Sunday, 9 December 2012
Pasi K. Pohjala December 08, 2012 A Study of Biblical Navigation in Seafare and Landroutes; Biblical Use of Compass and Magnet Study of Old Testament Book of Malachi- Verre et Bible series. The current article considers ancient methods of finding direction for voyages both in seafare and in landroutes. Current Readers of course think of directing travelling with help of maps both land and sea; the even more advanced modern methods of navigating with help of satellites is of course truly recent development. For ancient people methods of navigating and other reliable methods of directing voyages on landroutes were immensely important for realisation of communication between areas, for culture, religion and commerce- well known is how the developed methods of effective communicating was fundamental for reality of ancient states and central governance. Considerations of Hebrew SB words provide many important insights to ancient developed methods of travelling and directing voyages. In the Old Testament the history of Israel leaving from Egypt and travelling towards the Promised Land is in Jewish religion one of the most fundamentally important Biblical histories. Much of scholarly literature has been attempting to reconstruct plausibly the probable route of the people towards the Promised Land; and some scholars have debated even the historical character of such wandering. The current study avoids so difficult questions and notices rather some interesting details of how that travelling is in practical terms described. We notice that the SAB word of Hebrew notices usually to draw water (BDB 980); and many of such meanings have been already by the current Author Pasi K Pohjala studied in studying Biblical descriptions of ancient methods of irrigating and ancient quite advanced technologies of watering and irrigating- these descriptions of watering and irrigating in Biblical high technological cultures were centrally important in Pasi K. Pohjala s recent study of the Book of Joel. However, it is now of central interest that Hebrew SAB words in some contexts noticed magnets (BDB 980). In Jewish religion the TESUBA is very central idea, noticing especially moral returning towards God and divine commandments. Magnets are of course for travellers both in landroutes and in high seas immensely important because of their magical ability of indicating reliably the direction towards north. For the Readers it is needless to say that such possible knowledge of capabilities of magnets in ancient world was immensely important and therefore was a sort of secretive knowledge that was not so loud and clearly propagated to general knowledge. It is well known that in ancient Chinese culture magnets and navigating with help of compass was known, this is in current scholarly consensus well accepted knowledge. But generally scholars find first attested uses of compasses in Mediterranean navigating only in the times of Crusades and thereafter. We should well remember that ancient Arabic seafare already in pre-Islamic times practised continuous and extensive seafares across long distances, even with Chinese. Thus we proceed to notice some interesting and important details in description of travelling in the HEBREW Bible, that certainly also describes very old practises. Especially importantly we notice that use of magnets as compasses is easiest facilitated by placing appropriate magnetic indicator to float in a WATER BOWL. The current Author Pasi K Pohjala has in numerous Biblical studies published in the series Verre et Bible emphatically shown how usual practises of bowl divination, the lecanomancy, were in ancient Israel and usually noticed in the Old Testament. In water bowls, magnified visions were seen, and this has been centrally discussed and studied by Pasi K. Pohjala in previous Verre et Bible studies and translations. In the current study now we continue also noticing that bowl divination could also be performed in order to read the direction towards north in the water bowl acting as compass. In bowl divination, direction towards north is seen and also magnified visions are observed. This includes interesting notices also concerning traditions of deities, also in Hebrew Bible and translations. We consider how Israelite travelling towards the Promised Lands is described in the Deuteronomy 2, finding that “Thus, after you had remained at Kadesh all that long time, we marched back into the wilderness by the way of the Sea of Reeds, as the Lord had spoken to me, and skirted the hill country of Seir a long time (WNSB AT HR SYJR JMJM RBJM) The Lord said to me: You have been skirting this hill country long enough; now turn north (RB LKM SB AT HHR HZH PNW LKM ZPNH)” (the Tanakh translation of Deut 1:46-2:2). Here the Hebrew text writes notoriously of the SB word describing some concrete travelling and proceeding and then notices importantly turning towards north. The modern Tanakh translation well notices the currently usual main tendencies in translating this text to modern English speaking Readers. But some older and quite usual English Bible translations do interestingly here allude to idea of use of compass as aide of finding the way, formulating translation that they have compassed this mountain long enough; turn northwards. However, now we especially notice that in this very important Old Testament description of travelling the SB word is thus interestingly connected with “turning to north”. Importantly this alerts to considering that SAB word also can denote magnets; used in finding route of voyage the magnets of compass have the notorious ability to find direction towards North. It is well worth noticing that the BDB Dictionary does render some SBB words in Hebrew Bible with rendering encompass (BDB 685-686), thus alerting attentive Readers that such journeying was probably directed with using magnets and compass. In this description by Hebrew Bible the travelling of people is noticed with SB words, with WNSB AT HR and SB AT HHR HZH. This probably notices that their travelling in those hill countries was probably quite well planned and guided by use of compass to direct their travelling- so emphatically the Hebrew Bible here writes of their SB travelling in that hill country, noticing so specifically turning towards north. Here the Greek Septuagint translation writes EKUKLOSAMEN TO OROS TO SEIR HEMERAS POLLAS KAI EIPEN KURIOS PROS ME IKANOUSTHO HUMIN KUKLOUN TO OROS TOUTO, EPISTRAFETE OUN EPI BORRAN. Greek Readers find now in this Septuagint translation interestingly the HEMERAS POLLAS that unmistakably suggests to Greek Readers clear reference to the famous Hermes, the famous travelling messenger and his methods of travelling and finding the way. One important mention of KUKLOO in Hermeticum is in the Sacred Discourse of Hermes (III.3). Some mentions of Hebrew Bible clearly connect SB verbs with words denoting north and northern directions. Famous description of Israelite SB marching is the episode of Joshua 6 that describes marching around Jericho and the subsequent Israelite invasion to Jericho and their occupation of Jericho. Thus is told Let all your troops march around the city and complete one circuit of the city. Do this six days with seven priests carrying seven ram´s horns preceding the Ark. On the seventh day, march around the city seven times, with the priests blowing the horns. (Joshua 6:3-4, the Tanakh translation) WSBTM AT HYJR KL ANSJ HMLHMH HQJP HYJR PYM AHT KH TYSH SST JMJM WSBYH KHNJM JSAW SBYH SWPRWT HJBLJM LPNJ HARWN WBJWM HSBJYJ TSBW AT HYJR SBY PYMJM WHKHNJM JTQYW BSWPRWT And he (Joshua) instructed the people, Go forward, march around the city, with the vanguard marching in front of the Ark of the Lord (Joshua 6:7, the Tanakh translation) WJAMR AL HYM YBRW WSBW AT HYJR WHHLWZ JYBR LPNJ HARWN H. This episode of Jericho notices Israelite arranging of a march of larger people, or whole Israelite army. Every one recognises the enormous military dangers of such proceeding that usually is here thought. That sounding of the horns would have revealed their location to the defenders quite exactly and thus given easy opportunities for arranging ambushes and launching huge number of missiles and projectile upon thus advancing troops. We remember that city Jericho was in those ancient times flourishing and well equipped and certainly technologically militarily well advanced, equipped with then known defensive devises and well equipped defending troops. The Israelite occupation of Jericho has been historically studied with archaeological remains; and also historicity of this episode is in research much discussed. Importantly, here is advancing of troops described with the SBB word (WSBTM AT HYJR, TSBW AT HYJR). Such SB is movement of those troops with regard to the city Jericho and the arranging of troops includes the Ark. The Joshua 6:7 specifies how the HHLWZH goes in front of the Ark; and the Tanakh comprehends them as vanguards. Importantly, the LWZ notices in Biblical Hebrew to bend, turn or twist (J 696); and we notice that MLJSH notices generally some water pots, such as even used as cooking vessels (J 790). These officials of Israelite troops HHLWZ who were marching in front of thus advancing troops were officials connected with water-pots and “twisting and turning”; and they were thus directing this SBB Israelite marching around the city Jericho. In the current discussion of finding directions for voyages, we notice how these HHLWZH officials advancing in front of troops were apparently using some device water pot with “twisting and turning”; apparently they were using some form of ancient compass to facilitate this SBB advancing of the Israelite troops in this situation. (Readers certainly remember also the Halachic important HALIZAH ritual or “removing the shoe” concerning marriage). Traditions of Arabic notice the very usual verb JALA that notices different spatial movements such as roaming, wandering and roving, wandering about and moving around (176); and this Arabic JALA is in written Arabic clearly related with this HHLWZH of Hebrew and Aramaic. but in Arabic traditions the word JALABA also deserves now special notion: the JALABA in modern parlance notices to bring to the spot, to bring- and notoriously also to attract (J 153). This noun also denotes the famous rose water (JULAB). Importantly, Arabic noun HILB notices different iron devices of boats, anchors, grapnels and boat hooks (1268) so that also magnetised piece of iron used as compass needle can in some traditions have been denoted HILB The episode of marching notoriously describes how priests were operating the SWPRWT HJWBLJM, shofars of ram horns. Use of magnetic material in compass to help bring travellers to certain direction is founded on the notorious fact that the magnetic needle remarkably is always attracted towards north. Comparing the role of officials HHLWZH in Israelite SBB marching in Jericho areas thus is much enhanced noticing also current Arabic traditions of JALA wandering and more determined travelling JALABA: thee officials were apparently using some kind of compass to direct their travel. However, hereby is nothing said concerning the constitution of the Ark. This episode of march in the surroundings of Jericho thus clearly describes Old Testament tradition of use of a device of compass to direct marching. The Psalm 6 also interestingly writes HLZ together with SB verb. thus we find written in Ps 6:5 that SWBH H HLZH NPSJ HWSJYNJ LMYN HSDK Interestingly here is written of SWBH and Tetragrammaton, and the HLZH. Tanakh now renders: Lord, turn! Rescure me! Deliver as befits Your faithfulness. We find interesting traditions also in the Greek Septuagint translation where is rendered that EPISTREPSON KURIE RUSAI TEN PSUKHEN MOU SOOSON ME ENEKEN TOU ELEOUS SOU Greek translation here writes of the EPI-STREPO and renders with RUO now discussed HLZH, with the RUSAI form. We shall now especially remember that Septuagint translation was often read in congregations where many members were prolific speakers of Greek and Semitic languages, at least some Aramaic. This Aorist form RUSAI of the Greek RUO for such bilingual Semitic speakers denotes divine saving, especially in that He brings to R-S safe haven. Notably begins the Septuagint rendering with HUPER TEES OGODES thus rendering the BNGJNWT YL HSMNJT (Sheminit). Ancient readers found clear allusion to directing the way, AGO and ODOS, so that device compass that leads the way thus may be alluded to. For these ancient speakers this SWBH H HLZH in Psalm 6:5 and its Greek Septuagint rendering EPISTREPSON KURIE RUSAI TEN PSUKHEN MOU specifically notices how God rescues soul by bringing the soul to R-S safe haven, like compass aiding finding securely the right way to safe haven. Safe havens denoted R-S are immensely important- later in the current study is more discussed the important ancient fact that word Jerus-salem was a NOUN denoting generally safe havens, the word Jerus-salem was NOT a proper name denoting one specific city such as most of current Readers presume. Indeed, large number of still currently existing main Mediterranean harbours are monuments of this important fact: Tarsus in Turkey, Pireas the harbour of Athens in current times and in historic times, Marseille, Barcelona; and every Reader now remembers the world famous Pharos leading the way to harbour of enormously important Mediterranean Alexandria. This is importantly noticed also in the following Psalm 7 writing of the HLZ, the 7:5 noticing WAHLZH ZWRRJ RJQM where is also the HLZH word with Z-R word written. Importantly, here is clearly written of the Reqemite empire noticing the RJQM. Interestingly, Psalm 7:8 notices the SB writing that WYDT LAMJM TSWBBK WYLJH LMRWM SWBH. In the Old Testament, HLZH and SB have important connection. We read interesting details of description of larger military campaign of kings of Israel, Judah and Edom in 2 Kings 3. There write the 2 Kings 3:8-9 that WAMR AJ ZH DRK NYLH WJAMR DRK MDBR ADWM. WJLK MLK JSRAL WMLK JHWDH WMLK ADWM WJSBW DRK SBYT JMJM Here is noticed questioning the route for proceeding of their troops AJ ZH DRK NYLH, and their proceeding along this route is noticed WJSBW DRK. Questioning for the route and this SB proceeding here apparently notice how SB compass was directing their proceeding. Ancient histories of travelling of troops and armies are in the Old Testament usual episodes where description of methods and arrangements of ancient travelling are written; this is apparently part of ancient Israelite and Judahite historiography. Interesting description for current study is also in 2 Samuel 24 written. This chapter describes first how David´s commander Joab with his nearest staff went around to estimate number of male population. Their journey across these lands was truly extensive, lasting more than nine months, and they went around in Judah and Israel. These staff were SRJ HHL designated officers; but we notice really important detail alluding to HLZH ascribed to these officers that WYL SRJ HHL WJZA JWAB WSRJ HHL LPNJ HMLK LPQD HYM. Even if these officers are named SRJ HHL, here is the first mention SRJ HHLWJZA that is exactly the HLWZA now so important in 2 Sam 24:4. Apparently these officers SRJ HHL were also trained in navigating and directing the routes, thus reasonably SRJ HHLWJZA. Concerning their travelling in northern regions, in areas of Tyre and Sidon is notable written in 2 Sam 24:7 WJBAW DNH JYN WSBJB AL ZJDWN WJBAW MBZR ZWR We notice that in these northern regions their travelling is noticed WSBJB; notably the Tanakh translation renders “and around to Sidon” but emphasises in comments that “Meaning of Heb. uncertain”. In these northern regions of Sidon and Tyre these commanders may rather have SBB travelled with compass. Notably thus commander Joab with these officers conducted in Judah and Israel truly large touring- their special ability to travel reliably to various locations is actually here indicated in SRJ HHL WJZA that becomes in lectio continua HhHLWJZA or the specific HLWZA The book of Neviim concludes the Hebrew Bible with prophesy of Malachi 3:23 importantly promising sending of prophet Elijah HNH ANKJ SLH LKM AT ALJH (Elijah) HNBJA LPNJ BWA JWM H HGDWL WHNWRA WHSJB Now we see importantly that here prophesy of Malachi promises sending of prophet Elijah and notices his doing WHSJB (Hebrew). We also notice that Malachi 3:1 writes HNNJ SLH MLAKJ WPNH DRK LPNJ WPTAM JBWA AL HJKLW Here God promises his sending his angel who shall prepare the way before God; and this angel suddenly comes to the Temple. These formulas in Malachi 3:1 and 3:23 are apparently connected in writings of HNH ANKJ SLH…LPNJ and HNNJ SLH…LPNJ. Now God promises sending the angel before him to prepare the way; and promise of Malachi 3:23 promises sending of prophet Elijah who shall do HSJB: this is apparently understandable when noticed that apparently so is described use of compass, reading in bowl visions direction towards north. Current SAB discussion thus makes quite easily understandable this doing of divine angel and prophet Elijah, preparing way by reading direction towards north in compass style bowl visioning. Now this tradition of Malachi 3:1 is very central tradition of New Testament Gospels describing work of John the Baptist. Importantly is written in Luke 7:27 how Jesus with quoting this Malachi 3:1 described the activity of John the Baptist and similarly writes Matt 11:10; these texts quote Greek Septuagint translation of Malachi 3:1 in same words that is of quite much importance- often in quotations they make small but ideologically hugely important modifications; the words are IDOU EGO APOSTELLOO TON AGGELON MOU PRO PROSOOPOU SOU OS KATASKEUASEI TEN ODON SOU EMPROSTHEN SOU Here we encounter truly important questions concerning Greek Septuagint translation and the manner how Gospel tradition quotes Greek Bible translation from those traditions known to their groups: the Septuagint translation namely here writes that IDOU EGOO EKSAPOSTELLOO TON AGGELON MOU KAI EPIBLEPSETAI ODON PRO PROSOOPOU SOU KAI EKSAIFNES EEKSEI EIS TON NAON EAUTOU This is in the MSS well supported (Rahlfs) and likewise is the Greek quotation in Matthew and Luke also well supported- especially we do not find in Gospel Mss variants really comparable with the apparently slightly different Greek translation of Malachi 3:1 in Septuagint tradition. The Gospel tradition now has actually read the words IDOU EGOO APOSTELLOO TON AGGELON MOU PRO PROSOOPOU SOU in Greek Septuagint translation of Exodus 23:20 that is now verbatim followed. And the latter part of this statement in Gospels is quoted from Greek translation of Malachi 3:1 writing of KAI EPIBLEPSETAI ODON PRO PROSOOPOU SOU whereas Gospels write of OS KATASKEUASEI TEN ODON SOU EMPROSTHEN SOU (this is apparently quoted from Malachi 3:1 and not from Exodus 23:20). These are normal and usual questions in study of New Testament Gospels and their manner of quoting some Greek Bible translation. Importantly, also Gospel tradition thus has read together Malachi 3 and the Exodus 23:20, traditions of divine leading of their way. After these somewhat more technical details of Gospel research, although very important, we now proceed to notice important details for the current study. Jesus of Nazareth is in Gospels presented as having described activity of John the Baptist also in words OS KATASKEUASEI TEN ODON SOU EMPROSTHEN SOU. Often this Greek KATASKEUAZO is rendered with its usual neutral meaning denoting some style of preparing and making preparations. John is then regarded neutrally as predecessor who somehow “prepared” way of Jesus, e.g. by preaching so that preaching of Jesus already could find some more audience. But Greek translation of Malachi 3:1 writes EPIBLEPSETAI ODON PRO PROSOPOU SOU, and such EPI-BLEPO quite concretely describes some activity of concrete seeing. Considering this tradition, John would have EPI-BLEPO concretely seen and observed the way that was in front of Jesus. Why then the Gospel writers write of KATASKEUAZO, this word is not found in Exodus 23:20 and its context, so that such KATASKEAZO does specifically indicate important detail. How are these EPI-BLEPO and KATASKEUAZO activities concerning the “way” meaningfully comparable. Let us now think of use of compass: through glass bowl indeed a road can be observed and seen, especially the proper direction can be detected with seeing the bowl that acts as compass, with a floating magnetic needle. Apparently thus is EPI-BLEPO quite appropriate; and KATASKEUAZO can denote concretely seeing through a bowl, KATA SKEUE. Importantly, this is now well supported in attentive reading of Malachi 3, the 3:1 and concluding 3:23 being apparently comparable- and the 3:23 thus importantly emphasises that the prophet Elijah is to SWB- and the current study so emphatically finds attested SB and SAB use of magnets and compass in Biblical tradition to indicate the proper direction. We find thus importantly attested that Malachi 3:1 and its important New Testament quoting in Gospel tradition describing activity of John the Baptist as the forerunner of Jesus of Nazareth was- to indicate direction of the road to travel. In the developments of Christian dogma, status of the Jesus the Son was all-important and thus his overwhelming knowledge and insight were emphasised; presenting John the Baptist as clever specialist of directing travelling of Jesus and advising of finding good road for travels would have been apparently less plausible and thus such detail drowned in forgetfulness in development of Christian dogma of the Son. Once more we are profoundly wondering how life of Jesus of Nazareth was developed into the high KURIOS Christology and metaphysical philosophical speculations of the Son, and a ideological bulwark of Christian state religiosity. Indeed the narrations of Roman state Christian religion and exalted KURIOS Christ operates in completely profoundly different illusory level than the original life of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the old reliable New Testament traditions (the current Author Pasi K. Pohjala is well knowledgeable of the tenets of developments of allegorical Bible reading, important especially in developing Christian thought and already importantly found in old Alexandrian Hellenistic writings, especially writings of Philo being especially prominent for their allegorical interpretations of Old Testament. Now is question of what the New Testament says in its quoting Malachi 3:1 thus describing John the Baptist; apparently he is thus described being specialist of finding the way with compass. This is conrete and easily forgotten and subsumed under thick strata of philosophical speculations in allegorising reading). But references to the Malachi 3:1 here make clear that quite concrete activities were thus indicated, and the 3:23 emphasising the SWB and thus the use of COMPASS for finding direction of travel. (It is also noteworthy that in Johannine literature of New Testament, the Second Letter of John emphatically writes of concrete travelling- PERIPATOUNTES EN ALETHEIA; INA PERIPATOOMEN KATA TAS ENTOLAS AUTOU; writes of PLANAO; and notably writing of PROAGOON). We thus conclude that in Malachi 3:1 and 3:23 we find interesting references to use of compass, looking into reflections in bowl operating as compass- and New Testament tradition of Jesus thus describing his frontrunner John the Baptist with these statements of Malachi and thus indicating John as one who knew how to find direction in way.