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Sunday, 21 January 2018

EURASIAN LEXICON PART TWO, Post three, by Pasi K Pohjala January 2018 Chinese word TENG notice cane, rattan and branches. It is notable that this closely resembles Old English word TELGUM that in Old English notices branches. We find that in Old English is TELGOR word for a plant, or a shoot; and TELGRA is word for branch, or a shoot, and TELGIAN is to flourish (Bosworth). Notably, usual Finnish word TANKO also is similar; it means various sticks and wooden branches, too; and old Greek word THALLOS is for young shoots, young branches (Liddell Scott). Importantly, FICK Indogermanisches Wb notices DULDAN for treetops, notices OHG word TOLDO and suggests “zu ig. DHEL?” Here appears particularly clear and unmistakable parallel of Old English TELGUM with Chinese TENG word, both meaning twigs and branches. In important Old English dialogue of Solomon and Saturn, we find interesting mention of TELGUM, namely that (progressing old age, YLDO) BEAM HER ABREOTED OND BEBRICED TELGUM ASTYRED STANDENDNE STEFN ON SIDE Thus is noticed how progressing old age YLDO, also breaks sticks and branches. This is actually interesting sentence for early history of Old English, namely here is mentioned BEAM sticks, word that yet appears well recognisable for twenty-first century English speakers; compared with TELGUM that in Old English was yet recognised to mean sticks and branches, but for modern readers has seriously faded into oblivion, actually in all Western Teutonic languages. Actually we find that Old English dialogue of Solomon and Saturn in this manner compares quite many Old English words, presenting numerous word pairs one of which is word yet well recognisable and the other is merely peculiarly obscure Old English word. This feature makes parts of dialogue of Solomon and Saturn actually interesting compendium of serious attempts to revivify and memorise older terminology apparently in times when new important vocabulary was becoming more widely known; we are to find here yet many other statements there written in this schema. In Lindisfarne Gospel translation, the TELGUM only seldom occurs- also this attesting the somewhat archaic character of TELGUM in those times (see Concordance of Albert Cook); the TELGUM is in Lindisfarne translations found in the parable of mustard seed that grew to huge tree in synoptic gospels, thus in Mark 4:32 and Luke 13:19 that TELGUM notices the branches of that huge tree. Also is such word in Lindisfarne translations of Matt 24:32 and Mark 11:8 written, for sticks and tree branches. Thus it is truly notable that in Lindisfarne translations is the TWIGGE word far more usual rendering for RAMUS (see Concordance of Albert Cook)- and apparently, is TWIGGE yet for modern readers quite understandable via usual English TWIG word- although, the TELGUM appears indeed archaic and enigmatic Old English word. Close reading of translation in Lindisfarne Gospels especially emphasise the more archaic nature of its language, writing in Luke 13:19 rendering of that huge tree grown from mustard seed that FLEGENDO HEOFNES GEHRAESTON ON TELGUM HIS thus noticing that birds rested on the branches of that tree (and similarly renders Old English Rushworth Gospel FLEGENDE HEOFNES GI-RESTUN ON TELGUM HIS). Notably, many other Old English Gospel translations here use other word stating HEOFENE FUGELES RESTEN ON HIS BOGEN, that yet is comprehensible also for modern readers) (see the Gospel synopsis for Luke, of W. W. Skeat). This also emphasises the archaic nature of that TELGUM word in Old English- and emphasises its notable similarity with Chinese TENG word. Chinese word TIE notices generally iron, and TIEBAN more specifically notices iron slabs. Thus we compare with Old English word STEAPA that notices steadiness and being firmly fixed. Skeat’s Etymological Dictionary, notices here a staff, and German STAB and Russian STOBORU finding Indogermanic root STEBH; similarly FICK Indogermanisches Wb for STAB steif, fest sein, thus STABA, Stab and notices Anglo Saxon Staef (Stutze, Stab); also notices MHG STABEN starr, staf werden and Indogerman Wurzel STEBH. Similarity with Chinese TIEBAN is here apparent. Iron production was in China very old industry, especially cast iron, whereas in many regions were iron products with hammering on anvil produced by smiths. Such iron staffs and slabs thus are, actually, notorious proceedings of Chinese ancient production of cast iron products, and thus is this terminology especially noteworthy. In Old English Cotton manuscript Gnomes so is found GIM SCEAL ON RINGE STANDAN STEAP AND GEAP It is notable that thus is characters of a metal product, a ring, described, especially there inserted gemstone. Also, dialogues of Solomon and Saturn so write of a gemstone GIM saying NE MAEG HIT STEORRA NE STAN NE SE STEAPA GIMM, WAETER NE WILDEOR WIHTE BESWICAN In Chinese, is word CHUAN one word for boats. Importantly, FICK Indogermanisches Wb notices KEULA for ships, in Anglo Saxon appearing in CEOL form; also Greek GAULOS word for ships is recognised. Indeed, in Anglo Saxon is CEOL word for boat, ship and the keel of a ship (Bosworth), also finding Danish KIOL, Swedish KOL and OHGerman KELA. It is also worth mentioning that Finnish KOUSA notices some smaller boats, too; and in Finnish vocabulary the KEULA rather notices front part of ship. In Exeter Book gnomes, is written how Frisian wife welcomes her sailor from seas to harbour and to home, stating LEOF WILCUMA FRYSAN WIFE DONNE FLOTA STONDED BID HIS CEOL CUMEN AND HYRE CEORL TO HAM AGEN AETGEOFA AND HEO HINE IN LADAD WAESCED HIS WARIG HRAEGL AND HIM SYLED WAEDE NIWE This lively episode from Frisian coastal life is of much importance for culture of Exeter Book. And in Cotton Gnomes, is stated of ship construction that MAEST SCEAL ON CEOLE SEGELGYRD SEOMIAN Notably, in Lindisfarne Gospels Old English translations is CEAWL word rather occurring noticing containers and baskets (see Concordance of Albert Cook), thus is CEAWL written in: Matt 14:20 15:37 16:9 and Mark 6:43 8:8, 20 and Luke 9:17. This word notices also those baskets full of bread gathered after the miracle of loaves of bread and fishes (Mark 8 and parallels Matt 14 and more discussions of that event in Gospels). Scrutiny of Lindisfarne translation in Luke 9 emphasises the more archaic nature of this term in Old English, namely, Lindisfarne translation notices with CEAOLAS TUOELFO the twelve full baskets of bread there gathered, also Rushworth translation thus CEOFLAS TWELFE. But the other Old English Gospel translations in Synopsis of W. W. Skeat, notice those bread baskets otherwise, namely with TWELF KYPAN word. Indeed, really often are Lindisfarne translations rendered in quite other words than later become usual in Old English Gospel translations, and this is feature indeed interesting for language history. We also notice that ship words are in Lindisfarne Gospels written for noticing sea going vessels and boats. One prominent episode noticing boats, is of course the episode of calling of Simon; and the Lindisfarne translation renders that episode with ship words, similarly with other Old English Gospels noticed in Skeat’s Gospel Synopsis of Luke, writing thus HE GESEAH TWA SCIPU STANDENDE WID DAENE MERE (Luke 5:2, of MS I of Synopsis) and similarly are SCYP SCIPU Old English words in these renderings written in Luke 5, so also in the Lindisfarne translation. Thinking activity is interestingly noticed in Cotton Gnomes in statement that: A SCEAL SNOTOR HYCGEAN YMB DYSSE WORULD GEWINN Here is noticed a wise man SNOTOR and his thinking of his well-doing in this world. We find here the Anglo Saxon HOGIAN HYGAN noticing thinking- modern English word indeed being here also similar. This is usual Teutonic word, German noticing denken (and er dunkt mir dass…) and Swedish form tanka. Also Russian DUMAT (to think) appears similar; and in Chinese language we find especially word HUAN for dreams, for imaginary. Also, we notice that in Lindisfarne Gospel translations, the HYCGAN does occur, but more in rendering for omittere, negligere, condemnare (see Concordance Albert Cook); thus the HYCGAN occurring in Luke 11:42, 16:13 and Mat 6:24, 15:3, 20:11, 22:5; in John 5:45, 7:12 and in many other statements. The following is written in the first part of this Eurasian Lexicon: Chinese word ZHAN notices to practise divination, and inquiries (also ZHAO for look for and try to find); notably similar is Russian ZNAT verb for knowing. Anglo-Saxon SNYTTRO is for knowing, and also in Anglo-Saxon are CUNNAN and CANN word for knowing (see Bosworth); and in German is usual verb kennen and kannte. In the Gnomes of Exeter Book we find mention that HYGE SCEAL GEHEALDEN HOND GEWEALDEN SEO SCEAL IN EAGAN SNYTTRO IN BREOSTUM DAER BID DAES MONNES MODGEDONCAS also here is presented the vocabulary of HYCGAN, SNYTTRO and thoughts. One notable difference in vocabulary of Old English Gospel translations is in words noticing thoughts and thinking. We are in this article limiting research only to the Chapters of Luke 5 and Luke 6, and also in these writings such notorious differences clearly are present. The Anglo Saxon word SMEAGAN or SMEAN means to consider, discuss, to ponder (Bosworth & Toller) and form GESMEAGAN more notices to search, consider (Bosworth &Toller). Actually, we find clear comparisons in Teutonic languages, namely in English to mean, meaning, Swedish mena, mening, and German meinen, Meinung. It is truly notable feature of the Lindisfarne translation of Luke 5 and Luke 6 (and of much else) that there is this SMEAGAN really usually written for translating such activities of considering, discussing, pondering and else; and similarly consequently the other translations of Skeat’s Synopsis in such translations write DENCAN (and, importantly, not that SMEAGAN). This is one notorious clear difference in these Old English Gospel translations. Here we in detail study translations of Luke 5 and Luke 6 and thus notice LIN Luke 5:21 ONGUNNUN GESMEAGE WUDUTO, and the others write AGUNNON DENCAN DA BOCERAS (in another chapter of the present article is in more detail scrutinised that translation of scribes with BOCERAS or WUDUTO). The following 5:22 continues DTE ONGAETT SE HAELEND SMAUNGA HIORA…HUAED SMEAS GIE in Lindisfarne, and in others DA SE HAELEND GECNEOW HYRA GEDANCAS…HWAET DENCEGE. In dialogue of Solomon and Saturn, we find mention that AC HIM ON HAND GAED HEARDES OND HNESCES MICLES, MAETES Here is contrasted with HEARD the HNESCE that is usually meaning soft in Anglo Saxon. This is one manifestation of the style of parts of dialogue of Solomon and Saturn, that presents pair of words where one is word quite recognisable also to modern Teutonic languages speaker; but the other word, is far less recognisable. Parts of this dialogue of Solomon and Saturn appear almost a mnemonic poem for keeping remembering such more distant terminology. Here is the more enigmatic word that HNESCE, and in Anglo Saxon it means something soft. Notoriously, in Chinese we find word NEN for tender and delicate, thus clearly in same meaning with this Anglo Saxon HNESCE. This is interesting detail of language history. Also in Lindisfarne translation, is such HNESC written for translating mollis and tener, rarely in Matthew, and now we better notice the Luke 7:25. The Lindisfarne translation and also the others in Skeat’s Synopsis write this for noticing quality of clothes stating MONNO HNESCUM GEWOEDUM GEGEARUAD (thus LIN)- “But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft garments?” (KJV) in translating the response to followers of John the Baptist. The HNESCE is written also in Lindisfarne translation of Matt 11:8 synoptic parallel to this. Notoriously, the HNESC is here softness of clothes especially, well relevant also for Chinese NEN. Here it is worth remembering that silk and clithes were one important part of Chinese culture known far in the west too. Here written MICLES, MAETES is also interesting. Namely, Old English MAETE word notices often small, it notices measures, degrees and ranks, and proportions (see Bosworth &Toller) and similarly OHGerman SMAHI for small, and Swedish sma word. Also Russian MALENKI word is for small. FICK Indogermanisches Wb notices SMEHA and SMEHIA gering klein and Indogermanic SMEK SMAK. The Chinese MANG notices much. Notoriously, Swedish manga is for many and very resembling Russian MNOGA (many) and Finnish MONTA MONI MONTAKO; also the English MANY is notable here. In dialogue of Solomon and Saturn we find mention that old age also HEO OFERSTIGED STYLE HIO ABITED IREN MID OME In the times of Anglo Saxon societies, iron and steel metals were of central importance and in much use, of prominent importance in the society. This is interesting mention of steel and iron, and description how old age can have destructive impact even on these very strong substances, steel and iron. Here is noticed how old age can bite iron with rust. Such phenomenon is of course known, and in earlier times proceeding rust upon strong iron devices, surely was of much notice and debate. In Anglo Saxon vocabulary, OM notices rust and OMIG is for rusty (Bosworth &Toller). For mould, Skeat’s etymological dictionary notices more Teutonic MAILOM, although root unknown. Notoriously, Finnish word HOME is for mould (Finnish home word is not used at all in meanings typical to the usual English word home)- such growth upon surfaces, and upon alimentation eg. loaves of bread; and clearly is such HOME quite similar with Anglo Saxon OM for rust; in their style of appearance upon surfaces, are rust and mould actually quite resembling. Chinese WU is word for dirt and WUNI is for mud and mirth- these are clearly much resembling the OM and Fin HOME. It is to be remembered that also Chinese culture was specialist producer of metals, also iron and high quality steel products, so that these comparisons of metal culture and vocabulary, are relevant. Writing of old age
EURASIAN LEXICON PART TWO, POST TWO by Pasi K Pohjala 2018 CHAPTER TWO Some archaic words in Old English texts, compared with Chinese words Reading important Old English texts of Gnomic verses of Exeter Book, and Cotton Gnomes, and reading in Old English Dialogues of Solomon and Saturn, alerts Readers of some peculiar, apparently archaic words that appear not being clearly comparable with nowadays usual vocabulary of Teutonic languages of Europe. This proceeds with questioning what are, then, actually these words? Where are these words, then, originating? Thus the research proceeds also considering if such notorious words can be found also in some other Anglo Saxon texts- and for this stage, it appears that the Old English Lindisfarne Gospel translations notoriously often do include such notorious archaic words that, importantly, no more appear in later usual Old English Gospel translations. With this methodology, it can here be established some vocabulary that is archaic in Old English parlance, and occurring in secular texts of the Gnomes and also in early Lindisfarne translation of Gospels, and also in Solomon and Saturn dialogues that is partially of early Christian culture. Thus are we detecting numerous archaic words in Old English vocabulary attested in secular and early Christian texts; and it is thus truly notable that to such archaic Old English words are here noticed apparent parallels in Chinese language. This quite elaborates one of Gnome statement that CENE MEN GECUNDE RICE- that CENE men established state (although usual lexical rendering for such CENE men is to speak of bold men). We can promptly remind also that well known in British history are: king Cynewulf of Wessex (757-86), he was a descendant of Cerdice; also king of West Saxons Cynegils (611-643), he was only later in 635 baptised to Christianity by missionary Birinus, and this sponsored by king Oswald of Northumbria; and numerous are in southern Britain finds of 2000yrs old coins minted by king Cunobelinus; and so on. In Gnomic verses of the Exeter Book, is found ALED word, apparently meaning fire. In Chinese is word LEI for thunder, apparent similar; and well known are connected fire and thunders. Apparent parallel is English FLAME (pronounced fleim), and in Finnish language is LEIMU for fire (and also is VALKEA Finnish noun for fire), both of these Finnish words well similar with Chinese LEI for thunder. Also is Turkish GURLEMEK for thunder apparent similar, and ALEV is in Turkish word for flame. And in Greek, is LIGNUS word for smoke &flame. Bosworth renders Old English ALED with fire, and conflagration and ALAN being to kindle; but Bosworth does not here speculated of its etymology, however. FICK Indogermanisches Wb discusses HLEM, HLEMMAN, HLAMM (schallen) and Old English HLIMMAN schallen, brullen (Bosworth render for HLIMMAN to sound, roar). Thus it is interesting to notice that in Lindisfarne Gospels, the ALED word is NOT used in renderings, but the IGNIS is always with FYR rendered in Lindisfarne Gospels (so finds Concordance of Albert Cook); that Old English FYR word being similar with modern fire word. Thus it appears interesting that in Gnomes of Exeter Book, these BOTH are noticed stating, FORST SCEAL FREOSAN, FYR WUDU MELTAN…HOLEN SCEAL IN ALED. There is noticed that wooden material burns in fire. Mentioning BOTH ALED and FYR words in these Gnomes of Exeter Book is interesting, it attests of historical development of language. (We can also notice that LAD word does occur in Lindisfarne translations- but in places that are not particularly relevant for anything to do with fire, namely in Matt 10:22 and 24:9 and Luke 8:13, 16:15 and 21:17 statements). Chinese word WAN notices fine silk; China was in older times especially famous for Chinese silk, so that this vocabulary is notable; and Chinese WAITAO is word for coat. Old English word WAEDE notices human clothing, some garment, or collectively clothing (Bosworth). Also in Finnish language, is notoriously similar word VAATE, VAATETUS for clothes. Thus we notice that FICK Indogermanisches Wb writes of VED weben (weave) of Indogermanic root VEOH, and Sanskrit VAYATI. Also, FICK notices VEDI for clothes and VAD, VADIR for clothing. In Exeter gnomes, is stated that WIF SCEAL WID WER WARE GEHEALDAN OFT HI MON WOMMUM BEHLID… WAESCED HIS WARIG HRAEGEL AND HIM SYLED WAEDE NIWE where the gnomes describe how Frisian housewife welcomes her husband sailor from sailing, and washes his stained clothers and gives to him new clothes. Importantly, clothing words here appearing are that HRAEGEL and WAEDE. Writing of WAEDE word in Lindisfarne Gospels, is especial detail that points out Lindisfarne translation specifically in comparison with many other Old English Gospel translations. Thus we find in Lindisfarne Gospel rendering Luke 6:29 SEDE GENIMED DE WOEDO AEC D CYRTIL, although other old English translations (in Skeat’s Synopsis) write of REAF, stating DAN DE DIN REAF NYMD…DINE TUNECAN. This is one manifestation that vocabulary in Lindisfarne translation often is surprisingly and comprehensively different from vocabulary written in many other Old English Gospel translations. And we find similarly that Lindisfarne translation for Luke 6:36 writes of garment (vestimentum) with WOEDO, although other Old English translations there write of REAFE (Lindisfarne: ESCEAPA FROM WOEDO NIUUE ONSENDED ON GEWEDO ALD). Albert Cook in Concordance notices that WOEDE is in Lindisfarne Gospel translations usual for vestimentum in rendering all four Gospels; and Lindisfarne Gospels render that vestimentum also with words CLAD, HRAEGL, WOEDE, although CLAD is rare, written there only in Matt 9:16 and Mark 14:63, but HRAEGL is some more usual, written ten times. Chinese word LING is especially for silk, and also for other riches. In older times, silk was often accepted currency form there also. Thus it is notable that in Old English language is word WLENCO for proud and bold, and for splendid, magnificent and rich (so Bosworth). FICK Indogermanisches Wb notices LINA for LEIN, LINNEN and Old English LIN; also in Greek is LINON word for linen (and LINAIA is Greek for sails, of fabrics); interestingly also writing “Ob Germ LINA entlehnt oder mit Lat. LINUM urverwandt ist, lasst sich kaum entscheiden”. Liddell Scott renders LINON with anything made of FLAX; and it is notable that LS 895 compares Greek LINON with Old High German LIN word “the diff. of quantity is against the supp. that the word was borrowed from the Greeks”. And Bosworth writing of Old English LIN wit flax, linen, notices German LEIN. Thus it is apparently of notable importance to compare this with LING word in Chinese language; the silk being famous Chinese secret product since old times, and reached also to west along the famous silk road. One particularly forceful evidence connecting LIN in Old English especially with SILK, is Old English Rushworth Gospel translation of Mark 15:46 and Luke 23:53 where is BOHTE LIN AND HINE BIWAND IN LINE describing clothing deceased Jesus in garment of LIN material for burial- but the Greek originals, and the Latin text translated, write of SINDONE material (MERCATUS SINDONEM EUM INVOLVIT SINDONE)- that is, specifically, silk clothing. Old English thus apparently comprehended LIN being also material of SILK- and that is, specifically, the Chinese LING. In old Anglo-Saxon times in Britain, large areas of east coast of Britain south of the Humber, were areas of Lindissi; or the famous LINDSEY kingdom, famous although less known in details of life and culture (modern Lincolnshire; Doncaster, Market Rasen cf. old English RECENE word, see below). And in chapter below, scrutinising archaeological evidence of pottery styles of kilns almost 2000years old, we are to find numerous apparent evidences of elaborate YIN YANG decorated pottery from factories in the Wash area, especially along rivers Nene and Welland (often called Nene valley pottery style approximate 2000years old, where are beautiful decorations of yin yang style elaborate); we thus are finding interesting evidences for ancient British culture of east coast, between Humber and the Wash, and river system of the Wash, especially Nene river. Old English WLENCO word interestingly is written in Gnomic verses in Exeter Book, namely DRYM SCEAL MID WLENCO, DRISTE MID CENUM SCEOLUN BU RECENE BEADWE FREMMAN This writes of affluent men WLENCO, and then notably writes of CENUM men. Apparently, these CENUM notice some Chinese, known to this culture of Anglo Saxon Exeter book community; also interestingly, here also BU and RECENE are apparent similar with Chinese usual words BU and REN (people); thus here noticed that pomp is with the affluent and confidence is with the CENUM men. Word WLENCO is in Lindisfarne translations notably seldom written, occurs in Matt 13:22 for DIVITIAE. That Latin word DIVITIAE is by Lindisfarne rendered with WEALA and WLENCO, that WEALA more usual , written in Mark 4:19 and Luke 8:14 (in the parable of sower, sowing seed amongst thorns) and Luke 16:9. Chinese word YI notices medical doctors, and Chinese YILIAO notices medical treats. This Chinese word appears really similar with Old English word BILIHD that notices damages, also in figurative sense noticing defaming and dishonouring; this BILIHD is pres. form of Old English verb BEHLIGAN (see Bosworth and Grein, Sprachschatz). Now it is really notable that any somewhat resembling word actually is not in Western European languages any more recognisable. However, in Russian language we yet do find actually usual word BOLNITSA for hospitals and BOLITSA noticing being sick; apparently are these modern Russian words close parallels; in Eurasian areas this is of course quite understandable. Notoriously, we also can find in old Greek language verb IAOMAI for curing, word especially used for medical practitioners of those times- also this usual old Greek word appears quite similar with that Chinese YI and YILIAO words (the Greek noun for doctors IATROS also somehow resembles that YI, too). Actually we do well also comparing old Greek LEITOURGOS word here (of LEITH- and ERGADZOMAI), apparently is here found interesting parallel to the BILIHD, too; and generally, that old Greek LEITOURGOS notices various public servants of the POLEIS cities. Also FICK notices in Indogermanisches Worterbuch DLAIH, DLAIHAN freundlich zureden, trosten (to speak friendly and to give counselling and consolations)- this type of activity is surely one of most important activities of medical practitioners encouraging people suffering from various ailments (and such DLAIH friendly speaking and counselling, in various contexts, is centrally important in many activities of public officials, too). In Old English Gnomes of Exeter Book, this BILIHD does notably occur in stating WIDGONGEL WIF WORD GESPRINGED, OFT HY MON WOMMUM BILIHD Lindisfarne Gospel translations into Old English are apparently of much interest in these scrutinies, especially remembering that healing activities of Jesus are in Gospels actually quite prominent and oft presented traditions. For example, in Synoptic Gospels the Luke 6 presents debate of keeping Sabbath and in such, presenting event that a man with crippled hand came to synagogue during Sabbath, and Jesus did heal his hand, even if there were complaints amongst audience of Pharisees claiming thus the Sabbath commandment been broken. In this narrative, Lindisfarne Gospel translations and also others, write HAELDE (gif on symbeldaeg he haelde, Luke 6:7, also others HWAEDER HE ON RESTE-DAEG HAELDE similarly. Of course, also this word deserves comparison with Chinese YILIAO for medical treating). Also it is interesting that Chinee YI for medical doctors also quite resembles name JE-SUS (importantly, in Hebrew and Aramaic form of the name)who was, according to New Testament narratives, also quite famous for healing miracles. This similarity also gives much to ponder, too. The healing miracles of Jesus told in New Testament being numerous, also occurring vocabulary is of much interest. Another sort of vocabulary is found e.g. in translation of Luke 5:15 telling that large crowds were coming to see Jesus and WURDON GEHAELEDE FRAM HYRA UNTRUMNESSUM (thus other translations in Skeat’s Synopsis- this writes clear details pertaining to older German syntax especially that WURDON) and Lindisfarne translation here writes that WOERON GELECNED FROM UNTRYMNISSUM HIORA. Also here is Old English vocabulary notably different, and the GELECNED in Lindisfarne translation especially reminds of Nordic parlance (Lakare, Lakemedel; ), also it is notable that in Lindisfarne the passive is not expressed with WURDON that unmistakably is detail of German syntax. Chinese WEIRAO notices moving around. Also modern English speakers recognise resemblance with EARTH, that is moving around in cosmos. Importantly, history of languages presents much more detailed knowledge. Old English EOROD notices legions and troops (they were of course formations quickly moving in different positions), and EORD is Old English for the earth (Bosworth; but notably, Bosworth does not discuss etymology of these words; and Skeat Etymological Dictionary, finds Teutonic root ERTHA). FICK Indogermanisches Wb notices VERD, VERDAN for wenden, drehen and finds Indogermanic root VERT, apparently really near also to Chinese WEIRAO; and FICK notices in Sanskrit nearest word VARTATE dreht sich, geschieht. Moreover, important notices are that old Greek ERESSOO generally notices to put in quick motion; in Homeric epic that word also notices to speed by rowing; and Liddell Scott notices it coming from root ERET. Thus is Greek ERETES usually for rowers. Thus it is interesting that Gnomes of Exeter Book also write that EORL SCEAL ON MEOS BOGE, EOROD SCEAL GETRUME RIDAN This notices, apparently, EORL riding on back of horse, and style of riding of mounted troops. Chinese word TENG
Is some of Readers interested to continue with public availability of these posts of EURASIAN lexicon in publicly viewed internet? They are to be taken away from public view unless there appear interest from Readers. Support can be sent in Google pay (Google Wallet) to my account at Nowadays are electronic payments globally used everyday in billions of transactions, easily done just by one click and reliably. To remind (potential) Readers: nowadays mostly are internet articles behind a paywall. Also the British Guardian newspaper yet continues keeping their free internet access, and at the same time they are strongly campaigning for readers' contributions to continue to do so. These Articles of EURASIAN lexicon are result of much intellectual work effort continued of much time; but I haven't received from Readers any support AT ALL. If someone is interested that these articles of EURASIAN lexicon can continue in publicly available Internet, this is the time to remember that subscriptions of jstor and other sites are very costly, and printed books cost at least USD25, scholarly books usually cost some hundreds of dollars. (June 2018 amendment) EURASIAN LEXICON PART TWO post ONE EURASIAN LEXICON, Part TWO By Pasi K. Pohjala Published January 21, 2018 To Celebrate Winter Olympics 2018 at Pyeongchang, Corea To Promote Friendship and Friendly Cooperating in Eurasia. . Chapter ONE, special words for Winter: European SNOW words, and Chinese words XUE and SHUANG for snow and frost; European ICE words (JAA, ICE, YSSE…) and Chinese JIEBING for ice; Chinese HUAXUE HUABING of moving around o slippery surface ice or snow and Europen to HOP, HUPPON; Chinese ZHI sticks and the SKIS. Chapter TWO, archaic Old English (Anglo Saxon) words compared with Chinese words: Words ALED (Old English, for fire and flame) and Chinese LEI for thunder; Chinese WAN word for fine silk, and Old English WAEDE words for clothing and garments; Chinese word LING for silk, and Old English WLENCO word for riches, and affluent pomp; Chinese YI for doctors and YILIAO for medical treatments, and Old English BILIHD word for afflictions; Chinese word TENG for cane, rattan and Old English TELGUM for branches and twigs; Chinese word TIE for iron and TIEBAN for iron slabs and Old English word STEAPA stabs and steady; Chinese CHUAN word for ships and Old English CEOL KEULA word of ships; Old English SNYTTRO wise and Chinese ZHAN for divination and augury; Old English HYCGAN to think and Chinese HUAN imagination; Old English HNESCE soft, and Chinese NEN tender, delicate; Old English OM, OME for rust, and Chinese WU WUNI for mirth, mud; and Old English YLDO old age; and Chinese YU. Chapter THREE, interesting words in Old English Lindisfarne Gospel translations (examination of chapters 5 and 6 of Gospel of Luke, in Lindisfarne Gospel translation) OE BLINNAN cease, stop and Chinese BIAN limit; OE HEONISE deep sea and Chinese HAI for sea; OE HUON just little, and Chinese DUAN short, little; OE TUGON pull and Chinese TUO pull and drag; OE FYLSTAN to help and Chinese FU help; OE SLEP surprise, and Chinese ZHE ; Old English WINNAN to work, toil and Chinese WEI act, do; OE BECNAN to tell, indicate and Chinese KENDING to tell; OE CIGAN to call, shout, cry and Chinese KENDING; OE SUIDOR much, strong and Chinese ZHUI superfluous; notice of words for Sabbath day OE Symbeldag and Somnung; OE word LYCETON to murmur and Chinese LOUZI troubles; OE CEAP to do trading and commerce, and Chinese GOU to do trading; OE SOKIAN to seek follow; Chinese SHANG of various movements; OE EGE for awe, fear and Chinese FEN or FENKAI for anger; OE BYTO LASAD; OE Gospel notices specialist scribes WUDTO and Chinese WU The Five Classics, and DU words of writing; OE ONLICNISE for Gospel parables, and Chinese LIXIANG, ideals; OE GLAD happy and Chinese GAO happy; OE MORE highlands, and Chinese MO for highlands; OE DREAT for crowds and Chinese DUO REN many people; Old English usual STOU STOW for special places, towns and Chinese ZHOU for districts of administration !!, OE HREH for flood and Chinese HE for floods and streams; OE CARR for stone and Chinese GANG for hills; OE HREONISE for repentance, moral improvement and Chinese REN that is also of human moral character; OE HEHT make commandments and Chinese CHENG rules, law; OE GYMAN observe and Chinses GUAN observe; OE GETEMESED placed on show and Chinese DENGCHANG make a show; OE AHSIGE to question and Chinese SHI try, test; OE TELLAN to complain and Chinese TE words; OE presents deity NERGENDE FADER saviour and Chinese NENG powerful, capable; OE MEOTUD appellation of deity and Chinese MEIDE virtue; OE CYNREN race, kind, progeny and Chinese REN people; and OE words CYNNRECCENISE CNEORESO for generation, and Chinese REN words. Saying WEI LA WEI! And saying CENE MEN GECYNDE RICE. CHAPTER ONE Special words of Winter: Chinese word XUE is for snow and SHUANG is for frost; apparently sounding somewhat similar; and for reminding, verb to snow is XIAXUE and verb to rain is XIAYU. Apparently does the modern English word snow quite resemble these Chinese XUE and SHUANG words; and the similarity is even far more apparent in considering older usual forms in European languages. Namely, Old English word SNAW is for snow, apparent near to SHUANG and Old High German knows SNEW, apparently near to Chinese XUE. Also is near parallel the Dutch SNEEUW word; also even contemporary Russian word SNEG is near, too; Old Teutonic form was SNAIWAZ; and in Finnish language is SUOJA or SUAJA word for snowy but not too cold time. FICK (Indogermanisches Worterbuch) scrutinises SNIV (SNIGV) SNAIV schneien, es schneit, finding Indogermanic root SNINGUH and noticing Sanskrit SNIHYATI, wird nass, of wet and moisture. But it is notable that in vocabulary of colder Eurasian countries, this word is all around attested especially for snow, winter phenomenon. In Older English language, it is actually notable that Lindisfarne Gospels Matt 5:45 translates with SNIWA (to rain) in text where all other versions clearly talk of raining; this is in Lindisfarne Gospels the only occurrence of SNIWA (for Concordance by Albert Cook); and indeed, this notable detail attests of northern origins of this Lindisfarne old English translation, in regions where snowing was in those days quite usual and thus made good sense to the audience (and this cannot at all refer to Greek original where BREKHEI is written, word usual for rainfall), but choosing of SNIWA apparently made good sense to the audience of Lindisfarne Gospels in northern regions. Second important occurrence during winter times, is obviously frost and ice. Chinese JIEBING word notices to freeze (the JIE especially noticing how substances solidify and cement; and BING noticing the ICE in particular). Similarly, JIEXUE is for freezing, too, of XUE root (snow). Finnish speakers prompt notice the similar Finnish JEE or JAA that notices ice (letter A with Umlaut, pronounced approximately JEE). Also, these are notoriously similar with European Teutonic words for ice; Old English often writes IS (also older written forms ISSE, YISE, YSE) are known. Old Teutonic form was ISO and more in recent language are Dutch IJS, Swedish IS and English ICE and German EIS. It is thus especially notable that Falk&Torp Etymologisk Ordbok notices that etymology for IS is not sure- their not having considered Chinese parallels, now emphasises importance finding in Chinese language thus apparent parallel. Also it appears important, that in many Eurasian languages are words for iron and ice notably similar; notable similarity is apparent I older Anglo Saxon vocabulary where IS was for ice and ISERN was for iron (see Grein, Sprachschatz and Bosworth and Toller). It is notable that somewhat resembling similarity also is in Chinese language apparent, JIE, JIEXUE for freezing and word TIE being usual for iron. Chinese vocabulary knows HUAXUE noticing to ski (also HUABING, for movements around ice). In Teutonic languages are notably near words HUPPON HUPPIAN hupfen (hop, leap, jump) and Anglo Saxon HOPPIAN, and Old German form HUPPEN; and FICK (Indogermanisches Wb) finds these being probably formed of Indogermanic KUBN. (Also in Finnish language, is usual hyppy in these meanings of jumping and leaping). Notably, their having omitted comparisons with Chinese vocabulary, it is thus here of apparent importance finding in Chinese HUAXUE and HUABING close parallels to those older forms of HUPPON and HUBBON. And of course, movements around frozen icy grounds and slippery snowy places, are some sort of leaping and tottering. The devices for proceeding in snowy places are usually noticed as SKI in European languages. English SKI and Swedish SKIDA (SKIDOR, verb is usually AKA SKIDOR) and Norse SKID, and Anglo Saxon SKID (see Falk & Torp Etymologisk Ordbok especially). Somewhat variously, are also included hereby snow-shoes, too. (FICK, Indogermanisches Wb scrutinise SKID and SKAIDAN, scheiden in Indogermanic root SKIT, and notices SKIDA, Schneeschuch, snow-shoes. In historical texts of Anglo Saxon times were then known multitude of northern people namely SKRIDE-FINNS in parts of northern Scandinavia (modern Swedish knows of SKRIDA, FRAMSKRIDA to progress and proceed in journey, similarly also in German). The SKI is, actually, a pair of (originally) wooden STICKS- and indeed, in Chinese language this is well noticed. Chinese ZHI measure word notices long and thin objects, eg chopsticks. It is here also particularly interesting that Chinese characters pronounced ZHI have meanings of sticks, twigs, branches, and also a pair- for example, are chopsticks and skis a pair of wooden sticks. Also, in Finnish similar are TIKKU (a stick) and TUKKI (woodlog) words; and Old Hebrew TQY verb notices to drive a peg in when setting up a tent. Old Greek ZUGOS notices also yokes, special wooden stick too; the KSULOS being more general Greek word for wood and trees. Importantly, Turkish CIVI notices nails and pegs and CIVILEMEK to nail. Modern English knows usual STICK word that is usual TEUTONIC word; old TEUTONIC root STIK noticed to pierce and to prick (in Sanskrit, root tij notices to be sharp); similarly with Greek STIZEIN, to prick. Notably, TIKKU, TUKKI and ZUGOS rather notice all kinds of wooden sticks and rods, not with particular regard to pricking. CHAPTER TWO

Thursday, 4 January 2018

Eurasian Lexicon

Dear Readers, here is being published the great and proceeding Eurasian Lexicon ! Surely, this Eurasian Lexicon is greatly going to interest in times of Corea Winter Olympics Pyeongchang 2018 when Western top winter sportspeople arrive at Corea and accustom there! Yes, it is some surprises how the Coreans and Japanese and Chinese speak (and especially how they write the characters) but, attention- many of the Asian words are surprisingly SIMILAR WITH European usual words! HERE provides Eurasian Lexicon much researched information, compares Mandarin Chinese words with many European languages words (especially in Teutonic languages, German, English, Nordic etc) and finds similarities; and does some more detailed work in language history, too- especially, many words in Anglo Saxon (Old English) form (1000-1500years old) especially appear similar with may usual Chinese words- apparently, yet then 1500-1000 years ago, here in Western parts of Eurasia, many people yet knew language that contained MUCH terminology of Chinese language! FIND MORE in the earlier blog posts in THIS BLOG, of the EURASIAN LEXICON. Great preparation for arriving to Corea Winter Olympics! (Kim Limnell - Kim Ling)

Saturday, 18 November 2017

Dear Readers, this weekend in Britain are Royals celebrating really remarkable event, the 70 years marriage of Queen and Prince Philip. For human lives, that seventy years is notably much time. Much to think! Best Congratulations! On this publishing site just continues strongly the publishings of comparisons of old British Lindisfarne Gospel translation, in language of Old English, with languages, notably, comparisons also with many Chinese words! Soon is thereof NEW BOOK coming, for the GREAT DELIGHT REJOICING AND INTEREST of all interested readers! With strong progress news, KIM