Thursday, 14 June 2018
Eurasian Lexicon to increase more, also: Runic inscriptions become compared with Chinese oracle Bones scripts (shortly)
Dear Friends, soon is starting the Russia 2018 Football world Cup. Best wishes! The Football World Cup by the FIFA federation, is great manifestation of human moral progress- arranging events of non-violent contests where great players manifest their great football skills, in team work, and in great activity of, usually, fair play and mutual respect, in great contests! Best Wishes. HERE is work with EURASIAN lexicon greatly progressing. The Eurasian lexicon, in form here currently published, shows more than hundred words in Eurasian languages, where clearly is appearing, that the origination of the word is in Chinese language. Seeing to the old Chinese civilization, this result is actually quite understandable in the languages of western parts of the Eurasian continent (languages of Scandinavian languages, German, English; and apparently also in Fenno-Ugrian language family Finnish language). Many folks wandered from east towards western regions in those ancient times. NEW NEW NEW The current study is continuously being expanded with same research method, scrutinising even more words. AND the soon to be published new parts, also are to discuss similarities of ancient SCRIPTS found in old Chinese oracle bones (esp. oracle bones of Shang dynasty times) comparing with the script usual in runes, in Scandinavian runes and in some Germanic runes. In level of observations of details of characters of the Runic script, similarities are apparent and are to be debated. This is quite difficult, however, and is to become discussed in limited manner, but in very interesting discussion. The Eurasian Lexicon here in this blog being published (see HERE some earlier posts) thus strongly continues forward. Clearly the already published results of Eurasian Lexicon, finding similarities of meaning between usual Chinese words and usual west European words (in such level to find their origination in Chinese words), is much more supported with scrutinising similarities of the characters of their early writing systems, characters of scripts. Work of Eurasian Lexicon thus great progressing in Summer 2018, and today, starts Russia 2018 football World Cup. Best Wishes!
Wednesday, 6 June 2018
Sunday, 21 January 2018
Dear Readers, here is now published Part TWO of the EURASIAN Lexicon, by Pasi K Pohjala. Earlier blogs in this site, of September 2017, published the first part of this Eurasian Lexicon. This lexicon compares words in many European Teutonic languages (German, Swedish, Danish, English) directly with Chinese words, and finds that in many words, Chinese word appear clear parallel to such European Teutonic word (especially are noticed also the older written forms of such European words- the orthography of words has indeed been slightly changed during centuries.) Important and wide phenomenon in language speaking and writing is also, that many words have earlier been well known and usual, but in progress of times, been faded into oblivion and disappeared from languages. Thus, is special attention now also devoted to vocabulary in Old English (Anglo Saxon) in many secular writings, and much attention is also given to Old English translations of Gospels in Lindisfarne. Those Lindisfarne Gospel translations attest numerous quite surprising words of Old English that, in close scrutiny, appear to have really near parallel in usual Chinese words, although such words no more are in usual use in English language of our times (neither in other Teutonic languages)- thus, we reach to language and culture of Anglo Saxon culture in Britain some 1500-1200 years ago, and the result is surprising- that, many words have clear parallel in usual Chinese words. Also, here are noticed many archaeological finds in Britain, where in finds pre-Roman or early Roman, clearly are many products decorated with Asian graphic symbols, the YIN YANG symbol, is surprisingly often occurring in many types of products, pottery, metalworks, mosaics. The Readers is thus welcomed to study this Eurasian Lexicon, Part TWO! Pasi K Pohjala January 21, 2018.
EURASIAN LEXICON, Part TWO By Pasi K. Pohjala Published January 21, 2018 To Celebrate Winter Olympics 2018 at Pyeongchang, Corea To Promote Friendship and Friendly Cooperating in Eurasia. . Chapter ONE, special words for Winter: European SNOW words, and Chinese words XUE and SHUANG for snow and frost; European ICE words (JAA, ICE, YSSE…) and Chinese JIEBING for ice; Chinese HUAXUE HUABING of moving around o slippery surface ice or snow and Europen to HOP, HUPPON; Chinese ZHI sticks and the SKIS. Chapter TWO, archaic Old English (Anglo Saxon) words compared with Chinese words: Words ALED (Old English, for fire and flame) and Chinese LEI for thunder; Chinese WAN word for fine silk, and Old English WAEDE words for clothing and garments; Chinese word LING for silk, and Old English WLENCO word for riches, and affluent pomp; Chinese YI for doctors and YILIAO for medical treatments, and Old English BILIHD word for afflictions; Chinese word TENG for cane, rattan and Old English TELGUM for branches and twigs; Chinese word TIE for iron and TIEBAN for iron slabs and Old English word STEAPA stabs and steady; Chinese CHUAN word for ships and Old English CEOL KEULA word of ships; Old English SNYTTRO wise and Chinese ZHAN for divination and augury; Old English HYCGAN to think and Chinese HUAN imagination; Old English HNESCE soft, and Chinese NEN tender, delicate; Old English OM, OME for rust, and Chinese WU WUNI for mirth, mud; and Old English YLDO old age; and Chinese YU. Chapter THREE, interesting words in Old English Lindisfarne Gospel translations (examination of chapters 5 and 6 of Gospel of Luke, in Lindisfarne Gospel translation) OE BLINNAN cease, stop and Chinese BIAN limit; OE HEONISE deep sea and Chinese HAI for sea; OE HUON just little, and Chinese DUAN short, little; OE TUGON pull and Chinese TUO pull and drag; OE FYLSTAN to help and Chinese FU help; OE SLEP surprise, and Chinese ZHE ; Old English WINNAN to work, toil and Chinese WEI act, do; OE BECNAN to tell, indicate and Chinese KENDING to tell; OE CIGAN to call, shout, cry and Chinese KENDING; OE SUIDOR much, strong and Chinese ZHUI superfluous; notice of words for Sabbath day OE Symbeldag and Somnung; OE word LYCETON to murmur and Chinese LOUZI troubles; OE CEAP to do trading and commerce, and Chinese GOU to do trading; OE SOKIAN to seek follow; Chinese SHANG of various movements; OE EGE for awe, fear and Chinese FEN or FENKAI for anger; OE BYTO LASAD; OE Gospel notices specialist scribes WUDTO and Chinese WU The Five Classics, and DU words of writing; OE ONLICNISE for Gospel parables, and Chinese LIXIANG, ideals; OE GLAD happy and Chinese GAO happy; OE MORE highlands, and Chinese MO for highlands; OE DREAT for crowds and Chinese DUO REN many people; Old English usual STOU STOW for special places, towns and Chinese ZHOU for districts of administration !!, OE HREH for flood and Chinese HE for floods and streams; OE CARR for stone and Chinese GANG for hills; OE HREONISE for repentance, moral improvement and Chinese REN that is also of human moral character; OE HEHT make commandments and Chinese CHENG rules, law; OE GYMAN observe and Chinses GUAN observe; OE GETEMESED placed on show and Chinese DENGCHANG make a show; OE AHSIGE to question and Chinese SHI try, test; OE TELLAN to complain and Chinese TE words; OE presents deity NERGENDE FADER saviour and Chinese NENG powerful, capable; OE MEOTUD appellation of deity and Chinese MEIDE virtue; OE CYNREN race, kind, progeny and Chinese REN people; and OE words CYNNRECCENISE CNEORESO for generation, and Chinese REN words. Saying WEI LA WEI! And saying CENE MEN GECYNDE RICE. CHAPTER ONE Special words of Winter: Chinese word XUE is for snow and SHUANG is for frost; apparently sounding somewhat similar; and for reminding, verb to snow is XIAXUE and verb to rain is XIAYU. Apparently does the modern English word snow quite resemble these Chinese XUE and SHUANG words; and the similarity is even far more apparent in considering older usual forms in European languages. Namely, Old English word SNAW is for snow, apparent near to SHUANG and Old High German knows SNEW, apparently near to Chinese XUE. Also is near parallel the Dutch SNEEUW word; also even contemporary Russian word SNEG is near, too; Old Teutonic form was SNAIWAZ; and in Finnish language is SUOJA or SUAJA word for snowy but not too cold time. FICK (Indogermanisches Worterbuch) scrutinises SNIV (SNIGV) SNAIV schneien, es schneit, finding Indogermanic root SNINGUH and noticing Sanskrit SNIHYATI, wird nass, of wet and moisture. But it is notable that in vocabulary of colder Eurasian countries, this word is all around attested especially for snow, winter phenomenon. In Older English language, it is actually notable that Lindisfarne Gospels Matt 5:45 translates with SNIWA (to rain) in text where all other versions clearly talk of raining; this is in Lindisfarne Gospels the only occurrence of SNIWA (for Concordance by Albert Cook); and indeed, this notable detail attests of northern origins of this Lindisfarne old English translation, in regions where snowing was in those days quite usual and thus made good sense to the audience (and this cannot at all refer to Greek original where BREKHEI is written, word usual for rainfall), but choosing of SNIWA apparently made good sense to the audience of Lindisfarne Gospels in northern regions. Second important occurrence during winter times, is obviously frost and ice. Chinese JIEBING word notices to freeze (the JIE especially noticing how substances solidify and cement; and BING noticing the ICE in particular). Similarly, JIEXUE is for freezing, too, of XUE root (snow). Finnish speakers prompt notice the similar Finnish JEE or JAA that notices ice (letter A with Umlaut, pronounced approximately JEE). Also, these are notoriously similar with European Teutonic words for ice; Old English often writes IS (also older written forms ISSE, YISE, YSE) are known. Old Teutonic form was ISO and more in recent language are Dutch IJS, Swedish IS and English ICE and German EIS. It is thus especially notable that Falk&Torp Etymologisk Ordbok notices that etymology for IS is not sure- their not having considered Chinese parallels, now emphasises importance finding in Chinese language thus apparent parallel. Also it appears important, that in many Eurasian languages are words for iron and ice notably similar; notable similarity is apparent I older Anglo Saxon vocabulary where IS was for ice and ISERN was for iron (see Grein, Sprachschatz and Bosworth and Toller). It is notable that somewhat resembling similarity also is in Chinese language apparent, JIE, JIEXUE for freezing and word TIE being usual for iron. Chinese vocabulary knows HUAXUE noticing to ski (also HUABING, for movements around ice). In Teutonic languages are notably near words HUPPON HUPPIAN hupfen (hop, leap, jump) and Anglo Saxon HOPPIAN, and Old German form HUPPEN; and FICK (Indogermanisches Wb) finds these being probably formed of Indogermanic KUBN. (Also in Finnish language, is usual hyppy in these meanings of jumping and leaping). Notably, their having omitted comparisons with Chinese vocabulary, it is thus here of apparent importance finding in Chinese HUAXUE and HUABING close parallels to those older forms of HUPPON and HUBBON. And of course, movements around frozen icy grounds and slippery snowy places, are some sort of leaping and tottering. The devices for proceeding in snowy places are usually noticed as SKI in European languages. English SKI and Swedish SKIDA (SKIDOR, verb is usually AKA SKIDOR) and Norse SKID, and Anglo Saxon SKID (see Falk & Torp Etymologisk Ordbok especially). Somewhat variously, are also included hereby snow-shoes, too. (FICK, Indogermanisches Wb scrutinise SKID and SKAIDAN, scheiden in Indogermanic root SKIT, and notices SKIDA, Schneeschuch, snow-shoes. In historical texts of Anglo Saxon times were then known multitude of northern people namely SKRIDE-FINNS in parts of northern Scandinavia (modern Swedish knows of SKRIDA, FRAMSKRIDA to progress and proceed in journey, similarly also in German). The SKI is, actually, a pair of (originally) wooden STICKS- and indeed, in Chinese language this is well noticed. Chinese ZHI measure word notices long and thin objects, eg chopsticks. It is here also particularly interesting that Chinese characters pronounced ZHI have meanings of sticks, twigs, branches, and also a pair- for example, are chopsticks and skis a pair of wooden sticks. Also, in Finnish similar are TIKKU (a stick) and TUKKI (woodlog) words; and Old Hebrew TQY verb notices to drive a peg in when setting up a tent. Old Greek ZUGOS notices also yokes, special wooden stick too; the KSULOS being more general Greek word for wood and trees. Importantly, Turkish CIVI notices nails and pegs and CIVILEMEK to nail. Modern English knows usual STICK word that is usual TEUTONIC word; old TEUTONIC root STIK noticed to pierce and to prick (in Sanskrit, root tij notices to be sharp); similarly with Greek STIZEIN, to prick. Notably, TIKKU, TUKKI and ZUGOS rather notice all kinds of wooden sticks and rods, not with particular regard to pricking. CHAPTER TWO Some archaic words in Old English texts, compared with Chinese words
eurasian lexicon, part two, post seven by Pasi K Pohjala January 2018 writes: Word REN is in Chinese usual word noticing people, and individuals. We thus notice saying in the Cotton Gnomes stating that FISC SCEAL ON WAETERE CYNREN CENNAN. The Anglo Saxon CYNN is word widely noticing family, race, kind, and progeny. It is thus notable that this CYN here in Gnomic verse appear in form CYNREN. This saying mentioning REN thus clearly recalls the usual Chinese REN word for individuals, and people. In this saying of old Anglo Saxon Gnomic verses, this notices how fish in waters, are begetting progeny. Such mention of REN can appear merely one curious detail in early orthography of Anglo Saxon words; but knowledge of Chinese language seriously alerts that here in Anglo Saxon speaking is such word REN clearly written in much similar meaning with what REN in Chinese usually means, people and individuals. THIS IS IMPORTANT DETAIL. (However, GNP in the Notes on Gnomic Verses does not comment this detail). Also we can notice how the family of Ulysses is noticed with this word CYNREN in Anglo Saxon translation of Boethius De Consolatione Philosophiae (that often ascribed to King Alfred; in the Book IV) in statement SWA DAETTE HE FOR HINE LUFAN FORLET HIS RICE EALL OND HIS CYNREN, OND WUNODE MID HIRE…These are some of the notorious mention of such CYNREN word in Anglo Saxon writings- and such mention of REN could bypass being just a curious detail of ancient orthography- but this actually appears surely coming from Chinese language, the Chinese REN word. We thus notice saying in the Exeter Book Gnomes that CENE MEN GECYNDE RICE We find here mention that CENE men established their state. This appears to refer to old state established by Chinese-people. (This is usual Anglo Saxon meaning of RICE, that it notices a state, a kingdom; cf. Swe ett rik and Ger Reich). (However, GNP in Notes does not comment on this saying. Usually presented comprehension of CENE finds meaning bold). Comparisons with Chinese REN word do appear even far more important. Namely, Lindisfarne Gospel translation notoriously writes the CYNREN type of words to render Latin generatio (generation) into the Anglo Saxon writ (following are noticed in Albert Cook’s Concordance) Word CYNNRECCENISE is in Matt 1:18 and Matt 7:11 written; the Matt 1:18 is in Christian culture of course especially important statement, noticing “Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise” (KJV), statement begins narrative of birth of Jesus, the statement is in Christian culture important, and in that rendering writes translation of Matthew, this CYNNRECCENISE where we well recognise the CYNN and REN. The Latin word GENERATIO is quite often translated in Lindisfarne translations with CNEORESO. Thus is Anglo Saxon translation of Matt 12:39-42 (comparing the then generation with generation in times of Jonah) and its parallel in Luke 11. Actually, the CNEORESO is in Lindisfarne translation quite usual for translating the generatio. CHAPTER FOUR: ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FROM SOUTHERN BRITAIN Cultures often are distinguished by their graphic visual symbols that are particularly important, and widespread amongst the culture. We thus notice that in archaeological excavations in southern British sites, numerous potteries with clear YIN YANG symbols, have been unearthed. One important site for finding such YIN YANG potteries in southern Britain, was at Dorset the Maiden castle site, in area of Wessex of Britain. At that site, also W style (wave style) decorated potteries are found, too. This is especially noteworthy site of older British times, the Maiden castle was one of British main forts of pre-Roman times. The Maiden castle also was near to ancient thriving and prosperous important trading area Hengistbury and Poole harbour at the south-western coast. Their economy and manufacturing was advanced and affluent, archaeological finds attest that gold standard was there in use. Finds of those trading areas have unearthed wealth of glass, silver, god, tin, copper, grain and much else; archaeology attests there thriving rich culture and society. In Britain, their trade connections towards Wales, Cornwall are well attested- remembering that tin of Cornwall, was especially precious for making bronze of copper and tin metal alloy. However, archaeology also clearly attests that already the Gallic war campaign by Romans, broke trade routes between these southern English sites, and Normandy (and, actually, attested been extending also far more southwards too, even to the Mediterranean). In the cultural map, these southern sites are characterised being of tribe Durotriges (name in its Romanised form, in Roman histories). Numerous archaeological finds also in Northamptonshire have unearthed numerous YIN YANG decorated pottery, often that decoration style is characterised Hunsbury Draughton style for those main archaeological sites (namely, Hunsbury and Draughton), also W (wave style decorated pottery been found). Also in Roman times, pottery of NENE-river valley was famous and widely known, from production sites of the river Nene valley. These sites of central Anglia, are importantly in areas where are near the rivers Nene and river Welland that lead to the Wash in the east thus to North Sea; and near to the river Avon that leads towards west, reaching Irish sea at modern Bristol area. In older times, rivers were the main routes of travel and transportation, and such central Anglian region had thus especially good river connections towards east and also towards west, the region thus was of much strategic importance. Also, numerous finds of the NENE valley style pottery has unearthed numerous potteries with YIN YANG decorations, and also many of W (wave style) decoration (in more detail, in important standard presentation by Jackson and Potter 1996). In Roman times, folk cultures and their visual symbols continued their living; and important finds been found at Roman municipium VERULAMIUM (St ALBANS). We notice that fabulous Poseidon and Sea-Lions mosaic of VERULAMIUM, for example interestingly, presents W form depicted sea-lions and also, in that mosaic presented handles of vases, are apparently containing elaborate YIN YANG symbols. Actually, these sea-lions quite resemble the form of Welsh dragon in nowadays often presented symbolism. (P. Salway 1993, 460 more in detail presents the mosaic production schools of Roman Britain times). That YIN YANG style decoration clearly is present also in many sorts of ancient metal products unearthed in Britain; for example, bronze shield boss from river Thames at Wandsworth, clearly shows such YIN YANG decoration. Famously numerous are in southern Britain found coinage minted by king CUNOBELINUS in pro- Roman times. We know also that remarkable prince GUOYRANCGON governed large areas of Kent before arrival of Saxon troops; Hengist later received that region. In the name GUOYRANCGON we can distinguish with Chinese knowledge the GUO land and REN people and YINCGO (yet nowadays is Britain called in Chinese YING-GUO) and thus we find in name of this Kentish prince GUOYRANCGON reference to LAND OF PEOPLE OF YINGGUO. Also, later are known king of Wessex CYNEWULF (757-786), he was descendant of CERDICE; and West Saxon king CYNEGILS (611-643)- he was only 635 baptised by missionary Birinus. And Anglo Saxon Chronicle (Winchester Ms) records in year 519 more of CERDICE and CYNRIC. The Anglo Saxon language usually says that CYNN is word for race and family; and CENE is, usually, translated bold or strong. Also CYNREN notices clan and tribe; and notably, the word includes the REN (word that is clearly recognisable the Chinese REN word for people). (It is notorious detail that modern English writes for CHILD word the plural CHILD-REN). We thus find much in British history to specify the saying CENE MEN GECUNDE RICE in the Old English Exeter Book- saying that notices how CENE men were establishing their state. Concerning the forms of organised society, it is notable that in Old English (Anglo Saxon) language many places are called STOW or STOU; notoriously, this is practically the same with Chinese words ZHOU that notices administrative districts, provinces. Also, Chinese word KOU for harbours, yet can be heard in names of many coastal places of Britain; already in Ptolemy’s Geography, name BEREGONIUM indicated some northernmost British areas. Anlezark, Daniel 2009 The Old English Dialogues of Solomon and Saturn, Edited and Translated by Daniel Anlezark. Anglo Saxon Texts 7. Brewer publishers, Cambridge. Skeat, Walter W. 1874 The Gospel According to St. Luke, in Anglo-Saxon and Northumbrian Versions, Synoptically Arranged. Edited by Walter W. Skeat. Cambridge University Press 1874. The Old English Version of the Gospels, Edited by R. M. Liuzza. EETS 304. Oxford. (This edition is based on Manuscript Corpus Christi College 140 (Cambridge), with some corrections from manuscripts B and C). Williams, Blanc Colton 1914 Gnomic Poetry in Anglo Saxon. Columbia University Press. (the GNP)
EURASIAN LEXICON Part two, post six, by Pasi K Pohjala January 2018 writes: One of the specific institutions of Christianity (and Judaism) is the Sabbath, day of ceasing from work and day of rest. We thus scrutinise carefully the vocabulary translating Sabbath in the Old English Gospel translations, especially in Luke 6 where keeping Sabbath commandment is in detail much discussed. Importantly, the other Gospel translations in Skeat’s synopsis translate with ON RESTE-DAEGE when text writes of the Sabbath. Also modern Readers well recognise such Old English translation ON RESTE-DAEGE for knowing the usual English word REST, and knowing that cessation from labouring is central in keeping the Sabbath. ON RESTE-DAEGE is consequently thus written in Old English renderings of Luke 6 where keeping Sabbath and attending at Synagogue is noticed. Thus it is notorious that Lindisfarne Gospel translation writes consequently ON SYMBELDAEGE for rendering notices of the Sabbath. What is this? Clearly, this vocabulary manifests really important tenets in culture of the group where Lindisfarne Gospels were written and recited; keeping the Sabbath is centrally important Christian (and Jewish) practise, WEEKLY ritual of the Sabbath day. Why, then, Lindisfarne translation writes thus of ON SYMBELDAEGE. First, the SYMBELDAEG cannot be term learned from some medieval Jewish group- the Hebrew Bible and interpretative literature are clear for Sabbath. (In Jewish religiosity, the Sabbath is indeed central commandment, and really much discussed.) We thus notice that Chinese SHUI is term for sleeping and resting; understanding SYMBELDAEG from Chinese SHUI, thus brings the SUGGESTED MEANING of this word actually really near to the RESTE-DAEG that is in other Old English Gospels really usual for Sabbath. Also, in Chinese language is ZHUAN word noticing something SPECIAL- certainly, the weekly Sabbath day was special day of the week (and for religiously practising, continuously is special day). We some more scrutinise these words. In Grein’s Sprachschatz is SYMBEL fir convivium, festivitas (word for festive gatherings), and he renders SYMBELDAEG being DIES CONVIVII. We can here also notice the very important detail, that Northumbrian Gospel translations in Old English, are in this vocabulary somewhat different, looking at the Concordance by Albert Cook. he notices that Sabbath is in Lindisfarne Gospels ALSO rendered as SUNNADAEG, and this rendering is usual in Gospels of Matthew and Mark. (Of course, this translation is near to modern known SUN-DAY appellation). The Gospels here show interesting important difference, namely rendering SYMBELDAEG for Sabbath, is rendering usual in Lindisfarne translations in Gospels of Luke and John. Certainly, this detail that vocabulary naming the Sabbath in Old English translations is in Lindisfarne translatios thus distinctively different, is of really much importance when comparing these Gospels with each other (the current study, however, does NOT aim to do such research at all. HERE presented research is strictly limited to scrutinise translations of Luke 5 and Luke 6, to do THIS LIMITED scrutiny in detail, carefully, professionally, and well. Future studies can hereafter expand research topic also towards these questions more). And thus it is important to notice that Lindisfarne Gospel translations, translate Sabbath with RAESTDAEG ONLY IN Mark 2:27-28 (and Mark 3;4); this is of much importance- the RESTDAEG being usual translation for Sabbath in the other Old English Gospels in Skeat’s Synopsis. The themes of SYMBELDAEG, UDUUTO and SOMNUNG are centrally important in Old English translations of Synagogue congregation during Sabbath day, discussed in Luke 6. Luke 6:4 writes notoriously important textual detail, writing of the panes propositionis translations into Old English. The translation in KJV is SHEWBREAD; this somewhat notices that those bread loaves had been placed to public vision, somewhat in style of show. Thus we notice that Lindisfarne translation here renders with HLAFAS FOREGEGEARUAD or GETEMESED; this is one statement where Lindisfarne translation presents TWO renderings- this is indeed notorius and quite usual feature of Lindisfarne Gospel translations into Old English (known to Lindisfarne culture and society). This GETEMESED is notably interesting, namely, the Concordance of Albert Cook, mentions only this statement in Luke 6:4 for GETEMESIGA, and also the parallel text in Matt 12:4 writes this word. This is in Lindisfarne Gospels rare word; and we remember that Gospels do nt otherwise write of such showbread of Temple. The GETEMESED is rare word. Thus it is notorious that Chinese DENG word means to publish, and Chinese DENGCHANG word means to come on stage. These meanings are quite much practically that included in idea of showbread of the Temple, thus is the apparent similarity of Old English GETEMESED with Chinese DENG and DENGCHANG indeed notable. (And also here is the vocabulary in the other Gospels in Skeat’s Synopsis really different; namely, they write of offrung-hlafas here. This difference emphasises importance that Lindisfarne writes here of HLAFAS GETEMESED. Also it is worth commenting the other word that Lindisfarne translation here writes, the FOREGEGEARUAD. Grein’s Sprachschatz well knows that GEARWIAN for preparare and GE-GEARWIAN (PREPARARE), and the FORE is usual Scandinavian prefix noticing in front- fore-komma, fore-staende). The FOREGEGEARUAD thus is somewhat explanatory rendering for such SHEWBREAD. (GEGEARUAD for wearing clothes, in Luke 7:25 that distinguishes language of Lindisfarne trl, too). The translator of Lindisfarne Gospels thus is clearly trying to indicate to his audience of such practise of showbread placed in public view; this meaning is certainly included in GETEMESED word- this being similar with Chinese DENG and DENGCHANG for public show. This is important example of Lindisfarne vocabulary. Translations of Luke 6:9 notice Old English word AHSIGE written in MS I (of Corpus Christi College) of Skeat’s synopsis, translating Latin interrogo; this translation is quite similar with ICH ACSIE in the MS 5 (Hatton) of the Synopsis- but, AHSIGE is interesting written form. And in the variants, MS A (of Cambridge) also writes ACSIE here. Why, then AHSIGE? Notably, Lindisfarne translation here for interrogo is IC GEFREGNE IUIH that is clearly similar with usual Teutonic Fragen, swe fraga word. (Also Cook’s Concordance notices that in Northumbrian Gospels, interrogare is translated also with GEASCIGA, but that is rarely occurring. Grein’s Sprachschatz well knows this ASCIAN (AHSIAN, ACSIAN) for interrogare. It is thus interesting that Chinese SHI words notice trying and testing, meaning much similar with here noticed questioning. Lindisfarne translation in 6:7 for Latin accusare translates TO TELENNE HINE. The other Gospel translations of Skeat’s Synopsis write DAET HYO HINE WREIDON. Importantly, this TELENNE well recalls Chinese TE that is for unusual and special. So we find Old English TELLAN, OFrisian TELLA, OHGerman ZELLJAN, ZELLEN and MHGerman ZELN (see Oxford English Dictionary for English word to TELL). We also notice Lindisfarne translation in Luke 6:22 for exprobauerint being TELAD or HARM CUEDAD; it is interesting that TELAD was such a word that in 6:22 Lindisfarne translator yet preferred to present two renderings to audience. CHAPTER MISCELLANEOUS WORDS AND SAYINGS Writing of Deity is important detail in Anglo Saxon literature, and here we especially follow the epithets written for deity, and appellations. In Cotton Gnomes is written that DRIHTEN ANA WAT NERGENDE FAEDER Here the Cotton Gnomes write of deity with description father, and characterise workings of deity with NERGENDE. In Anglo Saxon vocabulary is Neriend and Nergend occurring epithet for Saviour, and verb GENERIAN or GENERGAN means to save and preserve in Anglo Saxon. We thus make reference to Chinese language where NENG notices can, be able to and NENGREN notices generally able persons, thus in Chinese vocabulary (the REN is usual Chinese for individuals and persons). Parallelism with this Anglo Saxon NERGENDE is obvious, surely, saviour and saving activity can be of person who is quite capable for mighty activities. In Finnish parlance we notice that many family names are with endings –NEN, surely also relevant with idea of NENG word in Chinese noticing capable persons (really usual Finnish surname is, for example, Virtanen- the surname of Finnish winner of Nobel prize in Chemistry, prof. A. I. Virtanen; and indeed many Finnish surnames so are formed with –NEN ending). Also in Teutonic languages the vocabulary is relevant, German konnen, kannte and also Anglo Saxon CUNNAN CANN means being able, especially for knowing how to; and generally knowing. Importantly, scrutiny of Concordance of Albert Cook, notifies that this is not at all usual in Lindisfarne Gospel translations. We must recognise that Lindisfarne translations come from society and translators who indeed are especially writing in early tradition of Anglo Saxon Christianity- and thus is surely their writing of Deity, much noticing early Anglo Saxon Christianity. Importantly, the Nergende is not occurring. And Lindisfarne Gospels are specifically translations of the Latin Gospels, so that the whole process is thoroughly informed in early Christian Anglo Saxon culture. But Gnomic verses are original texts of Anglo Saxon own culture, expressing own culture, and thus different, thus it is important finding in Cotton Gnomes this DRIHTEN ANA WAT NERGENDE FAEDER. Also we can notice that Albert Cook’s Concordance finds this GENERIGA occurring in Lindisfarne Gospels only in Matt 5:29 and Matt 18:9 that are the parallel traditions of eye and hand (in synoptic Gospel traditions, their parallel is Mark 9:43 of this saying, but that is not relevant for here secrutinied Anglo Saxon vocabulary). (However, here written DRIHTEN word in Anglo Saxon IS usual epithet for Deity and in Gospel translations quite often translating the Latin Dominus, Lord). But the NERGENDE is in this statement of Cotton Gnomes notably important. We find in Cotton Gnomes also really numerous mentions of MEOTOD, MEOTUD godhead. We really should remember that Cotton Gnomes are text freely written, whereas Lindisfarne is Anglo Saxon Gospel translation and thus much more formalistic of early Anglo Saxon Christianity. The Coton Gnomes really often refer to godhead with MEOTOD appellation. (We remember, also, that British Methodism branch of Christianity is far later than Anglo Saxon times). Being appellation of godhead, such MEOTOD word is notable, in early Anglo Saxon culture. In the Cotton Gnomes is thus written of TUNGOL SCEAL ON HEOFENUM BEORHTE SCINAN SWA HIM BEBEAD MEOTUD, this expressing belief that godhead commands the creation in order, also heavenly stars for shining. Also write Cotton Gnomes MEOTOD ANA WAT HWYDER EO SAWUL SCEAL SYDDAN HWEORFAN that expresses idea of divine knowledge of destiny of souls; and also in conclusion write Cotton Gnomes of HWYLC SY MEOTODES GESCEAFT. Furthermore, one important place where this MEOTOD is mentioned is famous text poet CAEDMON’s hymn that praises the deity in early Anglo Saxon Christianity, the hymn beginning that NU SCYLUN HERGAN HEFAENRICAES UARD METUDAES MAECTI END HIS MODGIDANC (Thus in the Moore version, in Bede’s Historia Ecclesiastica, in Cambridge manuscript) And, importantly, here is Bede’s Latin translation for these Nunc laudare debemus auctorem regni caelestis, potentiam Creatoris et consilium illius… Thus, in Bede’s contemporary rendering, such MEOTOD especially notices Creator in his powerful activities. Also GNP 1914 Glossary renders MEOTOD with God, the creator, and in GNP’s Notes on the Gnomic Verses, the MEOTOD is commented that Vilmar thinks this word had its origin in heathendom, but was retained after the introduction of Christianity and applied to the Supreme Being. Importantly, also Grein Sprachschatz comments this MEOTUD noticing Epitheton Gottes (nur bei den Dichtern vorkommend), nach der gewohnlichen Annahme Schopfer bedeutend. Eher scheint es mir in der Heidenzeit einen dem Lat. fatum analogen Begriff gehabt zu haben. Thus interprets Grein in Sprachschatz. It appears thus notorious that Chinese word MEIDE is word for VIRTUE. Also in Anglo Saxon literature appears such peculiar saying that is WEI LA WEI. This occurs in Anglo Saxon translation of Boethius’ De Consolatione Philosophiae, translation that often is ascribed to King Alfred (but scholarly discussion is of course manifold on this detail, too). In Book III of this Anglo Saxon translation, is into Anglo Saxon rendered histories of Orpheus and Eurydice, in stating WEI LA WEI! HWAET ORPHEUS DA LAEDDE HIS WIF MID HIM OD HE COM ON DAET GEMAERE LEOHTES OND DIOSTRO; DA EODO DAET WIF AEFTER HIM. This can mean something like ALAS! (interjection). Thus it is notable that WEI is indeed usual greeting, and interjection in Chinese language. This mention of WEI LA WEI thus attests that such WEI style interjections in society of those times was known; this is very interesting detail thus to compared with Chinese sayings in greetings WEI words. Word REN is in Chinese usual word noticing people, and individuals. We thus notice saying in the Cotton Gnomes stating that FISC SCEAL ON WAETERE CYNREN CENNAN. The Anglo Saxon CYNN is word widely noticing family, race, kind, and progeny. It is thus notable that this CYN here in Gnomic verse appear in form CYNREN. This saying mentioning REN thus clearly recalls the usual Chinese REN word for individuals, and people. In this saying of old Anglo Saxon Gnomic verses, this notices how fish in waters, are begetting progeny. Such mention of REN can appear merely one curious detail in early orthography of Anglo Saxon words; but knowledge of Chinese language seriously alerts that here in Anglo Saxon speaking is such word REN clearly written in much similar meaning with what REN in Chinese usually means, people and individuals. THIS IS IMPORTANT DETAIL. (However, GNP in the Notes on Gnomic Verses does not comment this detail). Also we can notice how the family of Ulysses is noticed with this word CYNREN in Anglo Saxon translation of Boethius De Consolatione Philosophiae (that often ascribed to King Alfred; in the Book IV) in statement SWA DAETTE HE FOR HINE LUFAN FORLET HIS RICE EALL OND HIS CYNREN, OND WUNODE MID HIRE…These are some of the notorious mention of such CYNREN word in Anglo Saxon writings- and such mention of REN could bypass being just a curious detail of ancient orthography- but this actually appears surely coming from Chinese language, the Chinese REN word. We thus notice saying in the Exeter Book Gnomes that CENE MEN GECYNDE RICE We find here mention that CENE men established their state. This appears to refer to old state established by Chinese-people. (This is usual Anglo Saxon meaning of RICE, that it notices a state, a kingdom; cf. Swe ett rik and Ger Reich). (However, GNP in Notes does not comment on this saying. Usually presented comprehension of CENE finds meaning bold). Comparisons with Chinese REN word do appear even far more important. Namely, Lindisfarne Gospel translation notoriously writes the CYNREN type of words to render Latin generatio (generation) into the Anglo Saxon writ (following are noticed in Albert Cook’s Concordance) Word CYNNRECCENISE is in Matt 1:18 and Matt 7:11 written
EURASIAN LEXICON Part two, post five, by Pasi K Pohjala january 2018 The Luke 5 narrative also notices Jesus calling to Levi to follow him, thus noticed in 5:27-28. The other Old English translations in Skeat’s synopsis, write that call to Levi, that HE CWAED TO HIM FILIG ME (or FELGE ME), for Latin sequere me. And the following action by Levi is similarly noticed, HE HIM DA FILIGDE, thus in Luke 5:27-28. Also here is manifested the remarkable tenet that Lindisfarne Gospel translation writes TWO renderings of some difficult terms; namely, Lindisfarne Gospel translates Jesus call to Levi that CUOED HIM FYLG MEC or SOEC MEC and his action is FYLGENDE WAES HIM. Clearly, that FYLG MEC is quite same with the rendering in other Gospels quoted in Skeat’s Synopsis. But the alternative SOEC MEC is notorious. Here we find Old English word SECAN to look for, to search for (Bosworth &Toller), and FICK Indogermanisches Wb SOKIAN SOHTE for suchen and notices Anglo Saxon SECAN SOHTE suchen , untersuchen; and English seek; the Indogerman Wurzel, being SAG, spuren. It is notorious that Chinese SHANG verb is quite usual for different styles of movements, too. Also are numerous details in Luke 5:26 very notable in history of Old English (Anglo Saxon) vocabulary. The other translations in Skeat’s Synopsis write WAERON MID EGE GEFYLLEDE noticing how the audience of the healing miracle thus was full of awe seeing such event; here the Lindisfarne translation writes for that GEFYLLED WOERON MID FYRHTO that is somewhat more recognisable for modern English speakers, recognisable also in English word fear. The EGE is notable, and in Anglo Saxon it notices fear, terror, dread (Bosworth &Toller), and such word in OHGerman is known in forms EGI, AGI. Otherwise that EGE appear difficultly recognisable, but in Chinese is FEN word for anger, and also FENKAI is word for anger; these are clear parallels. Notably, such EGE is quite usual in Anglo Saxon texts, so that it is not term specific for early Christian religious language. For example, we find in Cotton Gnomes saying that FISC SCEAL ON WAETERE CYNREN CENNAN CYNING SCEAL ON HEALLE BEAGAS DAELAN BERA SCEAL ON HAEDE EALD AND EGESFULL Here is king’s presence in his hall (or palace) compared with that bear is around in heath and is there worthy and fearsome. It is notable that EGE is here in Cotton Gnomes thus in such context where the CYNREN is also written, the ending REN clearly recalling usual Chinese REN or people and individuals. The Gospel parable encouraging new wine to new bottles, is in Luke 5:37-39 written. Also these translations contain notorious differences in these Old English Gospels. The liquid container is in all these Old English Gospels, with word BYTTA (and its variants) written, and this word is clearly recognisable yet for modern English readers who know usual word bottle. These translations also notice the act of pouring wine into the containers ON BYTTA, with verb SENDED (eg. Lindisfarne writing AH D WIN NIUA IN BYTTUM NIUUM TO SENDANNE); modern Readers do recognise such word also in modern parlance although in little different meaning. This just interestingly reflects historical developments of language. But the Lindisfarne Gospel notices differently the problems concerning such liquid containers. Namely, new wine poured into old containers, according to this Gospel parable, breaks those containers and those containers are thus destroyed; for this writes Lindisfarne translation BYTO LASAD although the others write BYTTA FORWURDAD. Grein Sprachschatz notices LEAS being fallacious, something fallacious so also LEASLIC (thus also Bosworth &Toller) in Anglo Saxon. But it is notable the Chinese words LAN notices to bar, block (a bottle) and LANZU to block, obstruct bottles. Especially because written of bottles, such are notoriously important parallels to such BYTO LASAD in this Anglo Saxon text writing of bottles (or jars, or liquid containers- the Greek Gospels here write of ASKOS containers). In Gospel writings are the Scribes and Pharisees of course really famous groups of then contemporary Jewish groups. It appears especially interesting to notice how these groups are presented in Old English Gospel translations, the Latin names for these Jewish groups been scribae and pharisaei. The other Old English translations in Skeat’s Synopsis present these Jewish groups with appellations BOCERAS and FARISEI. Clearly is the BOCERAS quite literal Old English rendering for Latin scribae, noticing their literacy with form of word BOOK, SWE BOK, Ger Buch. But Lidisfarne Gospel translation is here truly remarkable presenting the scribes being WUDUTO, in now scrutinised Luke 5 thus mentioned in Luke 5:21; and this appellation being in Lindisfarne Gospels for them usual. But why? The present writer Pasi Pohjala is indeed well knowledgeable of writings and vocabulary in Greek Bible and much of Hebrew Bible, too, and also much of interpretative literature. Regarding to those vocabularies, such WUDUTO appears, anyhow, completely enigmatic. Notoriously, Chinese language knows WU noticing, usually, number five and in Chinese language, DU words notices different aspects of writing, writing practises and writing materials. Importantly, this WUDUTO word in Lindisfarne Gospels presents to audience such group thaw s peculiarly distinguished for their literacy and activities of scribes- and the Chinese DU word specifically presents activities of writing. And in traditional Chinese Confucian culture and education were from old times established the famous Five Classics (WUJING), their role been established in Confucian curriculum since 2000 years. Translating Biblical text to audience always tries to interpret central features to audience, in vocabulary familiar to audience. Apparently the audience of Lindisfarne Gospels had serious idea of culture of Five (Five Classices) so that this group of Jewish scribes, knowledgeable in the Jewish traditional literature, was relevant presented to Lindisfarne audience with reference to classical learning of the Five. This WUDUTO seriously attests that the audience had knowledge of importance of Five Classics in curriculum of literates. This parallel with Chinese language is indeed notorious. We also can notice that for Luke 6:7 rendering the Lindisfarne Gospels presents scribes as UDUUTO (and also there, other translations write of BOCERAS and FARISEI). In Anglo Saxon vocabulary we do find UDWITA word for persons who are distinguished for learning or wisdom, and UDWITIAN verb notices to study philosophy (Bosworth &Toller). But it is especially notorious that Chinese DU words are specifically for activities and practises of writing- and that in this Lindisfarne Gospel translation this WUDUTO specifically presents scribes. And yet it is to be emphasised that in comparison to the Hebrew and Greek vocabulary of Biblical texts and that culture, such WUDUTO or UDUUTO are terms that appear completely enigmatic. Vocabulary concerning Gospel parables is also notably different. The other Old Englis translations in Skeat’s synopsis notice the parables with term BIG-SPELL (or in written form BISPELL, or BYG-SPEL in the reading variants that Skeat notices in the Synopsis). Readers well recognise similarity with usual German word der Beispiel (zum Beispiel) in this word (of course, German religious language has here established term Gleichnis specifically). But Lindisfarne Gospels write ONLICNISE for this translation- and this is clearly near to the usual Nordic version for Gospel parables, LIKNELSE (and this is, actually, near to the German Gleichnis, too; these, from LIKNA and GLEICH). Thus it is worthy to compare with Chinese LIAN word that notices connection, relation, relatedness, between different things and events. Also, Chinese LI word is usual for reason and logic; and LIXIANG is for ideals and dreams. (Importantly, the Chinese LIAN word also can notice some confederations, groups of communities and such, also the United Nations thus is nowadays presented, LIANHEGUO. And, in the elder British society, we remember that large areas of eastern Britain were known LINDISSE). (In this study, many statements are found also in the Old English Gnomic verses, but those are somewhat of different literary genre than the Gospel parables; and this vocabulary is not prominent in those Gnomic verses, notably). Lindisfarne translation in Luke 6:22 writes WOESAD GLAD for Latin exultate, although other translations write GEFAGNIAD. We find that Chinese WU words are for dancing, and rejoicing. Also, Chinese GAO word is usual for happiness; thus we find notorious parallels to this WOSAD GLAD in Lindisfarne translation- importantly, for these both words is close parallel in Chinese language thus apparent. Albert Cook’s Concordance notices that GLAED is usual in Lindisfarne translations of Gospels of Luke and John. And Grein’s Sprachschatz notices much used of such Old English GLAED (also here discussed Luke 5:26 notices of people’s praising God, god maersodon). Detailed reading of the Old English translations also notices terminology for mountains, in Luke 6:21. Luke 6:21 notices that Jesus dwelt overnight upon mountain, for saying prayers. Lindisfarne translation notices thus FOERDE ON MORE TO GEBIDDANNE. But the other translations in Skeat’s synopsis notice the place ON MUNT. These could appear somewhat similar, but, actually, are quite different. Importantly, the Concordance by Albert Cook notices that indeed, the MOR is usual spelling in Lindisfarne translations of all four Gospels- in Lindisfarne translations, MUNT appears only in Mark 13:14 (thus finds Albert Cook Concordance). Grein Sprachschatz does find both words quite usual in Old English vocabulary; and notices that many Old English translations of Psalms, often use such MUNT word. Importantly, Chinese MO word usually notice high places, highlands, also top of mountain. (In some Old English geographical descriptions, Scandinavian wooded highlands, mountainous areas were also called such MOR areas; and continuously). In Luke 6 are noticed how Jesus was teaching crowds and doing miraculous deeds. Also vocabulary noticing large crowds of people, appear different in these Old English Gospel translations. The crowd (turba) is in Luke 6 translations in different words presented. Lindisfarne translation of Luke 6:17 notices MENIGO or DREAT DEGNA HIS for crowd of Jesus followers; and the large crowd of people is DIO MENIGO MONIGFALD FOLCES. These words clearly emphasise that there was large numerous crowd, such are words MENIGO and MENIGO MONIGFALD; also for modern Readers, these appear yet well recognisable. But the DREAT word noticing numerous group or crowd, appear more difficult. Importantly, in Chinese is known DUO noticing many, and the REN is usual word for people and individuals, in Chinese. Thee Chinese DUO and REN can thus much clarify that DREAT word in Lindisfarne translation. Also it IS notable that Luke 6:17 is one place where Lindisfarne translation presents TWO renderings, namely, for the TURBA word thus are presented the MENIGO and DREAT words. The DREAT word clearly was important for audience of Lindisfarne Gospels, and its close parallel is found in considering the Chinese DUO and REN. Also, the DREAT word for crowds, IS usual in Lindisfarne translations of Matthew and Mark, although only seldom in translation of Luke occurs; generally, for Latin turba are in Lindisfarne Gospels written translations FOLC, MENIGO and DREAT (thus finds Concordance of Albert Cook). Reading the Old English translations of Luke 5 and Luke 6, often alerts to consider more the oft occurring translation STOW (STOU) noticing places. It is one really usual Old English word for place (locus), so notices also Grein’s Sprachschatz; and in Lindisfarne translations that STOW STOU word usually occurs in all four Gospels (so notices Albert Cook’s Concordance). Also, study of British place-names as remembrances of history, and older important centra, is indeed much developed and multitude of detailed studies of Britain thus been published. This STOU STOW Old English word is, of course, one word of special importance in those studies- but in THIS study, more debate of those questions, cannot be done; that is field of enormous multitude and much research. We can, however, notice that these Old English translations quite much attest such culture and society where it was usual to speak of important places in terms of STOU STOW. And, Chinese language ZHOU word notices specifically administrative units of governance, places, provinces etc. This IS important with regard to history. Luke 6:47-49 is the parable of a house with strong foundations that well withstood onrush of flooding waters. In Old English translations of this parable, we learn many notorious details of vocabulary, concerning rivers, and floods. Other translations in Skeat’s synopsis write SODLICE GEWORDENUM FLODE HIT FLEOW INTO DAM HUSE. These sayings appear yet well understandable for modern Readers, too. The surprising character of the Lindisfarne translation is also in this parable very prominent. Namely, there is the flood given in TWO renderings, namely in words FLOD or HREH. (And the vocabulary of Lindisfarne translation here shows even more variants, noticing STREAM in 6:49). But what is, then, this HREH? It is now TRULY notorious, that word HE in Chinese is the usual word for streams and floods. In the parable of well founded building in Luke 6:47-49, is especially presented that the house strongly build upon foundations upon stone, well withstood the streams of flood against that house. Vocabulary of stones and rocks, thus is also important. Also here does the Lindisfarne Gospel translation present notorious words. Namely, such well founded house is presented GESETTE DA GRUNDAS OFER CARR or STAN. And the continuation of this translation notices such house being founded ON UFA CARR and ON UFA STAN (all these translate the Latin supra petram). Modern readers well recognise such word STAN remembering usual word STONE. For comprehending CARR, it appears good to recognise that Chinese GANG words also notice HILLS, and MOUNDS. For this purpose, it is interesting also to notice writing of Old English HREONISE in Lindisfarne translation of Luke 5:32 to notice repentance; notably, other translations in Skeat’s synopsis write really differently namely DEADBOTE. This HREONISE is feature of Lindisfarne translations (see Albert Cook’s Concordance HREOWNISE and Grein for HREOWAN. Thus it is notable that usual Chinese word REN means individuals, and also in somewhat larger sense human moral character. We can clearly hear in this Old English HREONISE reference to such meanings of Chinese REN word that notice human moral character. Reading these Old English translations of Gospels, we thus have many motivations to carefully scrutinise any mentions of RU for RUJIAO (Confucianism) or FO or FOJIAO (Buddhism). The Lindisfarne translation of Luke 5:14 also presents other enigmatic legal term when writing how Moses commanded certain commandments, with Old English BEBEAD or HEHT MOSES. That BEBEAD is well comparable with other Teutonic vocabulary for giving commandments- gebieten. Gebot, pabjuda, forbud usw, and other Old English Gospels here indeed write similarly SWA MOYSES BEBEAD. This statement also manifests clearly the interesting detail that Lindisfarne Gospel translation in quite many places does present TWO renderings for Latin word. Here, is the praecepit translated with two words; and the second translation is HEHT that appears notable. In Chinese is CHENG word for rules and orders. This similarity is indeed notable, that HEHT appearing in this Gospel translation difficult, and it is also unusual (see Cook’s Concordance). Nearest we find in FICK Indogermanisches Wb DEH DEGJAN annehmen, erhalten and Anglo Saxon DICGAN DEAH bekommen, annehmen. FICK also notices DENHAZ Gerischtsversammlung or Ding (eigentlich zur bestimmten Zeit stattfindende Gerichts und Volksversammlung, Anglo Saxon Ding). Thus in Anglo Saxon vocabulary are DEAHT for counsel and DEAHTIAN to take counsel, to consult (Bosworth &Toller). In translations of Luke 6:7 we detect interestingly GYMDON word noticing how scribes and Pharisees were observing, keeping watch over doings of Jesus when in synagogue during Sabbath day. Lindisfarne Gospel translation writes here BEHEALDON DONNE DA UDUUTO where that is clearly similar with modern English known BEHOLD for viewing. (Notably, Albert Cook’s Concordance notices such BEHALDA often written in Lindisfarne translations). But other Old English translations in Skeat’s synopsis write this GYMDON for Latin observare. Such is Old English word GYMAN observare, custodire (so Grein’s Sprachschatz); and the word is similar with Chinese word GUAN that is for watch and observe. This detail is actually really interesting and attests early developments of Old English language. Here, and quite usually, the Lindisfarne Gospels, write such BEHALDA and that is clearly comprehensible with modern English language style. But other translations preserve such GYMDON that for moderns appear notorious. And that word is similar with Chinese GUAN of same semantic meaning. One of the specific institutions of Christianity (and Judaism) is the Sabbath, day of ceasing from work and day of rest. We thus scrutinise carefully the vocabulary translating Sabbath in the Old English Gospel translations, especially in Luke 6 where keeping Sabbath commandment is in detail much discussed. Importantly, the other Gospel translations in Skeat’s synopsis translate with ON RESTE-DAEGE when text writes of the Sabbath. Also modern Readers well recognise such Old English translation ON RESTE-DAEGE for knowing the usual English word REST, and knowing that cessation from labouring is central in keeping the Sabbath. ON RESTE-DAEGE is consequently thus written in Old English renderings of Luke 6 where keeping Sabbath and attending at Synagogue is noticed. Thus it is notorious that Lindisfarne Gospel translation writes consequently ON SYMBELDAEGE for rendering notices of the Sabbath. What is this? Clearly, this vocabulary manifests really important tenets in culture of the group where Lindisfarne Gospels were written and recited; keeping the Sabbath is centrally important Christian (and Jewish) practise, WEEKLY ritual of the Sabbath day. Why, then, Lindisfarne translation writes thus of ON SYMBELDAEGE. First, the SYMBELDAEG cannot be term learned from some medieval Jewish group- the Hebrew Bible and interpretative literature are clear for Sabbath. (In Jewish religiosity, the Sabbath is indeed central commandment, and really much discussed.) We thus notice that Chinese SHUI is term for sleeping and resting; understanding SYMBELDAEG from Chinese SHUI, thus brings the SUGGESTED MEANING of this word actually really near to the RESTE-DAEG that is in other Old English Gospels really usual for Sabbath. Also, in Chinese language is ZHUAN word noticing something SPECIAL- certainly, the weekly Sabbath day was special day of the week (and for religiously practising, continuously is special day). We some more scrutinise these words. In Grein’s Sprachschatz is SYMBEL fir convivium, festivitas (word for festive gatherings), and he renders SYMBELDAEG being DIES CONVIVII. We can here also notice the very important detail, that Northumbrian Gospel translations in Old English, are in this