO BASILEION ISIDOS. BALE DE EN TE KOILIA (dat) AUTOU KARDIAN MAGNETINEEN KAI EIS PITTAKION HIERATIKON GRAFE TA ONOMATA TAUTA KAI ENTHES AUTOU EIS TEEN KOILIAN KAI POIEESAS AUTOO (DAT) BASIN SIDEERAN STEESON AUTON EPI TEES BASEOOS KAI ENTHES AUTO EIS NAISKARION ARKEUTHINON (PGM IV 3125ff. in ed. Karl Preisendanz) We now also follow the Translation of Morton Smith in the Ed. Betz of the Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, to render these important descriptions understandable to modern Readers: This is how to make (the phylactery): taking Etruscan wax, mold a statue three handbreadths high. Let it be three-headed. Let the middle head be that of a sea falcon; the right, of a baboon; the left, of an ibis. Let it have four extended wings and its two arms stretched on its breast; in them it should hold a scepter. And let it be wrapped like OSIRIS. Let the falcon wear the crown of Horus; the baboon, the crown of Hermanubis; and let the ibis wear the crown of Isis. Put into the hollow inside it a HEART OF MAGNETITE, and write the following names on a piece of hieratic papyrus and put them into the hollow. Next, when you have made it an iron base, stand it on the base and put it into a little juniper wood temple at moonrise on the third day of the goddess (Translation of Morton Smith in the Ed. Betz). This is interesting and notorious description in this Great Magical Papyrus of Paris concerning production of MAGNETIC STATUE OF OSIRIS. This hollow statue is to be made of wax and inside this statue is placed HEART MADE OF MAGNETITE (KARDIA MAGNETINEE). This is magnetic statue, really a magical statue. Inside this statue is placed also piece of papyrus where are written numerous names that are in this magical text also listed somewhat later (RICHO, RICHOBI…). Here is now IMPORTANT to consider in detail description of these three heads. In the midst is head of falcon; and this falcon is described crowned with crown of Horus, apparently in Egyptian religion this refers to Horus. The head in the right is KUNOKEFALOU; but very slight change of reading finds KUANOKEFALOU and THIS reading means “he of bluish head” (KUANOS; then KUANOS also could mean bluish glass paste). Osiris was originally nature god but developed to god of underworld, and often he is thus depicted painted green or bluish green. The KUANOKEFALOU could here indeed refer to this usual depiction of Osiris himself in some greenish colour. For example, the colour turquoise is greenish-blue colour and the gem turquoise is in ancient world highly valued, also in Egyptian jewellery. Probably we here recognise that this directive of making this magical statue states that the head in the right is head of Osiris, of greenish-blue colour (KUANOKEFALOS). And on the left side of this statuette is head of ISIS, wearing, appropriately, the crown of ISIS (words IBIS and ISIS are in Greek very similarly written). Thus we find the usual triad of Egyptian Religion, ISIS, OSIRIS and HORUS and their attributes. (The dog-headed Anubis was also an important Egyptian deity and here is referred to combination of Hermes and Anubis, the Hermanubis.) In the Egyptian religion, the triad Osiris, Isis and Horus is of course centrally important; and here we recognise important attributes of crowns of Isis and Horus, and formation of this statue resembling statues of OSIRIS. In the Book Going Forth By Day (Book of the Dead), the Spell 30 notices the Heart of Osiris, IB N WSIR, and Spell 168 notices the OSIRIS-ANUBIS that now is apparently of special importance; we find the triad Osiris, Horus and Isis also in this statue. Here is described that this statue is depicted wrapped like Osiris- thus is Osiris indeed usually depicted and this emphasises here picture of Osiris. Also is stated that the hands are stretched over the breast and in hand the deity holds a scepter. Also this is typical of Egyptian statues and depictions of Osiris, typically Osiris is depicted holding in his left hand the HEQA scepter and in his right hand the NEKHEKH flail. The specific statue described in the Magical Papyrus that we now are considering, holds in the hand the KRATOS scepter, probably thus the HEQA scepter of Osiris. (In the important Egyptian ritual of Opening of the Mouth, the SEM priest touches the mouth of the mummy with an adze, or also depicted is in the ritual crooked staff, actually the Staff of Osiris; important recent exhibition of these cultural traditions was recently in the British Museum Nov 2010- March 2011 of Journey Through the Afterlife). The Egyptians often depicted also in their sculptures the fundamentally important Osirian triad OSIRIS, HORUS and ISIS, and in this Magical Papyrus we apparently are now reading of moulding a statuette of this model, the triad of OSIRIS, ISIS and HORUS crowned with their traditional attributes, with some details of then prevalent highly syncretistic Hellenistic Egyptian religion. Thus we reach to very important remark: THE STATUETTE OF OSIRIAN TRIAD OSIRIS, ISIS and HORUS IS IN MUCH DETAIL FOLLOWING USUAL TENETS OF EGYPTIAN RELIGION, BUT THIS STATUETTE IS SPECIALLY A MAGNETIC STATUE. HOW USUAL WERE SUCH MAGNETIC STATUES OF OSIRIS (OR OSIRIAN TRIAD) IN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN AND HELLENISTIC EGYPTIAN RELIGION? OSIRIS IS USUALLY DEPICTED GRASPING THE HEQA SCEPTER (OF METAL, OR IRON) IN HIS DEPICTIONS. CULT OF IRON AND MAGNET: NAME OSIRIS IS SIMILAR TO LATER GREEK NAME O SIDEROS OF IRON. THE GREEK LETTERS D AND R OFTEN QUITE SIMILAR, NOWADAYS SYMBOLISED WITH THE § SIGN THAT COMBINES WRITING OF GREEK RHO AND DELTA LETTERS. THUS READING WRITING OF OSI§IS, OR THE RHO UNCLEAR WRITTEN, NOTICES OF NAME OF OSIRIS AND O SIDRIS, THE SIDEROS IRON. ALSO IN SPEAKING AND RECITATIONS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IRON O SIDEROS AND NAME OF OSIRIS IS, ACTUALLY, VERY SLIGHT. IMPORTANTLY, OSIRIS STATUES ALMOST ALWAYS ARE DEPICTED HOLDING THE HEQA METAL/IRON STAFF IN HAND. AND IN GREAT MAGICAL PAPYRUS OF PARIS PGM IV 3125ff IS INTRUCTION OF MAKING OSIRIS STATUE SO THAT MAGNET IS PLACED INSIDE THE STATUE. ALSO NOTABLY FOR LATER CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS, THE HEQA STAFF OF OSIRIS IS QUITE OF FORM OF CHRISTIAN BISHOP’S STAFF. Also importantly, in the Ceremony of Opening of the Mouth, important ritual is the touching of the mouth of the mummy with adze, or crooked staff, or the Osiris’ Heqa staff. Important mention of use of MAGNETS is also found in the Corpus Hermeticum Book IV. For this discussion is of special importance that the Greek word MAGNETIS LITHOS is also in Corpus Hermeticum IV written; and also the description of these objects is clearly such that apparently is thus denoted metal that also modern educated readers would call magnets, especially because attracting iron is well noticed. Thus we read AUTEE SOI OO TAT KATA TO DUNATON HUPOGEGRAPTAI TOU THEOU EIKOON. EEN AKRIBOOS EI THEASEE TOIS TEES KARDIAS OFTHALMOIS, PISTEUSON MOI, TEKNON, HEURESEIS TEEN PROS TA ANOO ODON. MALLON DE AUTEE SE HEE (…) ODEEGEESEI. EKHEI GAR TI IDION EE THEA. TOUS FTHASANTAS THEASASTHAI KATEKHEI, KAI ANELKEI KATHAPER FASIN EE MAGNETIS LITHOS TON SIDEERON (Ed. W. Scott ”Hermetica”) Her is clearly mentioned how magnet attracts iron, ANELKEI KATHAPER FASIN EE MAGNETIS LITHOS TON SIDEERON; clearly thus here Hermeticum notices such that also modern educated readers would call “magnet”. W. Scott translates in words “even as men say the loadstone draws the iron”, and recent translation of B. P. Copenhaver (1992, CUP) renders in words “just as the magnet stone draws iron, so they say”. These translations thus also clearly comprehend this statement as description of that stone that currently is designated as “magnet”. Now it is hugely important that in this statement of Hermeticum, clearly is stated description of finding way: HEUREESEIS TEEN PROS TA ANOO ODON W. Scott renders this in words ”you will find the upward path”. This is clear statement of ancient Hermetic use of magnet in DIRECTING THE TRAVELLERS! Thus we specially notice statement MALLON DE AUTEE SE HEE (…) ODEEGEESEI Thus is here specifically written concerning DIRECTING TRAVELLERS, ODEEGEIN. Modern Readers thinking in terms rationalistic, would probably here say that “compass” or “compass needle” thus directs travellers. But here is in MSS. uncertainty- this is apparently very critical issue. Sincerely enormous Jackpot winning in the Ascot races a week from now, would be the opportunity of reading all the known MSS of Hermetica with all modern techniques to try to discover the letters here written- because Manuscripts according to their cultural and societal circumstances very probably would write THESE WORDS AS reference to some device that we would recognise as compass, device of use of magnet for directing travellers. Frankly, that modern Manuscript study of these Manuscripts of Hermetica could be Approach of new Dawn for better comprehension of ancient Compass devices. It is worth emphasising that Hermes was the Divine Messenger and thus one of his very special knowledges is travelling knowledgeably. Here the Hermeticum indeed writes of BOWLS, the Book IV states in the title being writing concerning THE BOWL, THE KRATER. Some more practical rituals with such bowl could of course be regarding that bowl as compass bowl, but this is here in Hermeticum not clearly stated. Indeed, here is written how Deity filled large KRATER bowl with reason and sent the bowl KRATERA MEGAN PLEROSAS TOUTOU KATEPEMPSE DOUS KEERUKA KAI EKELEUSEN AUTO (dat) KEERUKSAI TAIS TOON ANTHROOPOON KARDIAIS TADE BAPTISON SEAUTEEN HE DUNAMENEE EIS TOUTON TON KRATEERA…PISTEUOUSA OTI ANELEUSEE PROS TON KATAPEMPSANTA TON KRATEERA…OSOI MEN OUN SUNEEKAN TOU KEERUGMATOS KAI EBAPTISANTO TOU NOOS, OUTOI METESKHON TEES GNOOSEOOS KAI TELEIOI EGENONTO ANTROOPOI We read here that god filled the important bowl with reason and sent that to men and appointed herald. The herald encouraged that everyone would baptise his powerful heart in this bowl. Men thus would strongly trust that they thereby shall be able to find way to travel upwards to the divine sender of that bowl! Those men who understood this message and baptised, with much consideration (TOU NOOS), they partook in that GNOSIS knowledge. (Own rendering by Pasi K Pohjala 2013; and importantly Readers could see esp translations of Scott and Copenhaver). Here is importantly thus describes finding special knowledge by observing that bowl- and the procedure is called TO BAPTISE. This Greek word BAPTIZEIN usually means swimming, immersing and ritually baptising; and here is the BAPTISING done in this KRATER BOWL and therewith important GNOSIS knowledge reached. We now begin noticing much ancient knowledge of magnet stones. The important ancient encyclopaedic collection of much of then known information of nature by PLINY in NH is also interesting in noticing magnets. In the NH 34.147-148 Pliny writes interesting details concerning magnets, stating that “The common folk call the lodestone “quick iron” and wounds made with magnetic iron are worse than ordinary wounds, this mineral occurs in Cantabria also, not as a massive rock but in scattered pebbles called bullae, but its influence on iron is the same”. Also Pliny here notices that “who would hesitate to deal first with the magnet? For iron, the tamer of all substances, is drawn by the magnet. So the magnet is given another name, sideritis, while some call it Heraclion.” From these remarks in the encyclopaedic NH we now find much information of THEN prevalent discussions concerning magnet, and then used nomenclature. Importantly, HERACLION

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