Thursday, 4 July 2013

iron in Bible part 3

Apparently, in that tent, Jael prepared BARAD meteoric iron products with other workers Interestingly, this tent AHL rather seems to be some ancient workshop of early smiths. Also is interesting to read in this poem the Judges 5:19b-20 describing BZY KSP LA LQHW MN SMJM NLHMW Comprehending the LHM noticing LOHEM activities of smiths, this emphasises that smiths were producing of that coming from heavens, the heavenly metal or meteorite iron. Noticing this description of HLM hammering, we now proceed to consider SECOND apparently important mythological event in Book of Judges, the narrative of Judges 3 describes important help to these ancient Israelites by warrior and judge the Yemenite JEHUD. Here Judges 3:15ff describes how Eglon king of Moab seriously warred against Israelites, but Israelites cried to the Lord and He raised JEHUD to deliver them, narrated in Hebrew Bible WJZYQW BNJ JSRAL AL JHWH WJQM JHWH LHM MWSJY AT AHWD BN Gera BN HJMJNJ AJS ATR JD JMJNJ WJSLHW BNJ JSRAL BJDW MNHH LYGLWN (Eglon) MLK Moab WJYS LW AHWD HRB WLH SNJ PJWT GMD ARKH WJHGR AWTH MTHT LMDJW YL JRK JMJNJ (Judges 3:15-16) This is very archaic description. We notice here how JHWH raised to Israelites LHM MWSJY AT AHWD, and this Jehud made a sword (WJYS LW AHWD HRB). In this archaic mythological description from very old times of early iron age, we read myth of helper JEHUD who was Smith LOHEM and how he made (YSH) a sword. Importantly, this description presents this Jehud being Yemenite, so that this is archaic description of Arabic metal worker in Israel who delivered Israel with this then very high technology, producing sword. The descriptions of ethnicity of this EHUD are here important and interesting. Hebrew Bible writes his name and describes his character AHWD BN Gera BN HJMJNJ AJS ATR JD JMJNJ In this sentence BN HJMJNJ is clearly compared with here noticed group BNJ JSRAL, the “Israelites”, so that in this sentence the BN HJMJNJ emphatically notices his belonging to certain ethnic group. This is here vocalised traditionally Ben Hajemini; but the consonantal text of Hebrew Bible being sacred, the vocalisations more express certain traditions of reading the consonants and usually in interpretations are questioned and much pondered. Similarly motivated we here can read the Hebrew BN HJMJNJ vocalised Ben Hajemeni, that exactly refers to YEMEN and ethnicity of this EHUD in the group of YEMENITE-ARABS then settled in Palestine. And thus specially worth is noticing that Septuagint here indeed reads HUION GEERA HUIOU TOU IEMENI (thus Codex Alexandrinus; importantly, Codex Vaticanus reads similarly except reading accusative HUION- importantly, also the Codex Vaticanus has preserved this tradition of Yemenite Jehud). In this study we soon consider more attestations of Yemenites in Septuagint. This statement presents this EHUD being BN HJMJNJ, Yemenite, and notices in Hebrew Bible also that AJS ATR JD JMJNW and this description now much more characterises this JEHUD; Septuagint renders this ANDRA AMFOTERODEKSION. Thus we find that this EHUD is described skilled YEMENITE artisan handiworker, the JAD here apparently refers to EHUD’s professional doing handiwork. Alas, in modern translations this is often rendered merely as noticing EHUD as “left-handed” man. This logically understandable description then here is completed with describing how this EHUD made himself a sword- in those times, doing metalwork of smiths was really the high-tech and thus overwhelmingly appreciated. Of course in many texts such rendering is reasonable, but in this statement JD JMJNW is apparent description of his practise of art of smiths of YEMENITE technology. This description in Book of Judges describes life of early Israelite Iron age, the early period that in research often is denoted Iron Age 1. There are then important questions concerning beginnings of iron working in Israel; usually is comprehended that such advanced technologies were learnt from Northern cultures, especially from scions of Hittite culture; often invention of iron and iron working is ascribed in research to Hittites. But this tradition of Judges 3 describing those early times clearly shows that historiography of Bible here describes in early pre-monarchic Israel active settled YEMENITE smith EHUD who made himself sword. And this EHUD is also characterised here being ATR; it is important to remember that in Hebrew Bible smiths and artisans usually are called HRS, and this much resembles this ATR especially noticing the usual S/T interchange of letters; and ATR can also denote place thus describing this EHUD as in Israel settled local metalsmith. Here we learn importantly of doings of YEMENITE metalsmith JEHUD Because this archaic iron age myth of deliverer Jehud specifically notices how this Jehud MADE FOR HIMSELF A SWORD (YSH), we are specially motivated to comprehend this LHM as LOHEM, presenting this mythological early iron age hero JEHUD as LOHEM SMITH. Apparently his metal working knowledge was Arabic technology because this Jehud was Yemenite. This is apparently very important very archaic early iron age Israelite myth of Yemenite SMITH JEHUD who produced for himself a sword and thereafter delivered Israel from oppression of this Eglon. In the Hebrew Bible, we find this AHWD name only here in Judges 3, thus describing this Jehud son of Gera; and once such name occurs in 1 Chron 7:10 in list of sons of Yediael (maybe we hear a tradition of Jeddah). And the name Ohan (thus the AHD consonants differently vocalised) is found in Gen 46:10 and Exodus 6:15 in lists of sons of Simeon- importantly, both lists mention Yemen (JMJN) and Ohad and others. Also Isaiah 44:12 is now of considerable interest, we find the Tanakh rendering this description of working of ironsmith in words JHD The craftsman in iron, with his tools, works it over charcoal And fashions it by hammering working with the strength of his arm For the current discussion of the myth of Ehud in Judges 3 here commented, it is notably important that this description of Isaiah 44:12 of ironsmith is in Hebrew Bible preceded with the Hebrew word JHD. Once more we remind to the Readers that division into verses is quite late invention introduced as a “help” to Readers (it is not at all considered holy), but it is famous for often destroying semantics of the Hebrew text (and those of ancient translations). In scholarly Bible study thus is always and everywhere the first procedure to forget the division into verses and to read the text in the manner the ancient Readers were encountering the text (indeed, they were often reading lectio continua; and even the handwritings of copyists were slightly different). Now we thus find in this Isaiah 44:12 notoriously clear statement of JHD or JEHUD, “craftsman in iron”, and his working methods! Usually modern Bible translations (thus also Tanakh) follow division into verses, and read this JHD in preceding 44:11 and comprehending this JHD meaning “together”; these are different vocalisations of this JHD word. But importantly, thus we here find in Isaiah 44:12 description of ironsmith JEHUD and his working methods. Terminology in Hebrew Bible here is clear, writing of HRS BRZL the ironsmith. We recognise that the term JEHUD may have been developing to professional title of originally Arabic metalsmiths in those regions. Then we now also consider more details in the early narratives of book of Judges. Simson is famous early mythological individual in histories of Israel, and the Judges 14 tells famous myth of Simson’s riddle concerning honey. Importantly, the events of Judges 14 are located in Timnah, apparently the site east of Ashdod. Hebrew Bible writes notorious details, and thus we scrupulously read in Judges 14:12 words WJAMR LHM Simson AHWDH NA LKM HJDH These words of Hebrew Bible deserve much pondering compared with mentions of SMITH-warrior JEHUD in Judges 3; namely, here in Judges 14:12 are also written AHWDH and LHM words! We find here notice of LOHEM smith warrior Simson, and apparently the AHWDH denotes his belonging to JEHUD-style smiths! Here is noticed that Simson challenged audience with that famous HIDA riddle concerning honey production; but notoriously important riddle is actually here concealed in the words AHWD and LHM, because they refer to JEHUD-style smiths; in those times of early Iron age, the “JEHUD” may have been, notoriously, title of professional (Arabic) smiths. Now we also consider details describing times narrated in Judges 4, describing times after the death of this JEHUD. Then king Jawin of Canaan oppressed Israel and the leader of his forces was the Sisera; already we have noticed details in the archaic poetry in Judges 5 praising the victory over Sisera when Jael assassinated him by hammering into him a chisel or peg. It is worthy noticing that the forces of Sisera were esteemed very strong, especially is his forces of nine hundreds chariots of iron mentioned in Judges 4:3 (RKB BRZL). Thus we notice details in Judges 4:3 describing TSY MAWT RKB BRZL LW WHWA LHZ AT BNJ JSRAL BHZQH Here are iron chariots RKB BRZL noticed, and importantly then is written LWWHWA LHZ where the LHZ forceful activities noticed with iron BRZL, and this also more clarifies meaning of LHM LOHEM smith’s activities. In the archaic descriptions of Book of Judges, we now consider more also statement in Judges 2:15 noticing that BKL ASR JZAW JD JHWH HJTH BM LRYH KASR DBR JHWH WKASR NSBY JHWH LHM WJZR LHM Meod WJQM JHWH SPTJM WJWSJYWM Now we notice here the words LHM WJZR LHM Meod. These are comprehended currently usually describing bringing serious affliction, thus reading the Hebrew WJZR as form of ZRR noticing bringing affliction and hostilities (BDB 865). However, the JZR verb (of root J-Z-R) is in Hebrew Bible very important verb noticing to form, or to fashion (BDB 427). The JZR is in Hebrew Bible VERY important indeed, already in the Creation Narrative Genesis 2:7 describing creation of man from the dust of earth WJJZR JHWH ALHJM AT HADM YPR MN HADMH stated there in Hebrew Bible. Usually reading Hebrew Bible, clarification to this JZR activity of forming and moulding is found in actions of POTTER who forms vessels out of a CLAY; thus is usually JZR comprehended e.g. in Isa 29:16 and 41:25 and Jer 18:4-6 (discussions of this very important Hebrew JZR verb are important, e.g. in TDOT). Also are in current consensus found JZR activities of wood material, by carving. However, here in Judges 2:15 we now read of LHM WJZR LHM Meod. We have found in Judges the clear description of LOHEM smith Jehud who made for himself a sword; and words JEHUD and LOHEM are interestingly connected in Judges in narrative of Simson’s HIDA riddle. Thus we apparently find here in Judges 2:15 notoriously LHM WJZR LHM Meod LOHEM Smith, and JOZER Form-giver, the Great LOHEM Smith! Now it is also worth considering that this designation ere is written after Tetragrammaton. In theology, discussions concerning methods and manners of divine creating are one very important and also especially difficult discussions (e.g. discussions concerning creation ex nihilo; or comprehending Creator rather in terms of Demiourgos; and clarifications of Biblical descriptions of Creator, compared with more pantheistic notions, e.g. later in Stoicising environment etc; and these are dogmatically very important issues and thus here NOT more discussed). Now we interestingly notice this mention of LOHEM WEJOZER LOHEM MEOD, noticing LOHEM Smith and JOZER Form-giver, the GREAT LOHEM Smith! And we continue now studying some more terminology in the Book of Judges, where Judges 18 notices different types of artefacts efod (APWD), terafim (TRPJM), a carved idol (PSL) and molten idol (MSKH) (v.14) In this narrative also are noticed six hundred armed men AJS HGWRJM KLJ MLHMTM (v.15) Such contrast is also found in Judges 18:17-19; in this archaic narrative differences of terminology are interesting, especially remembering that LOHEM notices practises of smiths. 2. Words designating iron (and steel) in Hebrew Bible: BARZEL and blessed BARAD Studies of descriptions of iron and steel in Hebrew Bible and old translations shall specifically consider also nomenclature of iron. Now it is of course well known that the word BARZEL in Hebrew Bible is currently widely recognised as word that denotes iron (or some kind of ancient steel). One important scholarly consensus for rendering BARZEL words in Hebrew Bible is the article of BDB of BARZEL; and there the BARZEL words of Hebrew Bible are recognised to denote iron, iron-ores, such material to be worked, material of furniture, utensils, implements etc. BARZEL also in Hebrew Bible is widely recognised to notice some iron tools, axe heads, various weapons; and symbolically iron in Hebrew Bible understandably notices strength. Also in later Mishnaic and Talmudic writings most important meaning of BARZEL is iron and there the word also often denotes iron tools (J 191). One interesting comprehension of BARZEL word is BAR-ZEL where the ZEL is comprehended of NZL that denotes flowing, dripping and even raining down (BDB 633) thus the BAR-ZEL designates “son of rain”; indeed, early the iron was usually comprehended as heaven metal or heavenly metal because produced from meteorites (that actually yield excellent iron, almost steel like strong alloy!) History of iron and steel has understandably been much discussed among scholars, and one good concise all well thought summary reflecting the main tenets of this discussion is by R J Forbes in his important Studies in Ancient Technology (Vol IX), where Chapter 9 specially notices “The nomenclature of iron” and discusses numerous important scholarly writings of recent decades. For the history of BARZEL especially important is the Assyrian PARZILLU word. Scholars have during decades much discussed BARZEL word and etymology of BARZEL and Assyrian PARZILLU words; and amongst important scholarly discussions are those of Hommel, Bork and Gaerte concerning these debates of etymology. Abracadabra. We notice that in recent discussions scholars widely have agreed that the first appearances of iron was in form of meteorites. Currently we of course consider iron as metal that is with much struggle dug in mines of iron ore, molten and thereafter usually cast to various products in elaborate processes. These processes of iron and steel industry are, however, technologically very advanced processes and have been tediously developed during centennial and millennia. Scholars currently widely recognise that first appearances of iron were in meteorites that were found. Reading Old Testament and regarding questions of iron (and steel) it is important to notice that “meteoric (celestial) iron is fairly widespread. It is interesting to note that the density of the recorded meteorites can be correlated with the density of population of the regions mentioned and therefore many arid and unpeopled regions may hold far more meteorites than we know. Again in the Ancient Near East the natural stock of meteorites will have largely disappeared in the course of history” (Forbes IX, 177). Also it is important to notice that usually meteoric iron contains 5-26percent of nickel (in average 7.5percent) and some few percents of cobalt. (Studying ancient iron objects detection of nickel (and cobalt) in the iron object is always important indication that the origin of the iron material was then meteoric iron. Importantly, in meteors such alloy of iron with nickel (and cobalt) does produce very high quality iron products, almost resembling the splendid qualities of modern steel. Also importantly, recent studies have confirmed that meteoric iron is practically always malleable, more than 99percent of the known meteorites consist of malleable iron-nickel alloy (Forbes IX, 213, quoting results of Zimmer); this is apparently very important aspect of use of meteorites for iron production- practically every meteorite thus could be used for iron production. In ancient times meteorites were very important in early iron production. Later we make more remarks of those abundant iron ore finds in Sinai and Eastern Egypt nearer to coastal regions of Red Sea; but such iron had to be excavated by difficult and tedious processes. Meteoric iron is in early iron production very important. Thus we consider in Hebrew Bible some notorious mentions of BRD (Barad) “hailstones”. Importantly, Arabic tradition does recognise BARAD designating hail and hailstones; but Arabic verb BARADA has also another important meaning describing practises of metal working, to file a piece of metal, and MIBRAD notices in Arabic files and rasps; and BIRADA notices milling as part of metal industry; and BARRAD is a tool cutter. Interestingly, the BDB tradition does clarify the Hebrew BRD root by referring to Arabic BARADA meaning “be or become cold” (BDB 135); but importantly, this meaning is only ONE of the usual meanings of Arabic BARADA- and indeed, following the OTHER usual meaning of Arabic BARADA word we now promptly consider practises of metal industry and metal working; but such meaning is, regrettably, silently bypassed. Now we shall improve the discussion for rejoicing of all Readers! We also importantly remember that some Jewish documents from Egypt of Hellenistic times refer to iron products as BALLATHA of Jews; these traditions much further motivate comprehending Hebrew BARAD

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