Thursday, 4 July 2013

study of iron in Bible, by Pasi K Pohjala

by Pasi K Pohjala July 2013. Comparing some historical developments, these times after 950BC are in Palestine later times of their early Iron Age, times of Judges and developments towards monarchy begun by YEMENITE-ARAB KING SAUL THE FIRST MONARCH OF ISRAEL (Bible records that king Saul was of tribe of Benjamin, that is, king Saul was YEMENITE-ARAB (e.g. 1 Samuel 9 and 10:20ff). The monarchy in Israel was begun by the YEMENITE-ARAB king Saul, so the Bible tells. Ancient names of monarchs often referred to the deity of their realm, in Israel often thus names including –JAH or –JAHU. This is of course important information of main tenets of religion of certain ancient realm in the time of reign of certain monarch. But the name of Saul rather sounds including reference to deity –EL or –ELH; Readers thus may seriously contemplate what such reference might mean with regard to that king Saul was from YEMENITE ARABS there living in Palestine; Islam is religion of worship of Allah. After king Saul, the king David was anointed, recorded in 1 Samuel 16; importantly, David was son of Jesse of Bethlehem; 1 Sam 17:12 tells that David was the son of a certain Ephrathithe of Bethlehem in Judah whose name was Jesse (Tanakh) (and see also Judges 19 concerning Bethlehem). The areas of tribes of Benjamin and Judah are basically besides and thus ethnically much connected; e.g. Judges 3:15ff records victory by Benjaminite EHUD who made sword and gained victory- this history is of YEMENITE ARAB (Benjaminite) metalsmith EHUD. Important detail of manuscripts is also the name of JESSE, in consonantal text of Hebrew Bible written Jod, Sin and Jod. But during the progress of traditions, we should consider quite similar Hebrew name JSJ written with Jod, Samekh and Jod, and this name is in Manuscript traditions easily confounded with Jod, Mem, Jod or JMJ; and name BENJAMIN is written usually BNJMN, some times BNJMJN. Continuing such “Bibilical logic” we write son of JMJ with BNJMJ- and this is notoriously similar with Hebrew writing of name BNJMN or Benjamin. Shortly stated, currently we talk of king David son of JESSE of Bethlehem. But behind this name JESSE may well be original Hebrew consonants name JMJ (e.g. JEMMI, or “JEMNI”) written early with consonant Mem: thus early traditions can have known of David BEN-JEMMI or David BEN-JEMN, David of Yemenite group. But these consonants JMJ of this name could easily be early confounded with consonants JSJ written with Samekh letter and thus easily confounded with name JESSE. In early Manuscripts letters S Samekh and M Mem often thus are quite similarly written. And later editing may have concealed these remarkable questions by writing the JSJ name not with Samekh that is easily with Mem confounded, but with letter Sin that cannot be confounded with Mem; e.g. in the proceedings of Rabbinical tradition and much emphasising the ideal King David, there understandably can have been many reasons to conceal YEMENITE origins of such popular king David by writing such small editorial trick of change of S letter Sin to S letter Samekh. Such early editing process can well be great attempt to conceal that also the more popular king David was of ethnical YEMENITE origin, BEN-JEMENI. First king Saul was of YEMENITE origin, Benyemeni, and also his successor the popular and ideal king David, son of “JESSE” may well have been originally known as YEMENI, JMJ and BNJMJ. The third king of Israel is Solomon, son of David and his wife Bathsheba (e.g. 2 Samuel 12 and I Kings 1). Importantly, the name of Bathsheba means “daughter of SHEBA” and this emphasises that her origins are of “SHEBA”. And the 1 Kings 10 tells of the notorious history that QUEEN OF SHEBA visited king Solomon. This chapter in whole Bible is one especially descriptive of pomp, glory and overwhelming prosperity. We thus understand that actually we here are reading of events of the glorious and mystical kingdom of SHEBA. The kingdom of SHEBA is ancient glorious kingdom in Southern Arabia, that is, of the areas of YEMEN. Let us well remember that also regions of Mecca and Medina are “approximately there”, especially in ancient geography. But YEMENITES, or “those from Southern Arabia” are importantly represented among the “tribes” of Israel, or the “ethnic groups” of Israel: many important towns were of YEMENITES, or “Benjaminites”. Saul the first king of Israel was of YEMENITE ethnos, Benjaminite. And the ideal king David was son of “JESSE” that probably conceals that he actually was also BENJAMINITE, thus also king David probably was of YEMENI ethnos. King David was succeeded in the throne by king Solomon, the son of David with his wife BATHSHEBA, or Daughter of SHEBA. And 1 Kings 10 tells of visit of Queen of SHEBA to this king Solomon. Apparently we recognise here histories how the realm of ancient Arabic kingdom of SHEBA was establishing also near to Mediterranean coast stronghold in Judah-Israel, especially for securing trade routes to Mediterranean coast. Thus are quite understandable histories of YEMENITE settlement there and first Israelite king been Yemenite king Saul, probably also king David was of Yemeni ethnos. King Solomon was son of BATSHEBA “Daughter of SHEBA” and then Queen of SHEBA visited king Solomon. With these notices we have arrived to comprehending that early Israelite monarchy of Saul, David and Solomon was apparently local monarchy of important area belonging to realm of empire of ancient SHEBA. This interesting event in ancient Ephesus recorded in Acts 19 has understandably been discussed also in Bible commenting, and we now follow discussion of some prominent modern Biblical scholars, especially notice comments of Conzelmann and Pervo, whose Commentaries on Acts are published in the important Hermeneia series (Conzelmann’s Commentary of 1987 is English translation of his originally in German published Commentary of 1963, and in Hermeneia series is published the other Commentary on Book of Acts, written by Pervo). Conzelmann comments the important formulation in Acts 19:24 DEMETRIOS GAR TIS ONOMATI, ARGUROKOPOS, POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS with noticing the POIOON NAOUS meaning “who made shrines” (thus in the English translation of Hermeneia (1987) series of his original German commentary). He notices that a NEOOPOIOS (temple official) named Demetrius indeed is mentioned in an inscription from the first century; but he also emphasises that such NEOOPOIOS is title for temple official who belongs to the administrative staff of temple of Artemis, he is not one who produces and markets small souvenir temples. Conzelmann also notices that small souvenir miniature copies of temple of Artemis of Ephesus have not been found at Ephesus. Also Pervo discusses archaeological finds in interpreting meaning of these words in Acts 19 in his newer Commentary of Acts in the Hermeneia series. He reminds that quite well known are archaeological finds of images of this goddess in niche, made of terracotta, although not in silver; but Pervo more avoids detailed discussion concerning exact character of such NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS in stating that “probably, most such objects were niches with a statue of Artemis (NAISKOI), but the important point is less Luke’s accuracy than that, by saying “temples” (NAOI), he both evoked the speeches of Stephen and Paul (7:48; 17:21)” (p.491). This statement by Pervo somewhat describes the direction of discussions concerning these mentions of Artemis and temples of Artemis in Acts 19 in more recent times, tendency of more discussing terracotta miniature shrines of Artemis. Thus I Pasi K Pohjala am here really motivated to emphasise the evidence that indeed well known are pictures of Artemis on fore-end of ship in ancient Greek coins of Leukas and Smyrna and in Thessalian MAGNETS: well motivated thus BY ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE, here in Acts 19 in words POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS are noticed apparently STANDARDISED MAGNETS DECORATED WITH PICTURE OF GODDESS ARTEMIS ON FORE-HEAD OF SHIP, PRODUCED AND DISTRIBUTED TO SEAFARERS BY SILVERSMITHS OF EPHESUS AS PART OF CULT OF ARTEMIS. SPECIAL STUDY: Book of Judges Describes Early Arab Smiths Settled in Palestine The first Chapter of Book of Judges is important in comprehending early Yemenite settlements in Palestine. Early settlement patterns are importantly noticed in 1:21 that: The Benjaminites did not dispossess the Jebusite inhabitants of Jerusalem; so the Jebusites have dwelt with the Benjaminites in Jerusalem to this day (Tanakh translation of Judges 1:21) In the scholarly research concerning Benjaminites much is noticed the alliance of Benjamin and Ephraim and that descriptions of Ephraimite regions or Ephraimite hills may somewhat include regions of Benjaminites in somewhat vague Biblical descriptions. And descriptions of federation of Gibeonite cities in early histories of Benjamin are important (see e.g. J. Blenkinsopp’s Gibeon and Israel). Alas, in Palestine geography the important Jerusalem is somewhat south of regions specifically understood being Benjaminite region. This notice of Judges 1:21 concerning Benjaminite settlement in Jerusalem, among Jebusites, is thus especially important: this description emphasises that Benjaminites from old times have been settled in Jerusalem AND that in Jerusalem Benjaminites were living together with Jebusites. This description also suggests that in Jerusalem these Yemenites were actually quite strong and powerfully living with Jebusites. It is worth noticing that Judges 1:21 does in this description mention only Benjaminites living thus with Jebusites in Jerusalem; the Benjaminites apparently thus are special group- here are no other Israelite tribe noticed. Thus also Jerusalem in some meanings is of realm of Benjaminites, that is, ARABS (YEMENITES) have been powerfully settled in Jerusalem since ancient times, told in Judges 1, there living together with Jebusites. In the Judaean hill country Jerusalem was developing one important strategic stronghold and thus was apparently important for Arabic project (of Saban empire) of establishing settlements and forts western parts of their Oriental trade routes, in Palestine. From times ancient Yemenites (Arabs) have been thus settled in the important Palestinian fort Jerusalem, Judges 1:21 describing their settlement there with Jebusites. We have learnt now histories of the YEMENITE Arab smith EHUD who was skilled handiworker of YEMENITE artisan technology, described in Judges 3:15. Now Readers certainly much ponder if this EHUD may be connected with the famous Israelite tribe JEHUD (the Judah). For modern Readers names EHUD and Judah may sound really different, BUT in the Hebrew Bible these names are almost similarly written, there is written of JEHUD, that in modern renderings is the Judah. Apparently the names EHUD and JEHUD are almost similar, thus in the writings of Hebrew Bible! (NOW in this study I prefer to write name JEHUDA to emphasise this detail that is in current discussion of Yemenite Arab settlement of importance.) Worth contemplating in Hebrew Bible is e.g. the archaic Blessing of Jacob in Genesis 49, where the words for blessing of JEHUDA begin JHWDH ATH JWDWK AHJK JDK Name JEHUDA is here commented with AHJK (“your brother”) where the word ends with letter Kaf; but ending Kaf is in Hebrew writ easily confused with ending Dalet, and Jod is easily confused with letter Waw. Recognising these details we notice similarity of the AHJK with writing Hebrew letters AHWD, and this is REALLY notable for our current discussion!!!! And in Judges 1:9 is noticed that WAHR JRDW BNJ JHWDH LHLHM BKNYNJ and also here are members of JEHUD group compared with AHWD EHUD because AHR is in Hebrew Bible surprisingly similar with AHD, the Dalet and Resh being almost similar letters. This detail is in Hebrew Bible notoriously prominent in Judg 4:15 where is in Hebrew written of AHRJ…AHRJ…and YD AHD, so that this statement provides nice and fundamentally important comparison of AHR and AHD, even name AHD of EHUD (this is detail of Hebrew consonantal script, and is not at all based on any questions of meanings of this statement in 4:15). In these archaic poetries the name JEHUDA is apparently compared with name AHWD, the name of YEMENITE ARAB EHUD (the Judges 3:15 in Hebrew Bible writes the name EHUD with the consonants AHWD)! The Blessing of Jacob in Genesis 49 is archaic blessing of the Israelite tribes, and thus its details are important in discussions of old comprehension of Israelite tribes. And this apparent comparing name JEHUD with name EHUD of YEMENITE ARAB smith warrior is now specially important. Here we now also notice the important topic concerning name Israel. Currently everyone of course has numerous times heard the name Israel, we have comprehension of contemporary state of Israel, and various level of knowledge of history of Israel in ancient times. And all this is founded mostly on the Biblical name Israel that in Old Testament so numerous times occur; almost nothing in this world seems so clear and well comprehended as the very existence of Israel and some main tenets of history of Israel. Of course we have learnt also of Ismael, the first son of Abraham, but story of Ismael is currently less regarded. In the Old Testament histories, Genesis 16 describes birth of Ismael to Abraham, by Hagar; and current comprehensions usually then notice that Abram some time thereafter expulsed Hagar with Ismael, they stayed alive and prospered, but are thereafter absent from Biblical histories that consider histories of Isaac born by Sarah. For all Readers these names Israel and Ismael might appear similar; and this is indeed fundamentally important remark. Now we make very important notice that is well known to Readers of ancient Hebrew manuscripts and fragments written in Hebrew: THE LETTERS MEM AND RES ARE NOTORIOUSLY ALMOST SIMILARLY WRITTEN. The Mem letter written inside a word in Hebrew writ looks like a triangle (approximately an equilateral triangle), and the Res letter is in many writings much like triangle without the base. This is one typical notice of many ancient Hebrew writings: the Mem letter and Res letter are notoriously much similar! And Ismael has disappeared from Biblical history, merely Gen 16 describing birth and expulsion of the first son of Abraham; and in Biblical writings everywhere is considered Israel, the Jewish folk. But the names Israel and Ismael are almost the same, and the difference between these consists in letters Mem and Res that are almost similarly written in many ancient Hebrew writs. And the name ISMAEL can easily be changed into the name Israel simply by scratching the letter Mem so that the base of the equilateral triangle Mem disappears and the remaining letter then is the Res letter: thus is easily in ancient Hebrew writs the name ISMAEL changed into name ISRAEL. This is much similar in ancient Greek manuscripts where ISMAEL written in minuscules is easily changed to name ISRAEL with simple change of Greek letter M to letter R. Current Bible now everywhere reads Israel but after Gen 16 is silent of Ismael. But we recognise that in earlier times and in earlier manuscripts, many of the words that we now recognise as name Israel, in earlier Hebrew manuscripts can have been name ISMAEL written. We thus recognise that Ismael can have been written in many those statements of Old Testament that currently notice Israel! And earlier politico-religious situation of rejection of Ismael people and Ismaelites from community venerating Old Testament, can have motivated project of comprehensive editing of Hebrew Old Testament writings in such manner that the name Ismael almost completely was erased from the Old Testament, by the above described method of simple scratching of Mem letters of Ismael names, so that remaining name was the name Israel, with Res written. So heinously simply the history of Ismaelites and Ismael in Old Testament can have been erased, and forgotten! Thus we now summarise this in simple statement IN OLD TESTAMENT WHEREVER IS NOW THE NAME ISRAEL WRITTEN, THAT NAME IN EARLY WRITS CAN HAVE BEEN THE NAME ISMAEL, BECAUSE THE HEBREW MEM LETTER IS EASILY EDITED TO LETTER RES (appearing in name Israel). EARLY POLITICO-RELIGIOUS SITUATION CAN HAVE MOTIVATED SUCH ERASING OF MEMORIES OF ISMAEL AND ISMAELITES FROM PAGES OF HEBREW BIBLE (AND THIS ALSO REALISING PRACTICAL EXPULSION OF ISMAELITES FROM BIBLE-READING COMMUNITIES.) THIS IS UTTERLY SERIOUS. It is worth remembering that during the lengthy and eventful history of Jewish people the SHEMA, ISRAEL is the central in Jewish prayers and liturgy. Actually the centrally important comparison of letters Mem and Res appears in these words and thus notoriously importantly reminds of importance of comparison of Res and Mem letters, and thus also of the issue of Israel and Ismael. We shall see that in Book of Judges this Israel and Ismael is important detail in the histories of Gideon. We now more read the important archaic Judges 1, especially remembering the similarity of name JEHUD of that Israelite tribe, with the name EHUD of YEMENITE ARAB smith warrior, more described in Judges 3. The writings of Judges 1 importantly notices especially doings of JEHUD and BENJAMIN, but are more silent concerning doings of other tribes. We learn in Judges 1:10 WJLK JHWDH AL HKNYNJ HJWSB BHBRWN WSM HBRWN LPNJM QRJT ARBY Here is described that members of JEHUD group marched against Canaanites who dwelt in Hebron and here is emphasised that at those old times name of Hebron was “ARAB-CITY” (QIRYAT ARBA). Thus we learn that JEHUD conquered place in Hebron and that the city in those old times was known as “ARAB CITY”. Also this emphasises ancient traditions of comprehending JEHUD being Arabs, the important settlement of JEHUD in Hebron was known as “ARAB-CITY”. Logically it is easy to comprehend that also the remarkable EHUD smith of Judges 3:15 was YEMENITE ARAB and practised his artisan skills of YEMENITE ARAB technology. And in histories of Judges 1, this JEHUD has special prominence, this book beginning emphasising in 1:2 WJAMR JHWH JHWDH JYLH This statement thus here specially distinguishes JEHUD among tribes of Israel, in this historiography of Book of Judges. Thus we learn in Judges 1 that Benjamin group, YEMENITE ARABS, settled in Jerusalem permanently and lived there together with Jebusites (1:21) apparently thus securing Arab presence in that important Palestine fort, for securing Yemenite settling at Palestine beside Mediterranean coast, in western end of their Oriental trade routes. Thus is of special importance to read in Judges 1:18 description that JEHUD conquered AZZA (GAZA), ASHKELON and EQRON, these with their surrounding areas. This is short description but its meaning in reality is enormous: here is simply stated that JEHUD conquered the main harbours of Palestine, GAZA and ASHKELON. And EQRON is neighbour to ASHDOD. Here is described early military campaign of Yemenite Arabs in Palestine, apparently for securing trade route to Mediterranean coast of their Oriental trade; they settled in Jerusalem, Hebron, and conquered important harbours Gaza, Ashkelon and Eqron (maybe also Ashdod region). Readers find even in the recent scholarly consensus expressed in Anchor Bible Dictionary (art. Benjamin, Vol. 1) interesting indirect diplomatic formulation reminding that considerations of Yemen ARE important in reading traditions of Biblical Benjamin; the article discusses this detail in comparing birth narrative of Benjamin where name Ben-Oni was changed to Ben-Jamin, finding interesting comparison in descriptions of land of Yemen being “land of south” and Arabia Felix; thus Readers are actually implicit exhorted to contemplate relation of land of Yemen with notices of Benjamin, even if the article, understandably, refrains from discussing clearly possibility of finding in the name reference to land Yemen. We learn in the Book of Judges much important events in very old histories of Palestine, events mostly of Early Iron age in Palestine. Campaigns of GIDEON are in those histories very prominent. One important event also very descriptive of the ethnic situation occurs after GIDEON’s victorious campaign, and importantly in this history are names ISRAEL and ISMAEL interestingly compared. Thus we now study the already above stated important tenet that IN OLD TESTAMENT WHEREVER IS NOW THE NAME ISRAEL WRITTEN, THAT NAME IN EARLY WRITS CAN HAVE BEEN THE NAME ISMAEL, BECAUSE THE HEBREW MEM LETTER IS EASILY EDITED TO LETTER RES (appearing in name Israel). EARLY POLITICO-RELIGIOUS SITUATION CAN HAVE MOTIVATED SUCH ERASING OF MEMORIES OF ISMAEL AND ISMAELITES FROM PAGES OF HEBREW BIBLE (AND THIS ALSO REALISING PRACTICAL EXPULSION OF ISMAELITES FROM BIBLE-READING COMMUNITIES.) The events after victorious campaign of Gideon are described in Judges 8:22-24. There is noticed dialogue between Gideon and men of Israel, the 8:22 commences WJAMRW AJS JSRAL AL GDYWN Usually is BNJ JSRAL in Hebrew Bible written to designate “Israelites” generally, so that here noticed AJS JSRAL is notable formulation, apparently noticing special representatives of Israel who were thus debating with Gideon. Importantly, here is described situation of political character, so that language is more referring to circumstances of politics and institutions of society. Apparently here Israelite representants suggest to Gideon to become the king; language and descriptions reflect institutions of society. In this situation Gideon states importantly a request to those chiefs of Israel that each of them would give to Gideon one golden earring; they had golden earrings because they were Ishmaelites. Thus we come to consider the notoriously important question: who had those earrings because they were Ishmaelites? Is thus noticed those Midianites that Gideon had won- this is (understandably) emphasised in the Tanakh translation. But rather this text here describes these chiefs of Israel THEMSELVES: the Judges 8:24 notoriously states that Israelite chiefs had golden earrings because THEY THEMSELVES WERE ISHMAELITES! We thus understand the specially important description in Judges 8:22-24 that there are recognised the political entity Israel and that chiefs of that political entity were themselves ISHMAELITES. Apparently here is described political entity Israel and noticed that chiefs (and also the general population) of this political entity were ethnically of ISHMAELITE ethnicity. Here is mainly concerned the statement of Hebrew Bible that WTNW LJ AJS NZM SLLW KJ NZMJ ZHB LHM KJ JSMYALJM HM For the question concerning possessing the golden earrings central is the SLLW word. This word in Hebrew Bible generally describes wealth and possessions and thus does not indicate that those defeated Midyans were ISHMAELITES. Rather, here the Hebrew Bible writes of SLLW generally noticing the possessions and wealth of those chiefs of Israel themselves. The usual and apparently fundamentally important question in Bible reading is the question concerning “Who were the Israelites?” Considering these descriptions of campaigns of Gideon in Judges 6-8, we find the answer in THIS case, stated in Judges 8:22-24 that men belonging to the political entity Israel were themselves ISMAELITES, that is, ethnically these chiefs were Arabic. Thus the Book of Judges notoriously often describes ancient settlement and activities of Arabs in land of Palestine in those times of Early Palestinian Iron Age (Iron Age I). In the Book of Judges 6-8 we learn of ancient military campaign of Medina towards these Palestinian areas. Normally this is presented as campaign of MIDYAN to these regions, but understandable Readers easily comprehend that actually here is presented campaign by MEDINA forces, apparently in order to secure Mediterranean trade routes. And the Judges 6-8 present then how then local ISHMAELITE ARABS led by GIDEON, made resistance for such campaign. Apparently the rich iron ore finds in Midyan area were for ancient MEDINA important; the Midyan was famous in ancient world and in Bible for their rich iron finds. Importantly we consider description of Judg 6:1 that WJTNM JHWH BJD MDJN SBY SNJM Usually this is comprehended to describe that God delivered them to power of Midyan for seven years. Apparently, however, this statement refers to the empire of SABA! Rendering is thus And God delivered them to power of MEDINA (that is, SABA) for years! The Hebrew SBY is here usually rendered as referring to seven (similarly as in name Beersheba according to usual comprehension “seven-wells”). But apparently writer here notices the military rule of SABA empire, by MEDINA one of main cities of SABAN empire and allies. Thus is described in Judges 6:1-2 that God delivered them to power of MEDINA (that is, SABA) for years, and MEDINA ruled over region of Israel. The 6:3 (and 6:33) specifies that in this campaign participated forces of MEDINA, and Amaleq, and Eastern People (BNJ QDM), apparently forces of QEDAR people, and very important notice is that this campaign extended to the GAZA; indeed this describes ancient campaign to secure that important Mediterranean harbour GAZA, near to regions of Beersheba; and Hebrew Bible here describes that WJHNW YLJHM WJSHJTW AT JBWL HARZ YD BWAK YZH (Gaza) In this notice of WJSHJTW we probably hear reference to ancient furnace metalworking that was in Beersheba regions widely ancient practised, and the statement emphasises establishing connection with harbour GAZA. The ancient metalworking especially working iron is important in history of Midyan region, and here we recognise apparent traditions that these forces of MEDINA (SABA) did the metalworking practise also in these regions,up to GAZA harbour. Also is interesting 6:5 that KJ HM WMQNJHM JYLW WAHLJHM JBAW KDJ ARBH LRB WLHM WLGMLJHM AJN MSPR This notorious statement notices their METALWORKERS MQNJHM; they and their metalworkers came in large numbers, like Arabs of KEDAR, and the LOHEM smiths; and their carriages were innumerable. (Remember well that QJN in Arabic notices metalworkers and iron workers and this informs much of meaning of Biblical QJN word (see BDB 883)- for example, Judges 4:11 reminds that the father-in-law of MOSES, himself was of QJN group (HBR HQJNJ NPRD MQJN MBNJ HBB HTN MSH).) Interesting notice is also the 6:7 describing how these ISRAEL-ISMAELITES cried to JHWH concerning YL ADWT MDJN, but apparently is here noticed the EHUD of MEDINA (the Hebrew Dalet and Waw easily are confused with letter He), we motivated here read the name EHUT or EHUD of troops of MEDINA, apparently noticing leader or chief of the troops (cf. Arabic HUDA notices to lead and direct), quite similarly with the histories of YEMENITE SMITH EHUD who made sword and brought rescue to ISRAEL-ISMAELITES, described in Judges 3. Also AHD appears in divine promise to Gideon strengthening him to the campaign, the 6:16 emphasising AHJH YMK WHKJT AT MDJN KAJS AHD Also here the AHD appears, and in the context of Book of Judges we should remember the leader EHUD of Judges 3, and also here in Judges 6 described leader EHUD of MEDINA; thus this prophesy assigns

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