Friday, 6 October 2017

Best Congratulations to Kazuo Ishiguro who won Literature Nobel 2017 prize! It is notable that his writings are translated into many European languages (English, German, Nordic languages etc) thus are actual questions, for translators, why some Asian words appear notably similar with many modern European words! The important LEXICON OF ASIAN and EUROPEAN words HERE BEING PUBLISHED (see recent posts in THIS BLOG, for recent improved 2nd edition of this important work) gives some more answers to this notable situation of Eurasian languages, Teutonic languages and languages in the Altaic language group!

Wednesday, 27 September 2017

NEW LEXICON COMPARING EUROPEAN AND ASIAN WORDS: EURASIAN LANGUAGES

A LEXICON COMPARING WORDS OF EUROPE AND ASIA Comparison of some Chinese words with words of Russian and Finnish languages, and words common in TEUTONIC languages; also noticing some Old Greek words of interest. by Pasi K Pohjala THIS IS SECOND, IMPROVED EDITION OF September 27, 2017, that much develops older First Edition, of April 16, 2016. Articles of MAA (horse); PAOBU (run); ZHI (sticks and logs); YU (fish); TAIYANG (sun); ZIJI (self) and ZHU (live, dwell); HUNLI (wedding); GAI (build); KAI (to burn); GAO (warm); LIFU (cloth); YANJING (eyes); PENGYOU (friends); QU (come, go); LAOSHI (clever); HAO and HUAI (good and not good); LONG (dragon); WOSHI (a dwelling, a room); BIAOGE (cousin); QUN (measuring group); SHAN (mountain); SHU (tree); CAO (grass, lawn); HUA (flowers); HU (river); HAI (ocean, sea); NAO (brain); MEI (every); KU (bitter); SUAN (sour); TIAN (sweet); CHUANTONG (tradition); DONGSI (something); WEN (question); WAI (other); WEI (someone); SHENG (body); YING (win); SHOU (writings); LIANG (travel); and comparisons of numerals one to ten; and CONCLUDING SUMMARY. The main aim for this lexicon survey is to clarify and manifest similarities of many usual words in modern TEUTONIC languages, with Chinese words. Regrettably, their similarities with Chinese words often remains unrecognised in surveys of linguistic history of usual words; but this study aims to manifest in this question much more clarities in apparent form. Importantly, older Anglo-Saxon words yet preserve many very close similarities that have become in modern language obsolete, or appear in quite changed form after centuries in modern language. Thus are also similarities of such Chinese words noticed with words in Russian and Finnish languages, Chinese neighbouring cultures in this large Eurasian continent. FIFTY ARTICLES, by Pasi K Pohjala. Chinese MAA word for HORSE is very similar to modern English MARE for fem horses (and in Swedish marr although HAST is there more general) and Finnish HUMMA word for horses. In Anglo-Saxon MEARH notices horses (see Boswell); and historically Old TEUTONIC MARKOZ noticed fem horses, also apparently similar; and Indogermanic root is MARKOS (Skeat art “mare”, it is notable that Skeat finds here being “root uncertain”). Importantly, FICK (art “MARHA”) notice MARHA, Pferd and comparing with English MARR and Anglo-Saxon MEARH; neither FICK presents clear roots for this. Notoriously, Biblical Hebrew RKB words notice riding (see BDB RKB), and quite famous Hebrew noun formation MARKHAVA notices chariots in Old Hebrew. In older times, horses were all important and usual, and thus this vocabulary IS particularly important. Chinese word PAO notice walking and running, and Chinese PAOBU and MANPAO words notice running activity. Also, there are apparently similar with Finnish verbs PAKO; PAETA (to flee from) and PIKA; PIKAINEN (quick). Importantly thus is Russian BEGAT (to run) also apparent similar and also resembling Turkish BEYGIR word notices horses, quick runners and Turkish CABUK notices to be in hurry and doing quickly. Notoriously, for Chinese PAO and PAOBU and MANPAO verbs we detect similarity with very usual Old Hebrew BA verb (to come; to go see BDB); and even similarity with old Greek BAINOO verb for coming and going (usual in ANABAINOO and KATABAINOO etc). In old Anglo-Saxon it is notable that BE-CUMAN usually does notice arriving and coming (even if modern English BECOME has other meaning). Chinese ZHI measure word notices long and thin objects, eg chopsticks; and in Finnish similar are TIKKU (a stick) and TUKKI (woodlog) words; and Old Hebrew TQY verb notices to drive a peg in when setting up a tent. Old Greek ZUGOS notices also yokes, special wooden stick too; the KSULOS being more general Greek word for wood and trees. Importantly, Turkish CIVI notices nails and pegs and CIVILEMEK to nail. Old Anglo-Saxon TELGA word notices branches (and Chinese TENG is word for sticks, cane and rattan); this is also worth comparing with modern LOG word in form TH-LOG. Furthermore, modern English knows usual STICK word that is usual TEUTONIC word; old TEUTONIC root STIK noticed to pierce and to prick (in Sanskrit, root tij notices to be sharp); similarly with Greek STIZEIN, to prick. Finnish verb is TUKKIA although not peculiarly done with TUKKI instrument; and Anglo-Saxon form is STINGAN. From Indogermanic root STEIG and more usual Teutonic form STEKAN are many modern words developed (Skeat art “stick”). Notably, TIKKU, TUKKI and ZUGOS rather notice all kinds of wooden sticks and rods, not with particular regard to pricking. Chinese YU word notices fishes generally. Also, another character in Chinese is YU for heavy rain. Notably, Finnish JUO verb notices to drink, well relevant for swimming fish. And German Kabeljau notices cod fish; and German das Juchten notices watertight leathern things, also well similar with Chinese YU for fish. (In old times, such could be floats when filled with air). We find here words denoting floating, or, something swimming. In Russian language, we find many interestingly similar words, RYBA for fish and PLYT verb notices swimming. Famous Old Greek word for ships is PLOUS. Russian BYI word notices floating thing; all these Russian words interestingly recall that Chinese YU word for fish. In Old Testament famous are, also, NUNA fish. In Turkish is the BUYU for magic and incantations, and YUZMEK verb notices in Turkish to float. In Finnish is same word UI or UIDA noticing swimming, same with Russian BYI and Turkish YUZMEK for floating. It is actually notable that Anglo-Saxon YT word notices seas, especially waves (see Boswell)- this word is in modern Swe YTA for waves, too. In Old Hebrew we find YUAM (or, jam) word for waters and seas; and Hebrew BYH notices to bubble, and to reveal, and is used in reference to waters, too. In ancient times, rivers, waterways and coastal routes were very important routes for travelling and transportation, and many people were thereby active and in such areas resident, so that similarity in these words is especially important. (Notice also history of lighthouse-keeper GUTLAC in West-Saxon Exeter Book). Chinese TAIYANG notices sun and Chinese DANKONG notices high above in the sky. This is notoriously similar with usual Finnish word TAIVAS that generally notices heavens; and Finnish TAVATA notices encounters and appearances generally. Very similar is Anglo-Saxon word TUNGOL word stars (word SWEGL is rather, for sun); actually we find this in name TENGEL-HOF of a modern airport (TUNGOL SCEAL ON HEOFENUM BEORHTE SCINAN, thus a saying in Gnomic verses in Anglo-Saxon Mss TiberiusB). For TUNGOL, older German knew ZUNGAL, and in older Swedish is TUNGEL word for moon (Boswell “tungol”). (Cf also how FICK comments dug, dunkel sein). Also Turkish language knows very similar words, DUN noticing night, and DUN also noticing how something goes up in the air. In Russian is DAVAT usual verb for giving; apparently important earlier was hope for providential sustenance from heavens, for good weather of seasons; and Russian word DEN notices days. Notably thus is similar the usual Old Hebrew TOV for good and Hebrew JOM TOV notices religious festival days. And in Hebrew NTH notices to spread, similarly how heavens is spread; and Hebrew NTY notices to plant and to set up, also noticing how the heavens were regarded having been set up and established. Also, Old Hebrew DYK word notices to be extinguished, eg. of lamps. Old Greek AKTIS generally notices light and light rays and sparkles; and also Greek OURANOS word for heavens have quite similarity with Chinese TAIYANG word. Also importantly, in terms of geography, old name of central Finland was TAVAST-LAND, and it is important to recognise how vast areas of Siberia were (and are) known as TAYGA area. In older times, comprehension of geography was of course not so distinctive, so that similarity of names of Russian TAYGA area and old name of central Finland TAVAST-LAND is especially noteworthy. Actually, these old geographical terms are clear derived from Chinese TA noticing step on, tread and TAQING noticing walk on green grass. Chinese ZIJI notices SELF; and ZHU notices activity of living in and lodging. These are notoriously similar with Old Greek ZAO (ZEIN) noticing to live; and also similar with Greek OIKIDZEIN noticing dwelling in habitation or in a house. Russian usual verb ZIT notices both being alive and inhabiting in; inhabitants are ZITELEI. Apparently similar with Chinese use are Finnish nouns SIJA and SUOJA, words for place of something or place of someone. Thus it is interesting to compare with common TEUTONIC word SELF (German selber, Swedish sjalv) that is common TEUTONIC and is in Old TEUTONIC found in selbo words. In Old Norwegian found form SIALF is notably similar with the SIJA word, continuously usual in Finnish. But etymology of this common TEUTONIC self words is continuously regarded obscure. Thus it is surely worth comparison with these Chinese ZIJI and ZHU words, that find so remarkable comparison in continuously usual Finnish SIJA and SUOJA words, and also in Russian usual ZIT verb, especially with regard to geography and population movements during decades. Chinese HUNLI notices wedding; this is apparent similar with usual Finnish JUHLA (a festival) and JUHLIA (to celebrate) and dialect form JUHULA. Also, modern German knows of JAUCHZEN loud celebrating. Notably, in old Anglo-Saxon is HUSL word for Eucharist (see Boswell), important churchly celebration. And in Turkish notices CULUS word throne accession festivities. Also is similar Old Greek GELAOO to laugh and be happy; and in Russian is ULIBKA noticing smile. Remarkably is similar here Turkish GULUMSEME for smile and GULUMSEMEK to smile. Notoriously similar is English noun HALL that is common TEUTONIC word (German Halle and Swedish hall), and is in old TEUTONIC found in HALLA form; this noticing generally large places with some roof. Apparently, festival gatherings usually were gathering under some roofed area, or under tents. Thus we also remind of old Hebrew AKL verb noticing eating, and celebrating; and AHL noticing tents in Old Hebrew. Chinese GAI word notices to build; this character notices to build and lid, cover. In Finnish usual word KATTO notices a roof or a ROOFED place (and verb KATTAA); similar is also Turkish CATI for roof, thus place established for settled inhabitation. Anglo-Saxon GEAT notices a gate, also roofed structure (see Boswell, notices also German Gasse), also modern English notices this in word GATE (however is Swedish en gata different, noticing a street). Notably similar thereby is also old Hebrew GAG noticing a roof, and roofed place (see BDB); also Greek usual OIKOS can have similarity. Word GAR is in Hebrew usual verb for inhabiting and dwelling in. This Hebrew GAR also is similar with Old Greek AGORA the public square of cities and AGORADZEIN. In Russian is word GOROD usual for cities and towns (and Russian verb GORA is more for travelling, especially in hill countries). These are built and well established places of human habitation; and AGORA, for public activities in cities Notably, many Turkish GUR words are of residence and exile, word GURBET noticing exile and foreign travelling; this actually echoes in Old Hebrew found nuance of strangeness in GAR word included. And Anglo-Saxon knows GRIT word for havens and sanctuaries. These are notably interesting words concerning travellers and places and havens for travellers, in longer distances. Chinese KAI word notices to burn and to boil, also the KAI character notices to start, begin; such are important activities in human habitation and settling. Remarkably similar is old Greek KAIOO and KAUSIS, for kindling and burning. Actually it is notable that much resembling old Greek word GIGNOMAI notices beginnings and becoming- comparison of meanings of Chinese KAI with Greek KAIOO and GIGNOMAI is notorious. (In Greek is of course the KAI word for AND in writings really usual too). In Biblical Hebrew the similar KWH kawa notice to burn. Finnish verb KIAHUU notices to boil (standard form is KIEHUA). Similar is also Turkish KAYNATMAK, and Turkish word GOK notices sky and heavens; that is also place of bright stars and lights; and in Swedish we recognise ETT KOK noticing kitchen area of a house where is the fireplace operated; in German, word Kuche notices a kitchen. And in Finnish is KOKKO usual word for large bonfires; but it is notable that poetic Finnish also reminds of huge KOKKO that specifically is particular kind of bird or flying being. Also similar Chinese GAO word notices warm. Apparently similar word also here is Greek KAIOO, KAUSIS that notice warming, burning and boiling. Also Turkish KAYNATMAK noticing to boil, appears similar; in Finnish language word KIAHUU notices boiling. Chinese GAO is word for warm. Apparently, descriptions of warm and cold are not objectively determined and thus can much show variation in different places and for different people. Thus we, indeed, find in TEUTONIC languages notable resemblances in words for COLD. The COLD is common TEUTONIC word (German kalt, Kalte and Swedish kall and English cold, see comments in Skeat and Boswell); in Old TEUTONIC was verb stem KAL noticing to be cold, also old TEUTONIC KALDOZ. This is ONE word where old TEUTONIC root actually is the same with Chinese word, merely writing one more sound of L so that GAO with L appears KAL towards western areas. This phenomenon is notably often repeated and here in MANY words manifested. Anglo-Saxon knows CALD and CEALD for cold (Boswell “ceald”). (Important are FICK notices of KAL, KALAN, kalt sein, frieren). Notably, this old TEUTONIC forms is not too different from Old Hebrew words QAR, QARIR for cold (and actually, old Hebrew letters R and L are so remarkably similar that QAL forms in old Hebrew writs also may have occurred too, noticing cold!) And thus, we also recognise similar Russian GALODNO noticing cold. In Finnish, most similar is HALLA of freezing wintry nights (cf also Finnish KALMA word), and this is, remarkably, similar with old TEUTONIC root KALDOZ, and, Old Greek KHALADZA is apparently similar too. Chinese LEI notices thunder; and really similar is English FLAME (cf Swedish flamm), especially in pronouncing “fleim” that is really similar with this Chinese word. Finnish knows TULI for fire, and LEIMU also is in Finnish for fire. Old Anglo-Saxon ALED is for fire, also LIG or LIGG in Anglo-Saxon notice flame and fire. In Turkish is ALEV for fire, LHB lahab in old Hebrew is for fire, and Greek LIGUS is also for fire Chinese LIFU word notices cloths; apparently similar with Finnish noun LIPPU that notices specific kind of clothes, flags. In Turkish, word LAF notices words and remarks, being relevant here because usually flying flags were signals for some remarks. Old Hebrew knows verb LBS to wear clothes, and its Hifil form also being very usual too. This Hebrew LBS is general word for wearing clothes; it is not appearing for flags. (It is worthy here noticing also the usual English word FLY; this is common TEUTONIC word, and in Old TEUTONIC appearing in FLEUGON and FLEUGAN forms. Modern German writes of fliegen and Flug, and Swedish writes of flyga (to fly) and flagg (a flag). Chinese words YAN and YANJING notice an eye; and this is remarkably similar with old Hebrew AJIN or YJN word usual in old Hebrew for eyes. Thus it is really notable that similar words are in TEUTONIC languages usual. Anglo-Saxon DYNCAN notices “it seems, it appears that” (see Boswell). German finden, fand verb is usual and in Swedish is finna, fann verb usual nowadays, and the noun fynd of Swedish. In English, is TO FIND usual and indeed, this is common TEUTONIC word, that in OLD TEUTONIC appears in find and findan forms. In Teutonic languages, such words appear also in slightly different form, namely MHG VINDEN and Dutch VINDEN and also in older English writings appear such forms VINDE or VYNDE (see OXF Engl Dict Vol 5 “find”). Interestingly, in modern Russian is UMNYI word for clever people; and in Finnish notice words YNNA is word of mathematics. Also notably, in Turkish is similar word UYANIK more noticing of watchful and vigilant people. (It is also worth seeing to old Greek ORAOO for seeing and different forms of its tenses especially the Aorist EIDON form). Chinese word PENGYOU is usual for friends. The Old Hebrew PQH notices to care, to guard; and to open eyes. Similar Turkish BEKCI notices guards and watchmen, and Turkish BAKICI notices more nurses and guards; Russian BELYI notices, also, fugitives and exiles. In Old Greek such meanings also are central, although FEUGOO and FUGAS notice fleeing from and escaping from, and also exiled people. (also usual Greek FEGGOS word for flame and light is notably similar too). Thus we interested notice that in Finnish is PEKKA usual first name (and appearing in Finnish surnames in forms PEKKA-NEN and PEKKA-LA, these notifying of reference to particular activity). Considering these words notably many usual names appear interesting, thus also usual Swedish male name BENGT (PENG-TH), and in British history very famous was also Mercian PENDA king. (In geography names, think also the PENTLAND firth, north of British isle). It is here especially notable that old Anglo-Saxon knows noun BEORN notice generally men, and warriors, and one famous large northern folk of Anglo-Saxon times were the BEORMAS (see e.g. King Alfred’s OE translation of OROSIUS). Chinese word QU usually notices to come and to go. This is apparent similar with Russian GULJAT verb noticing comings and goings (more indefinite that ITI verb); and similar is in Finnish found verb KULKEA, and noun KULKU. (In comparison with Chinese QU, these Finnish and Russian words notable attest sound L here). In Finnish, the noun KUU notices The Moon. In Old Hebrew, the QUM is usual word noticing going and Hebrew QWH verb is more of directing towards specific place. It is thus remarkable noticing that this Hebrew QUM actually is really similar here. Also notable is comparison with famous old Greek GUMNAZOO verb that earlier more noticed of doing physical training (and GUMNOS). In old Greek worth mention here are also KHUOO and KHEOO verbs. Importantly, also such Turkish verbs are relevant, there GITMEK noticing to go, and GELMEK noticing coming and CUMBAN more generally notice movements. English speakers thus prompt recognise also the GO (gone) verb; this is common TEUTONIC (German gehen, gang and Swedish ga, gick), and in Old TEUTONIC appearing in GAE and GANGG stems (see Skeat’s etymologies, and Boswell). Anglo-Saxon knows GANGAN to walk, and noun GANG for paths. (In this discussion, it is also worth noticing that Finnish noun KUU notices The Moon; the periodical movements of the Moon were of central importance for peoples following lunar calendar, and these peoples very carefully were observing movements of The Moon.) Chinese word LAOSHI notices cleverness and clever people. Worth is thus reminding that old Hebrew LHS is firmly word of oracles and uttering charms and spells; and LHS also notices hissing sounds of reptiles, also important in many oracles. Similar word in Finnish is LAISKA, and similar is Turkish LACKA for slack people. In Turkish LOS notices gloomy and murky and this is more relevant to places and rituals of many oracles; and Turkish YALVAC notices work of prophets. And Turkish YANLIS notices various uncertainties, conjectures, and errors. In Old Greek is LEETHEE hiddenness and being concealed and veiled; and A-LEETHEES notices true and becoming revealed (ALEETHEES and ALEETHEIA). (Similarity with LHS is also here apparent, recognising usual S and T changes in Aramaic). Thus it is also interesting to recognise development F-LS that we, apparently, recognise also nowadays in common TEUTONIC word FALSE noticing something wrong and not true (English false, German falsch Falschung and Swedish falsk words); comments of OXF Engl Dictionary Vol 5 (art “false”) are notable here; written forms VALSCH were usual in MHG and Dutch. Chinese word ZHAN notices to practise divination, and inquiries (also ZHAO for look for and try to find); notably similar is Russian ZNAT verb for knowing. Anglo-Saxon SNYTTRO is for knowing, and also in Anglo-Saxon are CUNNAN and CANN word for knowing (see Bosworth); and in German is usual verb kennen and kannte. Interesting similarity is found regarding Chinese usual word HAO for good. This is remarkably similar with usual Russian word HAROSI for good, and with usual Finnish HIANO word for good (HIANO, HIENO). In Anglo-Saxon is HALO word for health and prosperity, and in modern German is SCHON for good and positive qualities, also in Swedish SKON word. Notably, we can also here detect a similarity with Old Greek word AGATHOS of good, especially in AKHATHOS spelling. Similar Turkish HAYIR word is for health and prosperity. (And Chinese usual word HUAI for not good is also similar with usual Finnish word HUANO for not good; also Russian comparative form HUSHE (worse) is similar here.) Chinese word LONG notices dragon. Every English speaker well recognises word LONG noticing extended objects and beings; indeed, we regard a dragon as a being of some considerable length too. Finnish word LANKKU notices lengthier wooden logs and rods. Such words appear in Russian; DLINNYI notices long and DOLGO notices of much duration. Notoriously important is found in German language that noun SCHLANGE is usual noun for snakes and apparently comparable with the Chinese LONG word too. (German TILGEN notices to wipe off; apparently quite descriptive of snake movements upon the ground too). Also is word LANGE in German very usual. And thus we conclude reminding the usual important old Greek word LOGOS. The LOGOS word in Greek includes multitudes of meanings, noticing utterances, words, writings, and generally wisdom. In Hellenistic Stoicism was LOGOS especially important philosophical concept noticing in world inherent reasonable order that was organising word to better organised. In early Hellenised Christianity too, and especially in Alexandria, there was very developed religious cult of LOGOS and much philosophical and religious writings concerning divine LOGOS. And Greek LIGUS notices burning flames (also burning life principle was one central topic of Hellenistic Stoicism). We conclude this discussion noticing that the nowadays usual English word LONG is, indeed, common TEUTONIC word, and in old TEUTONIC appearing in forms LANGGO and LONGHO. Thus we, apparently, remind that the LONG word in Chinese denotes the dragon; this is well relevant for modern TEUTONIC comprehensions too, especially noticing the modern usual German noun SCHLANGE for snakes. (A small concluding notice: the chevalier St GEORGE and dragon- theme conceals the important idea, that previously, the horses of chevaliers were actually compared with dragons- thus: in certain sense, that St. George was himself riding on dragon, because horses of chevaliers were compared with dragons; this merely, as a small concluding notice here). Chinese word WOSHI notices room, living place. Apparent similar is Russian word ZIT, ZIVU noticing dwelling and sojourning. This is apparently important word. In Finnish language, word SAVU notices concretely smoke, and earlier, residence houses were named as SAVU because of the fireplace located in house for warming house (eastern Finnish area is SAVU-LAX). Thus it is notable that old Hebrew OZ notices generally strength, and especially strongly built places, even fortified strongholds and citadels. Similarly in Russian language, ZAMOK notices castles, and locks, thus secured and fortified places of inhabiting (also German castle word Schloss is similar with verb for locking, schliessen). It is thus notable that Turkish YASAMAK word generally notices to inhabit, and to dwell (and resembling Turkish word SOMINE notices fireplace). In Anglo-Saxon is WUNIAN for dwell and inhabit (cf. German wohnen and Wohnung) (see Skeat and Bosworth). Chinese word BIAOGE notices COUSIN. This appears really interesting in these comparisons. Finnish noun POIKA is usual noun for a son (male descendant). In Russian notices BOG word God; and generally notices BOGATYI rich and wealthy people; in Russian folklore is BOGATYR popular figure too. In Old Hebrew notices the PQD especially events of sexual intercourse, thus making fertile. In older societies, indeed, very essential richness was the ability of procreation. Also, Turkish language knows BITEK noticing fertile and GEBE noticing pregnant. Old Greek word BIOS and BIAIOS for life are very usual. These words are apparently really similar. (We remind also of BEN word for sons, in old Hebrew; and words bin and bint in Arabic; it is, indeed, notable to consider German sein verb: ich bin, du bist usw). Chinese word QUN is measure word for crowds and large groups. The word is similar with usual Finnish word KUNTA for smaller towns; and also apparently with German Gegend word for areas and districts. Important parallels in old Greek are GENOS and GENEA also for important groups; and GENNAOO; these manifest giving birth and groups of thus related people. (Russian KUTSA notices heaps and piles; and this more parallels Finnish KUTSU, KUTSUA, inviting people to gather together.) In old Hebrew is apparent parallel to QUN the KNS word that notices gathering, gathering together; and such is also Finnish word KANSA (folk); Hebrew KNESSET word is noun form of this KNS. Moreover, Turkish CUMU is noun for crowd, and people and CUMHUR is thus also, Turkish state is CUMHURIYET. Also Turkish DOGUM for birth has similarity especially with Greek GENOS and GENNAOO. Anglo-Saxon noun CYNN notices family and folk. FOR HISTORY IS ANGLO-SAXON it is REALLY NOTORIOUS THAT ANGLO-SAXON noun CYNREN NOTICES KINDRED PEOPLE, THE REN IS IN CHINESE USUAL WORD FOR PEOPLE. Think of this Anglo-Saxon noun CYNREN, and FAMOUS saying in old Anglo-Saxon EXETER BOOK, namely: CYNE MEN GECUNDE RICE (saying in part of EXETER BOOK, the Codex Exoniensis, nowadays known as “gnomic verses”, that attest more original Anglo-Saxon literature, not being translation of works into Anglo-Saxon. This, indeed, can state reference to eastern, or Chinese origin of those people who founded state). Chinese word SHAN notices mountain. In northern Finland there is located one high mountain and it is called SAANA, this word being the proper name of that mountain (noun VUORI is the usual Finnish noun for a mountain). Russian word VERSHINA notices the summit of a mountain, and this Russian VERSHINA and name SAANA apparently are similar with that Chinese SHAN word for mountains. Importantly, mountains are in regions steady geographical places of continuous duration in the region and being massive and visible and thus usually famous: thus their nomenclature has much important continuity during several generations and their nomenclature thus can steadily attest much from older cultural comprehensions too. In Turkish, we find AZMAN noticing something enormous and AZAMI is greatest. Notably similar Greek verb AUKSANOO notices growing; and in Hebrew is similar ZMH zamah for growing, and sprouting up. Old Anglo-Saxon WEAXAN notices growing, similar are Swedish VAXA and German WACHSEN and Wachstum (see Bosworth and Skeat). Thus we find notoriously also in TEUTONIC the usual word TO HANG; continuously in modern German the HANG and ABHANG notice the side of a mountain, the slope of mountain (German noun Berg is for mountains, but German Hang of SLOPE of a mountain is apparently similar with Chinese SHAN word for mountain- these German HANG and ABHANG apparently are similar with Chinese SHAN for mountain. We thus notice that the word HANG in English indeed is interesting old TEUTONIC word; old English knows forms heng and hangian, older German the hengen and old TEUTONIC form was HANGHAN. These show notable similarity with the Chinese SHAN word too. Chinese word SHU notices a tree and SHUMU is area of trees, forest. Apparently this word is notably similar with usual old Greek word KSULOS for a tree (and KSULINEE); also here, notable is the letter L appearing. Similar is also Turkish CUB for rods and sticks. Finnish language uses noun KUUSI specifically for spruce tree and the noun PUU is usual Finnish noun for trees, especially thinking spelling PSUU. Moreover, in Russian language the SOSNA notices pine trees. Russia and Finland are northern areas with severe winters, and conifer trees are in those regions thus more usual thriving, thus understandably we find such references to pine and spruce trees. So we find more interesting geographical details, because similar German word BUCHE notices there really thriving leafy beech tree. The usual English word BUSH also appears resembling; also this word is common TEUTONIC word (Swedish buske, German Busch and German Buche). These style of names yet in our times continuously manifest remembrances of older cultures and then usual practises. In Anglo-Saxon vocabulary notable are, also, SULH noticing a plough (sort of wooden instrument) and SCYLD word noticing shields (that often were made of tree). Chinese word CAO notices grass. Apparently similar is usual Finnish word AHO noticing lawns and grassy fields; and word KATO or SATO notices in Finnish results of harvest. Anglo-Saxon ACER notices sown land area (cf Swedish AKER word) and GAERS is word for pasture areas (older German word Aue is for meadows, although nowadays seldom heard). Russian word LUSHAIKA notices grassy areas, and Turkish CAYIR notices a pasture area (cf. Finnish SORJA, SOREA noticing plentiful and Finnish SARJA noticing a series). These words show remarkable similarity indeed; and in Old Hebrew word AHW, pronounced AHU, notices green areas. Certain styles of cultures were more active in pasturing liveforms, and this remarkable similarity of words thus is also historically important in regarding strata of developments of societies and activities. Chinese word HUA is usual for flowers. Flowers are known for their pleasant scents, and thus is here notable German RAUCH for smoke and scents, and the verb RAUCHEN to smoke and to give fumes and odours. Indeed, in Old Hebrew we find the REACH word for scents and aromas (Hebrew RUACH more being for wind breeze generally). Old Hebrew NHH also is word for scents and aromas, and also resembling that HUA word. Thus we also notice in Russian language the word DUHA for smells and scents, and BLAGOYHANIE notices good scents. And in Finnish language the usual noun HAJU notices various odours and scents. (An interesting linguistic detail is found in Old Hebrew, where the PRJ word notices usually fruits and produces of vegetation, and noun PRH is in Old Hebrew usual specifically for flowers; the H is thus interesting here in this discussion of HUA word). Chinese word HU notices river and lake. Apparently we can compare with German FLUSS word for rivers and streams (and German verb fliessen). And similar Finnish word UI (form of verb noticing to swim) is important for HU comparisons. (Such words in Finnish notice various river activities, the UI noticing swimming and UITTO noticing floating; also Chinese YU word for fish here is apparently recalled). Culturally it is also remarkably important that in Turkish language word CAY notices rivers, streams and brooks and such is also Turkish SU word). And word RUTSEI in Russian language notices streams; this Russian word appears especially near to German FLUSS when changes of L and R letter pronouncing is recognised. The rivers and streams were in older times major traffic connections and thus for those societies and their activities especially important; such similarity of river words thus is historically particularly important. (Similarity with usual Greek HUDOOR for water and water areas, also is notable). Chinese word HAI notices seas and oceans. Thus we notice WATER in English; especially because the water also notices larger places of waters, geographical places of waters. The WATER is common TEUTONIC word (German Wasser, Swedish vatten and English water and else); in old TEUTONIC were forms of WATAR and WAT usual. Amidst historic slight changes of pronouncing, also WHAI and WHAITH forms are apparently near, importantly for the HAI word comparisons. And in Finnish language the noun VATTA (dialect; formally, VATSA) notices human stomach that is, well known, also place of liquid containing too. We here also refer to the famous Old Greek THALASSA that specifically notices open seas, and this old Greek word indeed starts with the THA, also reminding of HAI word; in comparison esp with LAKKOS. (And in Turkish language notices the word YAGIS raining and snowing and is also connected with waters, although not apparent with seas). Chinese word KOU notices coast and havens. Similarity with English noun COAST (and its sound KOUST) is remarkable (cf also Swedish KUST for coast areas). In Turkish, KAYALIK notices islands, and noun KAYIK is for various boats. In southern Finnish coast, important harbour is city HAN-KO from old times. Noteworthy in Baltic area are, also old harbour Gdynia in great natural harbour place in north Poland, and Kaunas city, and lake KUDSKOE in eastern Estonia area. In German sailors dialect, is KOJE word for bunks or berths. And old Anglo-Saxon GRUND has many meanings, also noticing land and earth. Greek LAKKOS notices ponds and lakes, also such that are in havens. Chinese word NAO notices brain. Apparently similar is the Old Greek word NOUS for human comprehension and wisdom, and the famous old Greek noun GNOOSIS for knowledge (of usual Greek verb GIGNOOSKOO, to know). (Greek NAOS is, rather, noticing temples and shrines; places of ancient practises of culture and education). In Russian language are apparently similar the usual verbs ZNAT (to know) and YZNAT (to get to know). These prove remarkable similarities between these Chinese, Russian and Greek words. Discussions concerning knowing and knowing faculty attest remarkably developed abstract thinking in stages of progressing stages of ancient cultures, and thus these similarities are really important. In Finnish language is usual word NAKO but this word usually is more specific for faculty of seeing and observing; but Finnish NAKO words also prove certain developments of considerations of epistemology, such as usual NAHTAVASTI that states probably and also apparently, and NAETTEKOS that means do You comprehend that. And, in Old Hebrew there is the usual BINA word for understanding and faculty of understanding (with that, similar Turkish BEYIN notices brain) also this old Hebrew word shows interesting similarity with Chinese NAO word. (Also, it is here worth noticing that Russian NOS word notices a human NOSE; and in older Swedish is known NOS and older English NOSU; and German NASE and NAS. And in Russian, NOSIT verb notices to carry and to bear, and NOSITEL noun in Russian also notices bearers and a repository; these also are interesting amidst different cultural developments). Chinese word MEI notices every. This is remarkably similar with the ME pronoun in Finnish for WE, and Russian MYI pronoun for WE, thus we especially regard manifestation of every one of our group pronounced in these references to WE in Russian MYI and Finnish ME. (Interesting reference to own group is Turkish word MENSE noticing roots, and place of origins; and in Turkish the word KAMU notices more generally the people and the public). In old Greek language, we prompt recognise the usual word formations with META, that META noticing with, and together. Another detail in old Greek here particularly relevant is the usual MEN…DE that notices in Greek usual expression of alternatives. In old Greek the similar HEEMEN is pronoun for WE, and HUMEN is pronoun for plur.2. These similarities in pronouns in these languages is really interesting detail. (Compare with English WE, German wir and Swedish vi pronouns for plur.1). And it is also interesting that old Hebrew often write pl. 3 pronoun HEM to notice THEY. Such pronouns for WE especially manifest certain symbolic manifestation of THAT GROUP, the pronoun utters certain self comprehension of the group of speaker. Thus it appears remarkably interesting that pronouns for WE in Finnish, Russian and old Greek languages so apparently are similar with Chinese MEI word of every, these pronouns recognising every of us. Chinese word KU notices something bitter and KUCHU is word for misery and suffering. In Finnish language, we find numerous interesting comparisons in words KURJA (wretched), MYRKKY (poison), KYY (poisonous snake) and also KUSI. Remarkably similar there is also the Russian word GORKII that notices bitter; and Russian verb KURIT notices smoking, smoke often being bitter and irritating, and GUBIT notices to destroy. Turkish KOTU notices something bad and evil, and CURUK is something unworthy too, and GUS notices difficulties. German KUMMER are sorrows and problems, and kummern is that verb; and Anglo-Saxon CWYLMAN notices to afflict. In old Greek, thus are notable words OKSUS (word also for poisons and bitter), KAPNOS and KHUMOS. And in old Hebrew, NGY (nega) are various defects and negative qualities and damages. Similarities of such estimations and descriptions of qualities in these cultures, are indeed interesting cultural character. Chinese word SUAN notices something sour. Usual Finnish words SURU (sorrow) and SURKEA (wretched) also appear similar; and in Russian is SUROVYI word noticing grim and severe. In Turkish, CURUK notices something rotten and decayed; and Finnish language knows word SURMA for death generally, and for assassinations, severe and grim events. And common TEUTONIC is word SOUR, appearing in older English SUR and older German SYR; although the etymological origination of this SOUR word is regarded unclear. Comparison with Chinese SUAN appear important. Chinese word TIAN notices sweet. Such is positive description, and it is worth regarding English EAT (IIT) word; this is common TEUTONIC word; and older English wrote in ETAN forms; in TEUTONIC are various ETA forms usual, found in Swedish ATA verb; the Older TEUTONIC form was ETAN. In Anglo-Saxon is ETAN to eat, and ETTAN word is to graze. Turkish TATLI word is for sweet. Also old Hebrew knows of TYM describing something tasty. Chinese word CHUANTONG notices tradition. Finnish language knows similar word KANTO for stump of a tree, and word KIANTO, and word KANTO-LA noticing such larger place. In Turkish, similar COKUNTU word notices wreckages. Notably, in old Hebrew the ZQN ziqne word notices more generally something or someone old and of old age. And in old Greek, the similar word ANTHOS rather, however, notices new buds and new growths. Chinese word DONGSI notices thing. Comparisons of this word involve many difficulties; but the following remarks here can be presented. Stated some more abstract, a thing is a something (Ding an sich); and a thing is something when it appears to others (Erscheinung); but here we avoid too difficult remarks and keep these comparisons simple and straightforward. Especially, no remark is here made concerning epistemic nuances of that Chinese word. We notice that DONGSI word appears similar with famous Greek DOKSA word (in epistemology well defined, noticing appearances and epistemic situation of mere DOKSAZEIN). At least, visual appearance of some-thing is here notable. And in Turkish, word DUS notices dreams and appearances, and TASAVVUR notices imaginations and plans. But in Russian language, word DEISTVIE notices effects and acts. These apparently are apprehensions of some-thing, although slightly differently, apprehensions of effects and acts, or apprehensions of its appearance and apparition (Erscheinung). For the second, Chinese DONGSI is similar with the word THIS. The word THIS is importantly, common TEUTONIC word (THIS, DAS, DIESE, and others) and in old TEUTONIC in forms of DESSE, DESSI. And such older TEUTONIC words notably are similar with such Chinese DONGSI statements. And in Finnish, we find similar word TOSI; and that Finnish word means true and genuine (and more abstract, truth of claims and propositions). (We here make also important remark of history of usual English word THING. This is also one common TEUTONIC word, but the older form is TING in TEUTONIC; and TING was assembly and public council for judicial and deliberative purposes; in TEUTONIC culture the word thus has those quite particular and specific connotations. Ancient Icelandic TINGVILLITH place of millennium old Icelandic parliamentary gatherings, and Norwegian LAG-TING parliament, continuously attest these meanings; and modern German word das Ding has meanings noticing affairs and various matters, also thus belonging to such judicial and communal fields of meaning. This remark was made for the particular help for English speakers when they may consider comparisons with word THING and its older forms and older uses). Chinese word WEN notices to ask questions and inquiries and WENG notices an old man. Similar meaning is found in Finnish word VENTO, there is word VENTO-VIERAS noticing someone unknown and complete stranger. Somewhat similar Swedish word VAN notices also someone else, especially some friend (also noticing verb VANTA in Swedish). In Russian, is similar word VAPROS. Anglo-Saxon WENAN notices to think, hope and expect. Turkish VEHM is for illusions and conjectures; and VEHMET is to have illusion or to make conjectures. Turkish GUVENC notices trust and reliance. These are important words of making inquiries and words related to trust and reliability. Especially important notice is that usual interrogatives in German language are resembling also; interrogatives wer, was, wie, wann, wieso, warum in usual German language (wen sahen Sie?) Many interrogatives in TEUTONIC languages also are much resembling, thus also English who, what, when, why words, and also Swedish forms vem, vad, varfor and others. We thus make important comparison when we recognise that Chinese word WEN notices problems, inquiries and asking questions. It is also of importance that old Hebrew word YNN (pronounced sounds quite similar with that Chinese word WEN) specifically notices making oracle inquiries, and inquiries with prophesies, and thus finding answers (Hebrew YNH is more usual for answers). It is thus remarkably important that such words in this vast region consequently notice making inquiries and uttering questions. It is thus notable that really famous sage of Finnish mythology is VEN-MO or VAINAMOINEN of much wisdom and oracles. Chinese word WAI notices otherness, being out, foreign countries and such meanings. Notably, in Finnish the word VAI is word OR (questioning THIS OR THAT, and similar); and Finnish VAIKKA word also notices otherness, noticing even if. In modern Finnish the VAI-NAJA notices deceased person, a profound otherness too. And considering Finnish geography, there is interesting detail that large VANAJA lake effectively establishes division between western coastal region of Finland, and areas east of that lake VANAJA. For Finnish language there is the important detail that wife is in Finnish called VAI-MO; also in this word we can hear notice of the Other. Such language uses attest old historical continuity and thus are of remarkable importance, making comparisons with the usual Chinese WAI word. Russian VYI is pronoun for pl.2. Turkish GAYR notices another person or thing, and GAYRI is word for other than (cf also Greek KAI word). In Anglo-Saxon, HWA has many meanings, noticing anyone, who and what (see Bosworth). In Old Hebrew, really usual is the W (the WAW) with numerous many meanings in sentences (and, demonstrative, consecutive and many other meanings). Also in old Hebrew we may refer to AWON word and AWWA word that often are rendered to notice transgressions and distortion; also such old Hebrew words thus clearly notice situation being something OTHER that what was hoped for, or intended. Chinese WEI word is also usual, noticing someone. Similar word is also in Finnish found, VEIKKO and VEIJO that notice someone (these words are in Finnish nouns, and also names of individual males); and much resembling Turkish BEY notices Sir, and some gentleman. Almost similar Finnish noun VELI notices brother; and similar words with that are Russian VELIKI noticing grand and great; and Turkish VELI word that notices parents and guardians. (This is one manifestation of appearance of L sound in western vocabulary). Of much interest appears comparing this Chinese WEI with, apparently, English WE pronoun. Importantly, WE pronoun is word common in TEUTONIC languages (German wir, Swedish vi being pronouns of plur.1). Being oft used words, these words have very numerous historical forms and complicated developments; but in main lines, such pronouns are seen to go back to forms WEIS and WEI forms (the OXF English Dictionary Vol XX art “we” finds WEI being the INDOGRMANIC root). Anglo-Saxon knows noun WINE for friends. Also it is notable that VYI in Russian language is pl.2. pronoun for You. Comparing such old developments of those WE pronouns, with usual Chinese WEI words, thus, appear of much importance. (Already before, here was Chinese MEI word compared with plural 1 pronoun of Finnish, Russian and Greek parlance). Chinese SHENG word notices body. Remarkably similar word is found in Finnish language, word HENKI that notices a living human being. This Finnish HENKI word appears in many formations, meanings including breath and breathing, individual human; and similar. This is indeed one remarkable similarity between Chinese and Finnish languages. Notably, Old Greek GENNAOO notices to give birth, notoriously similar also is Anglo-Saxon CENNAN to give birth (see Bosworth). Russian word ZHENA is word for female humans. Furthermore, in old Greek language is usual word KSENOS that notices human beings, although usually noticing someone not so well known. Turkish CENE word more specific notices a chin, and jaw and CESET is word for body (this Turkish form also reminds of old Hebrew SEN word for tooth, and some bodily bone parts; here we find interesting difference because Finnish HENKI and its forms designate human being with regard to breath, but not with regard to bones). In old Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, also notable here appear HOGIAN noticing to think and HYCGAN think (see Boswell). It is also an interesting detail that famous leaders Hengist and Horsa, feature important in earliest stages of doings of Anglo-Saxons in Britain. Chinese YING notices to win. Modern English verb to WIN is apparently similar; and in old Anglo-Saxon is GEWINNAN usual (see Bosworth). This is well known TEUTONIC word, namely, Swedish vinna and German winnen. Notably, Turkish yenmek, to win, is also similar, and also Russian VYI-IGRAT notices to win. These words notice win, to win context, prevail victorious. Thus it is interesting that Finnish language knows word UKKO. This word has many meanings, designating men, usually in positive sense. Historically, UKKO was in Finnish folklore important weather deity and that also reflects meanings of YING noticing winners. Indeed, Chinese YING word also notices much talented persons, winners. From that meaning continuously is in Finnish language UKKO-NEN designating thundering. Usual Finnish word YKKO-NEN also designates the number one and winners; these sayings are actually well comparable with uses of Chinese YING that notice winning (and in Chinese language is YI numeral for one. Chinese word SHOU is measure word for poems, and passages of texts. Such words appear to designate educated literates in many parlances in many languages. We really should remember that in older times, literacy was actually quite rare and thus earned specific titles too. This word notices similarity with Russian STIHH word for poetry and also with Russian verb PISAT to write. It appears important to compare this SHOU word also with very usual old Hebrew word HAZA or HAZON for observing, and observations; in Jewish congregations are CHAZZANS, at least, literate cantors, and in older times, also something else too; also they are competent in literacy. Finnish verb KATSO notices seeing and looking at. (And in Turkish, also similar word GOZCU notices observers and watchmen). Old Greek SKO-PEIN and SKO-POS and SKO-PIA are words for observing and viewing. Thus we also regard usual English word SHOW that appears indeed remarkably similar with the Chinese SHOU word. Importantly, the English SHOW word is common TEUTONIC word (German schauen and Schau, Swedish syn and syna and others), and in older times this also meant to look at; and old TEUTONIC root is SKAU. BUT NOW HERE WE NOTICE that indeed, such old TEUTONIC form SKAU is notoriously similar with that Chinese SHOU word. Chinese word LIANG notices a pair, number two, and also notices wheeled vehicles. Notably similar is Finnish word LIIKE and LIIKU noticing moving forwards, and proceeding. Similarity with numeral two is echoed in Finnish LIIKA (is there too much?); also name LIIKA-NEN is of some Finns. Importantly similar appear the famous old Hebrew word for walking and movements, is the HLK or HALAKH. Old Greek verb ERKHOMAI is usual word for coming and going; and for people confusing L and R pronouncing, such usual ERKHOMAI easily become ELKHOMAI, and thus is HLK movement also in this usual old Greek verb easily found! In Russia, we also recognise usual names OLGA and OLEG; and also famous stream VOLGA has name really resembling. LIANG and LIIKE and LIIKU and HALAKH and OLGA and OLEG and VOLGA and ELKHOMAI. And thus appear important comparison the usual English WALK verb. Also such words are in TEUTONIC languages usual; and in old TEUTONIC was usual root WALK that, although older etymology of that WALK root appears with questions. BUT NOW HERE WE NOTICE also in this case, apparently, we do cleverly when we compare with Chinese LIANG movement words. One special notice concerning NUMERALS. We can easily detect remarkable similarity of numerals in Chinese, Russian, German and Finnish languages (considering numerals from one to ten, noticing our decimal mathematics). Importantly, numeracy is actually very educated activity, result of very abstract thinking and numeracy was especially important amongst groups doing commerce and trade, and amongst levels of society organising. Comparing numerals, we thus recognise terms special to specially educated groups of society and thus we learn more evidence from unity of such cultural groups. Numerals are also important evidence for counting for ancient calendar, counting of times and time periods. Thus we list the following details of numbers in order listing Chinese-Russian-German-Finnish numerals, approximately how those sound: YI-ADIIN-EIINZ-YIIKSI (number one CRGF); LIANG-DVAA-ZWAA-KAAXI (number two CRGF); SII-TSIITIR-FIIR (number four CRG); WUU-WUUNF-VIISI (five CGF); LIU-KUUSI (number six where Chinese and Finnish are nearer); QII-SIIM-SIIBEN-SIITSEMA (seven; close similarity of all especially here IS notorious and may also notice calendrical questions to for counting of time periods); BAA-VAASIIM-AACT-KAAHDEXA (eight CRGF); QIU-NUUI-UUHDEXA (CGF nine; it IS notable that German numeral neun is in German language similar with neu, neues, New); SHII-DESHIIT-ZHIIN-KSIIMME (ten CRGF). Thus linguistically evidenced clear similarities of counting systems ARE important in regarding questions what sort of society organisation was realising organised society in these large areas. We can now here present important CONCLUSION: notoriously many common TEUTONIC words appear to have very close parallel in usual Chinese words; apparently, notoriously many common TEUTONIC words appear to be historically cultural developments from Chinese! Many TEUTONIC words are in western areas continuously living continuations of earlier much from Chinese culture informed cultural forms and words. Regarding the earlier history of this large continent, this result appears have very understandable motivations in relatively recent larger arrivals from eastern Asia regions toward Europe. Even a millennium of history involves in human society only small number of generations of people, so that language developments do show quite much stability even over time period of millennium. In TEUTONIC cultures, we are thus apparently surprisingly much using words and cultural concepts based on Chinese language and culture! It is just important to really recognise this remarkable cultural reality, that much of Chinese language and cultural words actually are well living in modern TEUTONIC languages! And the somewhat archaic Finnish language in notoriously many words, appears actually being sort of dialect of Chinese language. HERE IS THIS STUDY CONCLUDED. BIBLIOGRAPHY: BDB, is the Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (from William GESENIUS Lexicon), standard work in Old Hebrew. References to Anglo-Saxon writings, in editions by EETS, Early English Text Society. Joseph BOSWORTH and T. TOLLER, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (Clarendon Press 1898). W. W. SKEAT An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language (New Revised Ed of 1909, Clarendon Press). FICK, INDO-GERMAN WORTERBUCH. Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen von August FICK (4. Auflage. Vandenhoecht & Ruprecht 1909. Gottingen). Besonders, III Teil, Wortschatz der Germanischen Spracheinheit von Hjalmar FALK. CLOBAR SINONIMOV RUSSKOVO JZYKA. by S. E. ALEKSANDROVA, and L. A. TSESKO. 4 th edition. IZDATELSTVO RUSSKI JIZYK, 1975.

NEW LEXICON COMPARING EUROPEAN AND ASIAN LANGUAGES: EURASIAN WORDS

NEW NEW Sept 27 2017 NOW IS HERE AVAILABLE NEW EXTENDED AND IMPROVED LEXICON COMPARING WORDS OF EUROPE AND ASIA! This shows much similarities between Chinese words, and words in major Eurasian languages Russian, Finnish and Teutonic languages! Especially much similarities are found Chinese words with older Anglo-Saxon and old German words (that brings the evidence back thousand years, or one millennium and a half, or more). THIS IS STRONGLY PROCEEDING PROJECT, soon coming much more detailed comparisons of specific vocabulary in old English Gospel translations, also those of Northumbrian and Lindisfarne, comparing with such Asian vocabulary; and also some other Anglo-Saxon texts so compared. WORDS OF EURASIA!!!! TOP NEWS OF Sept 27, 2017 AND PROJECT IS STRONG PROGRESSING!!
A NEW LEXICON COMPARING WORDS OF EUROPE AND ASIA by Pasi K Pohjala 2nd ed 27Sept2017 Chinese word SUAN notices something sour. Usual Finnish words SURU (sorrow) and SURKEA (wretched) also appear similar; and in Russian is SUROVYI word noticing grim and severe. In Turkish, CURUK notices something rotten and decayed; and Finnish language knows word SURMA for death generally, and for assassinations, severe and grim events. And common TEUTONIC is word SOUR, appearing in older English SUR and older German SYR; although the etymological origination of this SOUR word is regarded unclear. Comparison with Chinese SUAN appear important. Chinese word TIAN notices sweet. Such is positive description, and it is worth regarding English EAT (IIT) word; this is common TEUTONIC word; and older English wrote in ETAN forms; in TEUTONIC are various ETA forms usual, found in Swedish ATA verb; the Older TEUTONIC form was ETAN. In Anglo-Saxon is ETAN to eat, and ETTAN word is to graze. Turkish TATLI word is for sweet. Also old Hebrew knows of TYM describing something tasty. Chinese word CHUANTONG notices tradition. Finnish language knows similar word KANTO for stump of a tree, and word KIANTO, and word KANTO-LA noticing such larger place. In Turkish, similar COKUNTU word notices wreckages. Notably, in old Hebrew the ZQN ziqne word notices more generally something or someone old and of old age. And in old Greek, the similar word ANTHOS rather, however, notices new buds and new growths. Chinese word DONGSI notices thing. Comparisons of this word involve many difficulties; but the following remarks here can be presented. Stated some more abstract, a thing is a something (Ding an sich); and a thing is something when it appears to others (Erscheinung); but here we avoid too difficult remarks and keep these comparisons simple and straightforward. Especially, no remark is here made concerning epistemic nuances of that Chinese word. We notice that DONGSI word appears similar with famous Greek DOKSA word (in epistemology well defined, noticing appearances and epistemic situation of mere DOKSAZEIN). At least, visual appearance of some-thing is here notable. And in Turkish, word DUS notices dreams and appearances, and TASAVVUR notices imaginations and plans. But in Russian language, word DEISTVIE notices effects and acts. These apparently are apprehensions of some-thing, although slightly differently, apprehensions of effects and acts, or apprehensions of its appearance and apparition (Erscheinung). For the second, Chinese DONGSI is similar with the word THIS. The word THIS is importantly, common TEUTONIC word (THIS, DAS, DIESE, and others) and in old TEUTONIC in forms of DESSE, DESSI. And such older TEUTONIC words notably are similar with such Chinese DONGSI statements. And in Finnish, we find similar word TOSI; and that Finnish word means true and genuine (and more abstract, truth of claims and propositions). (We here make also important remark of history of usual English word THING. This is also one common TEUTONIC word, but the older form is TING in TEUTONIC; and TING was assembly and public council for judicial and deliberative purposes; in TEUTONIC culture the word thus has those quite particular and specific connotations. Ancient Icelandic TINGVILLITH place of millennium old Icelandic parliamentary gatherings, and Norwegian LAG-TING parliament, continuously attest these meanings; and modern German word das Ding has meanings noticing affairs and various matters, also thus belonging to such judicial and communal fields of meaning. This remark was made for the particular help for English speakers when they may consider comparisons with word THING and its older forms and older uses). Chinese word WEN notices to ask questions and inquiries and WENG notices an old man. Similar meaning is found in Finnish word VENTO, there is word VENTO-VIERAS noticing someone unknown and complete stranger. Somewhat similar Swedish word VAN notices also someone else, especially some friend (also noticing verb VANTA in Swedish). In Russian, is similar word VAPROS. Anglo-Saxon WENAN notices to think, hope and expect. Turkish VEHM is for illusions and conjectures; and VEHMET is to have illusion or to make conjectures. Turkish GUVENC notices trust and reliance. These are important words of making inquiries and words related to trust and reliability. Especially important notice is that usual interrogatives in German language are resembling also; interrogatives wer, was, wie, wann, wieso, warum in usual German language (wen sahen Sie?) Many interrogatives in TEUTONIC languages also are much resembling, thus also English who, what, when, why words, and also Swedish forms vem, vad, varfor and others. We thus make important comparison when we recognise that Chinese word WEN notices problems, inquiries and asking questions. It is also of importance that old Hebrew word YNN (pronounced sounds quite similar with that Chinese word WEN) specifically notices making oracle inquiries, and inquiries with prophesies, and thus finding answers (Hebrew YNH is more usual for answers). It is thus remarkably important that such words in this vast region consequently notice making inquiries and uttering questions. It is thus notable that really famous sage of Finnish mythology is VEN-MO or VAINAMOINEN of much wisdom and oracles. Chinese word WAI notices otherness, being out, foreign countries and such meanings. Notably, in Finnish the word VAI is word OR (questioning THIS OR THAT, and similar); and Finnish VAIKKA word also notices otherness, noticing even if. In modern Finnish the VAI-NAJA notices deceased person, a profound otherness too. And considering Finnish geography, there is interesting detail that large VANAJA lake effectively establishes division between western coastal region of Finland, and areas east of that lake VANAJA. For Finnish language there is the important detail that wife is in Finnish called VAI-MO; also in this word we can hear notice of the Other. Such language uses attest old historical continuity and thus are of remarkable importance, making comparisons with the usual Chinese WAI word. Russian VYI is pronoun for pl.2. Turkish GAYR notices another person or thing, and GAYRI is word for other than (cf also Greek KAI word). In Anglo-Saxon, HWA has many meanings, noticing anyone, who and what (see Bosworth). In Old Hebrew, really usual is the W (the WAW) with numerous many meanings in sentences (and, demonstrative, consecutive and many other meanings). Also in old Hebrew we may refer to AWON word and AWWA word that often are rendered to notice transgressions and distortion; also such old Hebrew words thus clearly notice situation being something OTHER that what was hoped for, or intended. Chinese WEI word is also usual, noticing someone. Similar word is also in Finnish found, VEIKKO and VEIJO that notice someone (these words are in Finnish nouns, and also names of individual males); and much resembling Turkish BEY notices Sir, and some gentleman. Almost similar Finnish noun VELI notices brother; and similar words with that are Russian VELIKI noticing grand and great; and Turkish VELI word that notices parents and guardians. (This is one manifestation of appearance of L sound in western vocabulary). Of much interest appears comparing this Chinese WEI with, apparently, English WE pronoun. Importantly, WE pronoun is word common in TEUTONIC languages (German wir, Swedish vi being pronouns of plur.1). Being oft used words, these words have very numerous historical forms and complicated developments; but in main lines, such pronouns are seen to go back to forms WEIS and WEI forms (the OXF English Dictionary Vol XX art “we” finds WEI being the INDOGRMANIC root). Anglo-Saxon knows noun WINE for friends. Also it is notable that VYI in Russian language is pl.2. pronoun for You. Comparing such old developments of those WE pronouns, with usual Chinese WEI words, thus, appear of much importance. (Already before, here was Chinese MEI word compared with plural 1 pronoun of Finnish, Russian and Greek parlance). Chinese SHENG word notices body. Remarkably similar word is found in Finnish language, word HENKI that notices a living human being. This Finnish HENKI word appears in many formations, meanings including breath and breathing, individual human; and similar. This is indeed one remarkable similarity between Chinese and Finnish languages. Notably, Old Greek GENNAOO notices to give birth, notoriously similar also is Anglo-Saxon CENNAN to give birth (see Bosworth). Russian word ZHENA is word for female humans. Furthermore, in old Greek language is usual word KSENOS that notices human beings, although usually noticing someone not so well known. Turkish CENE word more specific notices a chin, and jaw and CESET is word for body (this Turkish form also reminds of old Hebrew SEN word for tooth, and some bodily bone parts; here we find interesting difference because Finnish HENKI and its forms designate human being with regard to breath, but not with regard to bones). In old Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, also notable here appear HOGIAN noticing to think and HYCGAN think (see Boswell). It is also an interesting detail that famous leaders Hengist and Horsa, feature important in earliest stages of doings of Anglo-Saxons in Britain. Chinese YING notices to win. Modern English verb to WIN is apparently similar; and in old Anglo-Saxon is GEWINNAN usual (see Bosworth). This is well known TEUTONIC word, namely, Swedish vinna and German winnen. Notably, Turkish yenmek, to win, is also similar, and also Russian VYI-IGRAT notices to win. These words notice win, to win context, prevail victorious. Thus it is interesting that Finnish language knows word UKKO. This word has many meanings, designating men, usually in positive sense. Historically, UKKO was in Finnish folklore important weather deity and that also reflects meanings of YING noticing winners. Indeed, Chinese YING word also notices much talented persons, winners. From that meaning continuously is in Finnish language UKKO-NEN designating thundering. Usual Finnish word YKKO-NEN also designates the number one and winners; these sayings are actually well comparable with uses of Chinese YING that notice winning (and in Chinese language is YI numeral for one. Chinese word SHOU is measure word for poems, and passages of texts. Such words appear to designate educated literates in many parlances in many languages. We really should remember that in older times, literacy was actually quite rare and thus earned specific titles too. This word notices similarity with Russian STIHH word for poetry and also with Russian verb PISAT to write. It appears important to compare this SHOU word also with very usual old Hebrew word HAZA or HAZON for observing, and observations; in Jewish congregations are CHAZZANS, at least, literate cantors, and in older times, also something else too; also they are competent in literacy. Finnish verb KATSO notices seeing and looking at. (And in Turkish, also similar word GOZCU notices observers and watchmen). Old Greek SKO-PEIN and SKO-POS and SKO-PIA are words for observing and viewing. Thus we also regard usual English word SHOW that appears indeed remarkably similar with the Chinese SHOU word. Importantly, the English SHOW word is common TEUTONIC word (German schauen and Schau, Swedish syn and syna and others), and in older times this also meant to look at; and old TEUTONIC root is SKAU. BUT NOW HERE WE NOTICE that indeed, such old TEUTONIC form SKAU is notoriously similar with that Chinese SHOU word. Chinese word LIANG notices a pair, number two, and also notices wheeled vehicles. Notably similar is Finnish word LIIKE and LIIKU noticing moving forwards, and proceeding. Similarity with numeral two is echoed in Finnish LIIKA (is there too much?); also name LIIKA-NEN is of some Finns. Importantly similar appear the famous old Hebrew word for walking and movements, is the HLK or HALAKH. Old Greek verb ERKHOMAI is usual word for coming and going; and for people confusing L and R pronouncing, such usual ERKHOMAI easily become ELKHOMAI, and thus is HLK movement also in this usual old Greek verb easily found! In Russia, we also recognise usual names OLGA and OLEG; and also famous stream VOLGA has name really resembling. LIANG and LIIKE and LIIKU and HALAKH and OLGA and OLEG and VOLGA and ELKHOMAI. And thus appear important comparison the usual English WALK verb. Also such words are in TEUTONIC languages usual; and in old TEUTONIC was usual root WALK that, although older etymology of that WALK root appears with questions. BUT NOW HERE WE NOTICE also in this case, apparently, we do cleverly when we compare with Chinese LIANG movement words. One special notice concerning NUMERALS. We can easily detect remarkable similarity of numerals in Chinese, Russian, German and Finnish languages (considering numerals from one to ten, noticing our decimal mathematics). Importantly, numeracy is actually very educated activity, result of very abstract thinking and numeracy was especially important amongst groups doing commerce and trade, and amongst levels of society organising. Comparing numerals, we thus recognise terms special to specially educated groups of society and thus we learn more evidence from unity of such cultural groups. Numerals are also important evidence for counting for ancient calendar, counting of times and time periods. Thus we list the following details of numbers in order listing Chinese-Russian-German-Finnish numerals, approximately how those sound: YI-ADIIN-EIINZ-YIIKSI (number one CRGF); LIANG-DVAA-ZWAA-KAAXI (number two CRGF); SII-TSIITIR-FIIR (number four CRG); WUU-WUUNF-VIISI (five CGF); LIU-KUUSI (number six where Chinese and Finnish are nearer); QII-SIIM-SIIBEN-SIITSEMA (seven; close similarity of all especially here IS notorious and may also notice calendrical questions to for counting of time periods); BAA-VAASIIM-AACT-KAAHDEXA (eight CRGF); QIU-NUUI-UUHDEXA (CGF nine; it IS notable that German numeral neun is in German language similar with neu, neues, New); SHII-DESHIIT-ZHIIN-KSIIMME (ten CRGF). Thus linguistically evidenced clear similarities of counting systems ARE important in regarding questions what sort of society organisation was realising organised society in these large areas. We can now here present important CONCLUSION: notoriously many common TEUTONIC words appear to have very close parallel in usual Chinese words; apparently, notoriously many common TEUTONIC words appear to be historically cultural developments from Chinese! Many TEUTONIC words are in western areas continuously living continuations of earlier much from Chinese culture informed cultural forms and words. Regarding the earlier history of this large continent, this result appears have very understandable motivations in relatively recent larger arrivals from eastern Asia regions toward Europe. Even a millennium of history involves in human society only small number of generations of people, so that language developments do show quite much stability even over time period of millennium. In TEUTONIC cultures, we are thus apparently surprisingly much using words and cultural concepts based on Chinese language and culture! It is just important to really recognise this remarkable cultural reality, that much of Chinese language and cultural words actually are well living in modern TEUTONIC languages! And the somewhat archaic Finnish language in notoriously many words, appears actually being sort of dialect of Chinese language. HERE IS THIS STUDY CONCLUDED. BIBLIOGRAPHY: BDB, is the Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (from William GESENIUS Lexicon), standard work in Old Hebrew. References to Anglo-Saxon writings, in editions by EETS, Early English Text Society. Joseph BOSWORTH and T. TOLLER, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (Clarendon Press 1898). W. W. SKEAT An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language (New Revised Ed of 1909, Clarendon Press). FICK, INDO-GERMAN WORTERBUCH. Vergleichendes Worterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen von August FICK (4. Auflage. Vandenhoecht & Ruprecht 1909. Gottingen). Besonders, III Teil, Wortschatz der Germanischen Spracheinheit von Hjalmar FALK. CLOBAR SINONIMOV RUSSKOVO JZYKA. by S. E. ALEKSANDROVA, and L. A. TSESKO. 4 th edition. IZDATELSTVO RUSSKI JIZYK, 1975.
A LEXICON COMPARING WORDS OF EUROPE AND ASIA by Pasi K Pohjala 2nd ed 27Sept2017 Chinese word QUN is measure word for crowds and large groups. The word is similar with usual Finnish word KUNTA for smaller towns; and also apparently with German Gegend word for areas and districts. Important parallels in old Greek are GENOS and GENEA also for important groups; and GENNAOO; these manifest giving birth and groups of thus related people. (Russian KUTSA notices heaps and piles; and this more parallels Finnish KUTSU, KUTSUA, inviting people to gather together.) In old Hebrew is apparent parallel to QUN the KNS word that notices gathering, gathering together; and such is also Finnish word KANSA (folk); Hebrew KNESSET word is noun form of this KNS. Moreover, Turkish CUMU is noun for crowd, and people and CUMHUR is thus also, Turkish state is CUMHURIYET. Also Turkish DOGUM for birth has similarity especially with Greek GENOS and GENNAOO. Anglo-Saxon noun CYNN notices family and folk. FOR HISTORY IS ANGLO-SAXON it is REALLY NOTORIOUS THAT ANGLO-SAXON noun CYNREN NOTICES KINDRED PEOPLE, THE REN IS IN CHINESE USUAL WORD FOR PEOPLE. Think of this Anglo-Saxon noun CYNREN, and FAMOUS saying in old Anglo-Saxon EXETER BOOK, namely: CYNE MEN GECUNDE RICE (saying in part of EXETER BOOK, the Codex Exoniensis, nowadays known as “gnomic verses”, that attest more original Anglo-Saxon literature, not being translation of works into Anglo-Saxon. This, indeed, can state reference to eastern, or Chinese origin of those people who founded state). Chinese word SHAN notices mountain. In northern Finland there is located one high mountain and it is called SAANA, this word being the proper name of that mountain (noun VUORI is the usual Finnish noun for a mountain). Russian word VERSHINA notices the summit of a mountain, and this Russian VERSHINA and name SAANA apparently are similar with that Chinese SHAN word for mountains. Importantly, mountains are in regions steady geographical places of continuous duration in the region and being massive and visible and thus usually famous: thus their nomenclature has much important continuity during several generations and their nomenclature thus can steadily attest much from older cultural comprehensions too. In Turkish, we find AZMAN noticing something enormous and AZAMI is greatest. Notably similar Greek verb AUKSANOO notices growing; and in Hebrew is similar ZMH zamah for growing, and sprouting up. Old Anglo-Saxon WEAXAN notices growing, similar are Swedish VAXA and German WACHSEN and Wachstum (see Bosworth and Skeat). Thus we find notoriously also in TEUTONIC the usual word TO HANG; continuously in modern German the HANG and ABHANG notice the side of a mountain, the slope of mountain (German noun Berg is for mountains, but German Hang of SLOPE of a mountain is apparently similar with Chinese SHAN word for mountain- these German HANG and ABHANG apparently are similar with Chinese SHAN for mountain. We thus notice that the word HANG in English indeed is interesting old TEUTONIC word; old English knows forms heng and hangian, older German the hengen and old TEUTONIC form was HANGHAN. These show notable similarity with the Chinese SHAN word too. Chinese word SHU notices a tree and SHUMU is area of trees, forest. Apparently this word is notably similar with usual old Greek word KSULOS for a tree (and KSULINEE); also here, notable is the letter L appearing. Similar is also Turkish CUB for rods and sticks. Finnish language uses noun KUUSI specifically for spruce tree and the noun PUU is usual Finnish noun for trees, especially thinking spelling PSUU. Moreover, in Russian language the SOSNA notices pine trees. Russia and Finland are northern areas with severe winters, and conifer trees are in those regions thus more usual thriving, thus understandably we find such references to pine and spruce trees. So we find more interesting geographical details, because similar German word BUCHE notices there really thriving leafy beech tree. The usual English word BUSH also appears resembling; also this word is common TEUTONIC word (Swedish buske, German Busch and German Buche). These style of names yet in our times continuously manifest remembrances of older cultures and then usual practises. In Anglo-Saxon vocabulary notable are, also, SULH noticing a plough (sort of wooden instrument) and SCYLD word noticing shields (that often were made of tree). Chinese word CAO notices grass. Apparently similar is usual Finnish word AHO noticing lawns and grassy fields; and word KATO or SATO notices in Finnish results of harvest. Anglo-Saxon ACER notices sown land area (cf Swedish AKER word) and GAERS is word for pasture areas (older German word Aue is for meadows, although nowadays seldom heard). Russian word LUSHAIKA notices grassy areas, and Turkish CAYIR notices a pasture area (cf. Finnish SORJA, SOREA noticing plentiful and Finnish SARJA noticing a series). These words show remarkable similarity indeed; and in Old Hebrew word AHW, pronounced AHU, notices green areas. Certain styles of cultures were more active in pasturing liveforms, and this remarkable similarity of words thus is also historically important in regarding strata of developments of societies and activities. Chinese word HUA is usual for flowers. Flowers are known for their pleasant scents, and thus is here notable German RAUCH for smoke and scents, and the verb RAUCHEN to smoke and to give fumes and odours. Indeed, in Old Hebrew we find the REACH word for scents and aromas (Hebrew RUACH more being for wind breeze generally). Old Hebrew NHH also is word for scents and aromas, and also resembling that HUA word. Thus we also notice in Russian language the word DUHA for smells and scents, and BLAGOYHANIE notices good scents. And in Finnish language the usual noun HAJU notices various odours and scents. (An interesting linguistic detail is found in Old Hebrew, where the PRJ word notices usually fruits and produces of vegetation, and noun PRH is in Old Hebrew usual specifically for flowers; the H is thus interesting here in this discussion of HUA word). Chinese word HU notices river and lake. Apparently we can compare with German FLUSS word for rivers and streams (and German verb fliessen). And similar Finnish word UI (form of verb noticing to swim) is important for HU comparisons. (Such words in Finnish notice various river activities, the UI noticing swimming and UITTO noticing floating; also Chinese YU word for fish here is apparently recalled). Culturally it is also remarkably important that in Turkish language word CAY notices rivers, streams and brooks and such is also Turkish SU word). And word RUTSEI in Russian language notices streams; this Russian word appears especially near to German FLUSS when changes of L and R letter pronouncing is recognised. The rivers and streams were in older times major traffic connections and thus for those societies and their activities especially important; such similarity of river words thus is historically particularly important. (Similarity with usual Greek HUDOOR for water and water areas, also is notable). Chinese word HAI notices seas and oceans. Thus we notice WATER in English; especially because the water also notices larger places of waters, geographical places of waters. The WATER is common TEUTONIC word (German Wasser, Swedish vatten and English water and else); in old TEUTONIC were forms of WATAR and WAT usual. Amidst historic slight changes of pronouncing, also WHAI and WHAITH forms are apparently near, importantly for the HAI word comparisons. And in Finnish language the noun VATTA (dialect; formally, VATSA) notices human stomach that is, well known, also place of liquid containing too. We here also refer to the famous Old Greek THALASSA that specifically notices open seas, and this old Greek word indeed starts with the THA, also reminding of HAI word; in comparison esp with LAKKOS. (And in Turkish language notices the word YAGIS raining and snowing and is also connected with waters, although not apparent with seas). Chinese word KOU notices coast and havens. Similarity with English noun COAST (and its sound KOUST) is remarkable (cf also Swedish KUST for coast areas). In Turkish, KAYALIK notices islands, and noun KAYIK is for various boats. In southern Finnish coast, important harbour is city HAN-KO from old times. Noteworthy in Baltic area are, also old harbour Gdynia in great natural harbour place in north Poland, and Kaunas city, and lake KUDSKOE in eastern Estonia area. In German sailors dialect, is KOJE word for bunks or berths. And old Anglo-Saxon GRUND has many meanings, also noticing land and earth. Greek LAKKOS notices ponds and lakes, also such that are in havens. Chinese word NAO notices brain. Apparently similar is the Old Greek word NOUS for human comprehension and wisdom, and the famous old Greek noun GNOOSIS for knowledge (of usual Greek verb GIGNOOSKOO, to know). (Greek NAOS is, rather, noticing temples and shrines; places of ancient practises of culture and education). In Russian language are apparently similar the usual verbs ZNAT (to know) and YZNAT (to get to know). These prove remarkable similarities between these Chinese, Russian and Greek words. Discussions concerning knowing and knowing faculty attest remarkably developed abstract thinking in stages of progressing stages of ancient cultures, and thus these similarities are really important. In Finnish language is usual word NAKO but this word usually is more specific for faculty of seeing and observing; but Finnish NAKO words also prove certain developments of considerations of epistemology, such as usual NAHTAVASTI that states probably and also apparently, and NAETTEKOS that means do You comprehend that. And, in Old Hebrew there is the usual BINA word for understanding and faculty of understanding (with that, similar Turkish BEYIN notices brain) also this old Hebrew word shows interesting similarity with Chinese NAO word. (Also, it is here worth noticing that Russian NOS word notices a human NOSE; and in older Swedish is known NOS and older English NOSU; and German NASE and NAS. And in Russian, NOSIT verb notices to carry and to bear, and NOSITEL noun in Russian also notices bearers and a repository; these also are interesting amidst different cultural developments). Chinese word MEI notices every. This is remarkably similar with the ME pronoun in Finnish for WE, and Russian MYI pronoun for WE, thus we especially regard manifestation of every one of our group pronounced in these references to WE in Russian MYI and Finnish ME. (Interesting reference to own group is Turkish word MENSE noticing roots, and place of origins; and in Turkish the word KAMU notices more generally the people and the public). In old Greek language, we prompt recognise the usual word formations with META, that META noticing with, and together. Another detail in old Greek here particularly relevant is the usual MEN…DE that notices in Greek usual expression of alternatives. In old Greek the similar HEEMEN is pronoun for WE, and HUMEN is pronoun for plur.2. These similarities in pronouns in these languages is really interesting detail. (Compare with English WE, German wir and Swedish vi pronouns for plur.1). And it is also interesting that old Hebrew often write pl. 3 pronoun HEM to notice THEY. Such pronouns for WE especially manifest certain symbolic manifestation of THAT GROUP, the pronoun utters certain self comprehension of the group of speaker. Thus it appears remarkably interesting that pronouns for WE in Finnish, Russian and old Greek languages so apparently are similar with Chinese MEI word of every, these pronouns recognising every of us. Chinese word KU notices something bitter and KUCHU is word for misery and suffering. In Finnish language, we find numerous interesting comparisons in words KURJA (wretched), MYRKKY (poison), KYY (poisonous snake) and also KUSI. Remarkably similar there is also the Russian word GORKII that notices bitter; and Russian verb KURIT notices smoking, smoke often being bitter and irritating, and GUBIT notices to destroy. Turkish KOTU notices something bad and evil, and CURUK is something unworthy too, and GUS notices difficulties. German KUMMER are sorrows and problems, and kummern is that verb; and Anglo-Saxon CWYLMAN notices to afflict. In old Greek, thus are notable words OKSUS (word also for poisons and bitter), KAPNOS and KHUMOS. And in old Hebrew, NGY (nega) are various defects and negative qualities and damages. Similarities of such estimations and descriptions of qualities in these cultures, are indeed interesting cultural character. Chinese word SUAN notices something sour.
A LEXICON COMPARING WORDS OF EUROPE AND ASIA by Pasi K Pohjala 2nd ed 27Sept2017 Chinese LEI notices thunder; and really similar is English FLAME (cf Swedish flamm), especially in pronouncing “fleim” that is really similar with this Chinese word. Finnish knows TULI for fire, and LEIMU also is in Finnish for fire. Old Anglo-Saxon ALED is for fire, also LIG or LIGG in Anglo-Saxon notice flame and fire. In Turkish is ALEV for fire, LHB lahab in old Hebrew is for fire, and Greek LIGUS is also for fire Chinese LIFU word notices cloths; apparently similar with Finnish noun LIPPU that notices specific kind of clothes, flags. In Turkish, word LAF notices words and remarks, being relevant here because usually flying flags were signals for some remarks. Old Hebrew knows verb LBS to wear clothes, and its Hifil form also being very usual too. This Hebrew LBS is general word for wearing clothes; it is not appearing for flags. (It is worthy here noticing also the usual English word FLY; this is common TEUTONIC word, and in Old TEUTONIC appearing in FLEUGON and FLEUGAN forms. Modern German writes of fliegen and Flug, and Swedish writes of flyga (to fly) and flagg (a flag). Chinese words YAN and YANJING notice an eye; and this is remarkably similar with old Hebrew AJIN or YJN word usual in old Hebrew for eyes. Thus it is really notable that similar words are in TEUTONIC languages usual. Anglo-Saxon DYNCAN notices “it seems, it appears that” (see Boswell). German finden, fand verb is usual and in Swedish is finna, fann verb usual nowadays, and the noun fynd of Swedish. In English, is TO FIND usual and indeed, this is common TEUTONIC word, that in OLD TEUTONIC appears in find and findan forms. In Teutonic languages, such words appear also in slightly different form, namely MHG VINDEN and Dutch VINDEN and also in older English writings appear such forms VINDE or VYNDE (see OXF Engl Dict Vol 5 “find”). Interestingly, in modern Russian is UMNYI word for clever people; and in Finnish notice words YNNA is word of mathematics. Also notably, in Turkish is similar word UYANIK more noticing of watchful and vigilant people. (It is also worth seeing to old Greek ORAOO for seeing and different forms of its tenses especially the Aorist EIDON form). Chinese word PENGYOU is usual for friends. The Old Hebrew PQH notices to care, to guard; and to open eyes. Similar Turkish BEKCI notices guards and watchmen, and Turkish BAKICI notices more nurses and guards; Russian BELYI notices, also, fugitives and exiles. In Old Greek such meanings also are central, although FEUGOO and FUGAS notice fleeing from and escaping from, and also exiled people. (also usual Greek FEGGOS word for flame and light is notably similar too). Thus we interested notice that in Finnish is PEKKA usual first name (and appearing in Finnish surnames in forms PEKKA-NEN and PEKKA-LA, these notifying of reference to particular activity). Considering these words notably many usual names appear interesting, thus also usual Swedish male name BENGT (PENG-TH), and in British history very famous was also Mercian PENDA king. (In geography names, think also the PENTLAND firth, north of British isle). It is here especially notable that old Anglo-Saxon knows noun BEORN notice generally men, and warriors, and one famous large northern folk of Anglo-Saxon times were the BEORMAS (see e.g. King Alfred’s OE translation of OROSIUS). Chinese word QU usually notices to come and to go. This is apparent similar with Russian GULJAT verb noticing comings and goings (more indefinite that ITI verb); and similar is in Finnish found verb KULKEA, and noun KULKU. (In comparison with Chinese QU, these Finnish and Russian words notable attest sound L here). In Finnish, the noun KUU notices The Moon. In Old Hebrew, the QUM is usual word noticing going and Hebrew QWH verb is more of directing towards specific place. It is thus remarkable noticing that this Hebrew QUM actually is really similar here. Also notable is comparison with famous old Greek GUMNAZOO verb that earlier more noticed of doing physical training (and GUMNOS). In old Greek worth mention here are also KHUOO and KHEOO verbs. Importantly, also such Turkish verbs are relevant, there GITMEK noticing to go, and GELMEK noticing coming and CUMBAN more generally notice movements. English speakers thus prompt recognise also the GO (gone) verb; this is common TEUTONIC (German gehen, gang and Swedish ga, gick), and in Old TEUTONIC appearing in GAE and GANGG stems (see Skeat’s etymologies, and Boswell). Anglo-Saxon knows GANGAN to walk, and noun GANG for paths. (In this discussion, it is also worth noticing that Finnish noun KUU notices The Moon; the periodical movements of the Moon were of central importance for peoples following lunar calendar, and these peoples very carefully were observing movements of The Moon.) Chinese word LAOSHI notices cleverness and clever people. Worth is thus reminding that old Hebrew LHS is firmly word of oracles and uttering charms and spells; and LHS also notices hissing sounds of reptiles, also important in many oracles. Similar word in Finnish is LAISKA, and similar is Turkish LACKA for slack people. In Turkish LOS notices gloomy and murky and this is more relevant to places and rituals of many oracles; and Turkish YALVAC notices work of prophets. And Turkish YANLIS notices various uncertainties, conjectures, and errors. In Old Greek is LEETHEE hiddenness and being concealed and veiled; and A-LEETHEES notices true and becoming revealed (ALEETHEES and ALEETHEIA). (Similarity with LHS is also here apparent, recognising usual S and T changes in Aramaic). Thus it is also interesting to recognise development F-LS that we, apparently, recognise also nowadays in common TEUTONIC word FALSE noticing something wrong and not true (English false, German falsch Falschung and Swedish falsk words); comments of OXF Engl Dictionary Vol 5 (art “false”) are notable here; written forms VALSCH were usual in MHG and Dutch. Chinese word ZHAN notices to practise divination, and inquiries (also ZHAO for look for and try to find); notably similar is Russian ZNAT verb for knowing. Anglo-Saxon SNYTTRO is for knowing, and also in Anglo-Saxon are CUNNAN and CANN word for knowing (see Bosworth); and in German is usual verb kennen and kannte. Interesting similarity is found regarding Chinese usual word HAO for good. This is remarkably similar with usual Russian word HAROSI for good, and with usual Finnish HIANO word for good (HIANO, HIENO). In Anglo-Saxon is HALO word for health and prosperity, and in modern German is SCHON for good and positive qualities, also in Swedish SKON word. Notably, we can also here detect a similarity with Old Greek word AGATHOS of good, especially in AKHATHOS spelling. Similar Turkish HAYIR word is for health and prosperity. (And Chinese usual word HUAI for not good is also similar with usual Finnish word HUANO for not good; also Russian comparative form HUSHE (worse) is similar here.) Chinese word LONG notices dragon. Every English speaker well recognises word LONG noticing extended objects and beings; indeed, we regard a dragon as a being of some considerable length too. Finnish word LANKKU notices lengthier wooden logs and rods. Such words appear in Russian; DLINNYI notices long and DOLGO notices of much duration. Notoriously important is found in German language that noun SCHLANGE is usual noun for snakes and apparently comparable with the Chinese LONG word too. (German TILGEN notices to wipe off; apparently quite descriptive of snake movements upon the ground too). Also is word LANGE in German very usual. And thus we conclude reminding the usual important old Greek word LOGOS. The LOGOS word in Greek includes multitudes of meanings, noticing utterances, words, writings, and generally wisdom. In Hellenistic Stoicism was LOGOS especially important philosophical concept noticing in world inherent reasonable order that was organising word to better organised. In early Hellenised Christianity too, and especially in Alexandria, there was very developed religious cult of LOGOS and much philosophical and religious writings concerning divine LOGOS. And Greek LIGUS notices burning flames (also burning life principle was one central topic of Hellenistic Stoicism). We conclude this discussion noticing that the nowadays usual English word LONG is, indeed, common TEUTONIC word, and in old TEUTONIC appearing in forms LANGGO and LONGHO. Thus we, apparently, remind that the LONG word in Chinese denotes the dragon; this is well relevant for modern TEUTONIC comprehensions too, especially noticing the modern usual German noun SCHLANGE for snakes. (A small concluding notice: the chevalier St GEORGE and dragon- theme conceals the important idea, that previously, the horses of chevaliers were actually compared with dragons- thus: in certain sense, that St. George was himself riding on dragon, because horses of chevaliers were compared with dragons; this merely, as a small concluding notice here). Chinese word WOSHI notices room, living place. Apparent similar is Russian word ZIT, ZIVU noticing dwelling and sojourning. This is apparently important word. In Finnish language, word SAVU notices concretely smoke, and earlier, residence houses were named as SAVU because of the fireplace located in house for warming house (eastern Finnish area is SAVU-LAX). Thus it is notable that old Hebrew OZ notices generally strength, and especially strongly built places, even fortified strongholds and citadels. Similarly in Russian language, ZAMOK notices castles, and locks, thus secured and fortified places of inhabiting (also German castle word Schloss is similar with verb for locking, schliessen). It is thus notable that Turkish YASAMAK word generally notices to inhabit, and to dwell (and resembling Turkish word SOMINE notices fireplace). In Anglo-Saxon is WUNIAN for dwell and inhabit (cf. German wohnen and Wohnung) (see Skeat and Bosworth). Chinese word BIAOGE notices COUSIN. This appears really interesting in these comparisons. Finnish noun POIKA is usual noun for a son (male descendant). In Russian notices BOG word God; and generally notices BOGATYI rich and wealthy people; in Russian folklore is BOGATYR popular figure too. In Old Hebrew notices the PQD especially events of sexual intercourse, thus making fertile. In older societies, indeed, very essential richness was the ability of procreation. Also, Turkish language knows BITEK noticing fertile and GEBE noticing pregnant. Old Greek word BIOS and BIAIOS for life are very usual. These words are apparently really similar. (We remind also of BEN word for sons, in old Hebrew; and words bin and bint in Arabic; it is, indeed, notable to consider German sein verb: ich bin, du bist usw). Chinese word QUN is measure word for crowds and large groups. The word is similar with usual Finnish word KUNTA for smaller towns; and also apparently with German Gegend word for areas and districts. Important parallels in old Greek are GENOS and GENEA also for important groups; and GENNAOO; these manifest giving birth and groups of thus related people. (Russian KUTSA notices heaps and piles; and this more parallels Finnish KUTSU, KUTSUA, inviting people to gather together.) In old Hebrew is apparent parallel to QUN the KNS word that notices gathering, gathering together; and such is also Finnish word KANSA (folk); Hebrew KNESSET word is noun form of this KNS. Moreover, Turkish CUMU is noun for crowd, and people and CUMHUR is thus also, Turkish state is CUMHURIYET. Also Turkish DOGUM for birth has similarity especially with Greek GENOS and GENNAOO. Anglo-Saxon noun CYNN notices family and folk. FOR HISTORY IS ANGLO-SAXON it is REALLY NOTORIOUS THAT ANGLO-SAXON noun CYNREN NOTICES KINDRED PEOPLE, THE REN IS IN CHINESE USUAL WORD FOR PEOPLE. Think of this Anglo-Saxon noun CYNREN, and FAMOUS saying in old Anglo-Saxon EXETER BOOK, namely: CYNE MEN GECUNDE RICE (saying in part of EXETER BOOK, the Codex Exoniensis, nowadays known as “gnomic verses”, that attest more original Anglo-Saxon literature, not being translation of works into Anglo-Saxon. This, indeed, can state reference to eastern, or Chinese origin of those people who founded state). Chinese word SHAN notices mountain.
A LEXICON COMPARING WORDS OF EUROPE AND ASIA Comparison of some Chinese words with words of Russian and Finnish languages, and words common in TEUTONIC languages; also noticing some Old Greek words of interest. by Pasi K Pohjala THIS IS SECOND, IMPROVED EDITION OF September 27, 2017, that much develops older First Edition, of April 16, 2016. Articles of MAA (horse); PAOBU (run); ZHI (sticks and logs); YU (fish); TAIYANG (sun); ZIJI (self) and ZHU (live, dwell); HUNLI (wedding); GAI (build); KAI (to burn); GAO (warm); LIFU (cloth); YANJING (eyes); PENGYOU (friends); QU (come, go); LAOSHI (clever); HAO and HUAI (good and not good); LONG (dragon); WOSHI (a dwelling, a room); BIAOGE (cousin); QUN (measuring group); SHAN (mountain); SHU (tree); CAO (grass, lawn); HUA (flowers); HU (river); HAI (ocean, sea); NAO (brain); MEI (every); KU (bitter); SUAN (sour); TIAN (sweet); CHUANTONG (tradition); DONGSI (something); WEN (question); WAI (other); WEI (someone); SHENG (body); YING (win); SHOU (writings); LIANG (travel); and comparisons of numerals one to ten; and CONCLUDING SUMMARY. The main aim for this lexicon survey is to clarify and manifest similarities of many usual words in modern TEUTONIC languages, with Chinese words. Regrettably, their similarities with Chinese words often remains unrecognised in surveys of linguistic history of usual words; but this study aims to manifest in this question much more clarities in apparent form. Importantly, older Anglo-Saxon words yet preserve many very close similarities that have become in modern language obsolete, or appear in quite changed form after centuries in modern language. Thus are also similarities of such Chinese words noticed with words in Russian and Finnish languages, Chinese neighbouring cultures in this large Eurasian continent. FIFTY ARTICLES, by Pasi K Pohjala. Chinese MAA word for HORSE is very similar to modern English MARE for fem horses (and in Swedish marr although HAST is there more general) and Finnish HUMMA word for horses. In Anglo-Saxon MEARH notices horses (see Boswell); and historically Old TEUTONIC MARKOZ noticed fem horses, also apparently similar; and Indogermanic root is MARKOS (Skeat art “mare”, it is notable that Skeat finds here being “root uncertain”). Importantly, FICK (art “MARHA”) notice MARHA, Pferd and comparing with English MARR and Anglo-Saxon MEARH; neither FICK presents clear roots for this. Notoriously, Biblical Hebrew RKB words notice riding (see BDB RKB), and quite famous Hebrew noun formation MARKHAVA notices chariots in Old Hebrew. In older times, horses were all important and usual, and thus this vocabulary IS particularly important. Chinese word PAO notice walking and running, and Chinese PAOBU and MANPAO words notice running activity. Also, there are apparently similar with Finnish verbs PAKO; PAETA (to flee from) and PIKA; PIKAINEN (quick). Importantly thus is Russian BEGAT (to run) also apparent similar and also resembling Turkish BEYGIR word notices horses, quick runners and Turkish CABUK notices to be in hurry and doing quickly. Notoriously, for Chinese PAO and PAOBU and MANPAO verbs we detect similarity with very usual Old Hebrew BA verb (to come; to go see BDB); and even similarity with old Greek BAINOO verb for coming and going (usual in ANABAINOO and KATABAINOO etc). In old Anglo-Saxon it is notable that BE-CUMAN usually does notice arriving and coming (even if modern English BECOME has other meaning). Chinese ZHI measure word notices long and thin objects, eg chopsticks; and in Finnish similar are TIKKU (a stick) and TUKKI (woodlog) words; and Old Hebrew TQY verb notices to drive a peg in when setting up a tent. Old Greek ZUGOS notices also yokes, special wooden stick too; the KSULOS being more general Greek word for wood and trees. Importantly, Turkish CIVI notices nails and pegs and CIVILEMEK to nail. Old Anglo-Saxon TELGA word notices branches (and Chinese TENG is word for sticks, cane and rattan); this is also worth comparing with modern LOG word in form TH-LOG. Furthermore, modern English knows usual STICK word that is usual TEUTONIC word; old TEUTONIC root STIK noticed to pierce and to prick (in Sanskrit, root tij notices to be sharp); similarly with Greek STIZEIN, to prick. Finnish verb is TUKKIA although not peculiarly done with TUKKI instrument; and Anglo-Saxon form is STINGAN. From Indogermanic root STEIG and more usual Teutonic form STEKAN are many modern words developed (Skeat art “stick”). Notably, TIKKU, TUKKI and ZUGOS rather notice all kinds of wooden sticks and rods, not with particular regard to pricking. Chinese YU word notices fishes generally. Also, another character in Chinese is YU for heavy rain. Notably, Finnish JUO verb notices to drink, well relevant for swimming fish. And German Kabeljau notices cod fish; and German das Juchten notices watertight leathern things, also well similar with Chinese YU for fish. (In old times, such could be floats when filled with air). We find here words denoting floating, or, something swimming. In Russian language, we find many interestingly similar words, RYBA for fish and PLYT verb notices swimming. Famous Old Greek word for ships is PLOUS. Russian BYI word notices floating thing; all these Russian words interestingly recall that Chinese YU word for fish. In Old Testament famous are, also, NUNA fish. In Turkish is the BUYU for magic and incantations, and YUZMEK verb notices in Turkish to float. In Finnish is same word UI or UIDA noticing swimming, same with Russian BYI and Turkish YUZMEK for floating. It is actually notable that Anglo-Saxon YT word notices seas, especially waves (see Boswell)- this word is in modern Swe YTA for waves, too. In Old Hebrew we find YUAM (or, jam) word for waters and seas; and Hebrew BYH notices to bubble, and to reveal, and is used in reference to waters, too. In ancient times, rivers, waterways and coastal routes were very important routes for travelling and transportation, and many people were thereby active and in such areas resident, so that similarity in these words is especially important. (Notice also history of lighthouse-keeper GUTLAC in West-Saxon Exeter Book). Chinese TAIYANG notices sun and Chinese DANKONG notices high above in the sky. This is notoriously similar with usual Finnish word TAIVAS that generally notices heavens; and Finnish TAVATA notices encounters and appearances generally. Very similar is Anglo-Saxon word TUNGOL word stars (word SWEGL is rather, for sun); actually we find this in name TENGEL-HOF of a modern airport (TUNGOL SCEAL ON HEOFENUM BEORHTE SCINAN, thus a saying in Gnomic verses in Anglo-Saxon Mss TiberiusB). For TUNGOL, older German knew ZUNGAL, and in older Swedish is TUNGEL word for moon (Boswell “tungol”). (Cf also how FICK comments dug, dunkel sein). Also Turkish language knows very similar words, DUN noticing night, and DUN also noticing how something goes up in the air. In Russian is DAVAT usual verb for giving; apparently important earlier was hope for providential sustenance from heavens, for good weather of seasons; and Russian word DEN notices days. Notably thus is similar the usual Old Hebrew TOV for good and Hebrew JOM TOV notices religious festival days. And in Hebrew NTH notices to spread, similarly how heavens is spread; and Hebrew NTY notices to plant and to set up, also noticing how the heavens were regarded having been set up and established. Also, Old Hebrew DYK word notices to be extinguished, eg. of lamps. Old Greek AKTIS generally notices light and light rays and sparkles; and also Greek OURANOS word for heavens have quite similarity with Chinese TAIYANG word. Also importantly, in terms of geography, old name of central Finland was TAVAST-LAND, and it is important to recognise how vast areas of Siberia were (and are) known as TAYGA area. In older times, comprehension of geography was of course not so distinctive, so that similarity of names of Russian TAYGA area and old name of central Finland TAVAST-LAND is especially noteworthy. Actually, these old geographical terms are clear derived from Chinese TA noticing step on, tread and TAQING noticing walk on green grass. Chinese ZIJI notices SELF; and ZHU notices activity of living in and lodging. These are notoriously similar with Old Greek ZAO (ZEIN) noticing to live; and also similar with Greek OIKIDZEIN noticing dwelling in habitation or in a house. Russian usual verb ZIT notices both being alive and inhabiting in; inhabitants are ZITELEI. Apparently similar with Chinese use are Finnish nouns SIJA and SUOJA, words for place of something or place of someone. Thus it is interesting to compare with common TEUTONIC word SELF (German selber, Swedish sjalv) that is common TEUTONIC and is in Old TEUTONIC found in selbo words. In Old Norwegian found form SIALF is notably similar with the SIJA word, continuously usual in Finnish. But etymology of this common TEUTONIC self words is continuously regarded obscure. Thus it is surely worth comparison with these Chinese ZIJI and ZHU words, that find so remarkable comparison in continuously usual Finnish SIJA and SUOJA words, and also in Russian usual ZIT verb, especially with regard to geography and population movements during decades. Chinese HUNLI notices wedding; this is apparent similar with usual Finnish JUHLA (a festival) and JUHLIA (to celebrate) and dialect form JUHULA. Also, modern German knows of JAUCHZEN loud celebrating. Notably, in old Anglo-Saxon is HUSL word for Eucharist (see Boswell), important churchly celebration. And in Turkish notices CULUS word throne accession festivities. Also is similar Old Greek GELAOO to laugh and be happy; and in Russian is ULIBKA noticing smile. Remarkably is similar here Turkish GULUMSEME for smile and GULUMSEMEK to smile. Notoriously similar is English noun HALL that is common TEUTONIC word (German Halle and Swedish hall), and is in old TEUTONIC found in HALLA form; this noticing generally large places with some roof. Apparently, festival gatherings usually were gathering under some roofed area, or under tents. Thus we also remind of old Hebrew AKL verb noticing eating, and celebrating; and AHL noticing tents in Old Hebrew. Chinese GAI word notices to build; this character notices to build and lid, cover. In Finnish usual word KATTO notices a roof or a ROOFED place (and verb KATTAA); similar is also Turkish CATI for roof, thus place established for settled inhabitation. Anglo-Saxon GEAT notices a gate, also roofed structure (see Boswell, notices also German Gasse), also modern English notices this in word GATE (however is Swedish en gata different, noticing a street). Notably similar thereby is also old Hebrew GAG noticing a roof, and roofed place (see BDB); also Greek usual OIKOS can have similarity. Word GAR is in Hebrew usual verb for inhabiting and dwelling in. This Hebrew GAR also is similar with Old Greek AGORA the public square of cities and AGORADZEIN. In Russian is word GOROD usual for cities and towns (and Russian verb GORA is more for travelling, especially in hill countries). These are built and well established places of human habitation; and AGORA, for public activities in cities Notably, many Turkish GUR words are of residence and exile, word GURBET noticing exile and foreign travelling; this actually echoes in Old Hebrew found nuance of strangeness in GAR word included. And Anglo-Saxon knows GRIT word for havens and sanctuaries. These are notably interesting words concerning travellers and places and havens for travellers, in longer distances. Chinese KAI word notices to burn and to boil, also the KAI character notices to start, begin; such are important activities in human habitation and settling. Remarkably similar is old Greek KAIOO and KAUSIS, for kindling and burning. Actually it is notable that much resembling old Greek word GIGNOMAI notices beginnings and becoming- comparison of meanings of Chinese KAI with Greek KAIOO and GIGNOMAI is notorious. (In Greek is of course the KAI word for AND in writings really usual too). In Biblical Hebrew the similar KWH kawa notice to burn. Finnish verb KIAHUU notices to boil (standard form is KIEHUA). Similar is also Turkish KAYNATMAK, and Turkish word GOK notices sky and heavens; that is also place of bright stars and lights; and in Swedish we recognise ETT KOK noticing kitchen area of a house where is the fireplace operated; in German, word Kuche notices a kitchen. And in Finnish is KOKKO usual word for large bonfires; but it is notable that poetic Finnish also reminds of huge KOKKO that specifically is particular kind of bird or flying being. Also similar Chinese GAO word notices warm. Apparently similar word also here is Greek KAIOO, KAUSIS that notice warming, burning and boiling. Also Turkish KAYNATMAK noticing to boil, appears similar; in Finnish language word KIAHUU notices boiling. Chinese GAO is word for warm. Apparently, descriptions of warm and cold are not objectively determined and thus can much show variation in different places and for different people. Thus we, indeed, find in TEUTONIC languages notable resemblances in words for COLD. The COLD is common TEUTONIC word (German kalt, Kalte and Swedish kall and English cold, see comments in Skeat and Boswell); in Old TEUTONIC was verb stem KAL noticing to be cold, also old TEUTONIC KALDOZ. This is ONE word where old TEUTONIC root actually is the same with Chinese word, merely writing one more sound of L so that GAO with L appears KAL towards western areas. This phenomenon is notably often repeated and here in MANY words manifested. Anglo-Saxon knows CALD and CEALD for cold (Boswell “ceald”). (Important are FICK notices of KAL, KALAN, kalt sein, frieren). Notably, this old TEUTONIC forms is not too different from Old Hebrew words QAR, QARIR for cold (and actually, old Hebrew letters R and L are so remarkably similar that QAL forms in old Hebrew writs also may have occurred too, noticing cold!) And thus, we also recognise similar Russian GALODNO noticing cold. In Finnish, most similar is HALLA of freezing wintry nights (cf also Finnish KALMA word), and this is, remarkably, similar with old TEUTONIC root KALDOZ, and, Old Greek KHALADZA is apparently similar too. Chinese LEI notices thunder; and really similar is English FLAME (cf Swedish flamm), especially in pronouncing “fleim” that is really similar with this Chinese word. Finnish knows TULI for fire, and LEIMU also is in Finnish for fire. Old Anglo-Saxon ALED is for fire, also LIG or LIGG in Anglo-Saxon notice flame and fire. In Turkish is ALEV for fire, LHB lahab in old Hebrew is for fire, and Greek LIGUS is also for fire Chinese LIFU word notices cloths; apparently