Monday, 28 January 2013
VERRE ET BIBLE FIFTEEN Where is Your Jerusalem? By Pasi K Pohjala January 28, 2013 (part 2/2) Jerusalem; but in this context especially the remarkable name MAHER SHALAL HAZ BAZ being MHRSLLH alerts Readers to consider also matters of harbours whose waters also are silent. In this notorious name MAHER-SHALAL-HAZ-BAZ would thus be possibly referred to harbours whose waters are silent and calm. We now consider descriptions in Ezek 36:2 HAH WBMWT YWLM LMWRSH HJTH LNW We notice here written MWRSH that vocalised is quite similar to the MURSAHA that in Surat HUD denotes a harbour; and this statement write of Bamot Olam. Usually this is rendered with “ancient high places”- but in the society of Israel and legitimate places of worship, such BAMOT had really central status- the BAMOT were anciently in Israel legitimate altars, legitimate places of worship. Marcus Jastrow concisely summarises this now really important detail “Bamah, name of the legitimate altars prior to, and of the illegitimate after, the establishment of a central sanctuary (at Shiloh) and of the Temple at Jerusalem” (Jastrow 176). However, now we in the current study are questioning the meaning of “Jerusalem” and arguing that “Jerusalem” is noun designating ancient harbours and safe anchorages, rather than being name of only one ancient city. Bamot high places are of course usually considered having been established only in hills. But now we comprehend TRANSLATION: HAA! For us were ancient BAMOT sanctuaries in Harbours! (Translation Pasi K Pohjala 2013) This statement of Ezekiel 36:2 thus increases our comprehension of the structure of old Israelite harbours MURSAHA- there was usually BAMOT “high place” sanctuary. (Hereby I am not suggesting that Bamot high places sanctuaries were located only in harbours; rather these apparently ancient lighthouse edifices were found in harbours and in important places around country for guiding travellers with their lights; more detailed discussion of importance of lighthouses and such tower edifices for ancient Israelite navigating and directing routes across land is in my recent Commentary of Book of Malachi, also in Verre et Bible series, published recently in December 2012 and rapidly becoming increasingly popular already now in beginning of year 2013! I acknowledge that I am really encouraged for Readers’ ever increasing interest and thus I, Pasi K Pohjala, pledge to powerfully and effectively continue my progressing publishing of Biblical Studies, to so much rejoicing of many Readers! With much thankfulness: apparently the VEB Verre et Bible publishing Series of my Biblical studies is increasingly becoming VIP). But HERE in Ezekiel 36:2 we find noticed ancient BAMOT sanctuaries in MURSAHA harbours. Importantly, language in this context is very clearly describing ancient harbours. Thus we read here in Ezek 36:3 JYN BJYN SMWT WSAP ATKM MSBJB LHJWTKM MWRSH LSARJT HGWJM Here is written concerning the MURSAHA and that it is placed amidst waves swallowed all around (SAP, and YN can notice wallowing); this is realistic description of a harbour place in coastal line beside swallowing waves of the high seas. This is nice description of MURSAHA harbour in ancient Israel, and notice of ancient BAMOT (sg. BAMA) sanctuary in this harbour (apparently some taller tower like edifice in the harbour, like a lighthouse); and notice how this harbour was from all sides swallowed up amidst waves. Also we read in Ezekiel 11 statement written of Jerusalem and Mursaha, reading 11:14ff that “Then the word of the Lord came to me: “O mortal, your brothers, your brothers, the men of your kindred, all of that very house of Israel (KL BJT JSRAL KLH) to whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem (JSBJ JRWSLM) say, ‘Keep far from the Lord; the land has been given as a heritage to us (LNW HJA NTNH HARZ LMWRSH)” (Tanakh translation) This is interesting statement that in the vocabulary of Ezekiel much specifies his statements concerning Israel, Jerusalem and MURSAHA. Clearly in this statement are very importantly “Jerusalem” and “MURSAHA” actually identified. Here is recorded saying of the “inhabitants of Jerusalem” maintaining that the area concerned had been given to them as MURSAHA. Importantly, MURSAHA is clearly here presented as some area or place (ARZ), it is not something abstract such as money, and “Jerusalem” is here apparently presented also as place noticing the inhabitants of “Jerusalem”. Thus is actually the meaning of “Jerusalem” explained with the term MURSAHA, that is: this statement indeed presents “Jerusalem” as old noun that designates harbours. Also is notable that this context in prophesy of Ezekiel 11-12 really specifically notices matters concerning with seafaring. This statement notices namely AHJK AHJK ANSJ GALTK, Tanakh translation noticing “your brothers, your brothers, the men of your kindred”, and the word GALTK is here especially noteworthy in THIS context of Ezekiel 11-12. Boat construction is clearly described in the following 12:3 with GL words, stating WATH BN ADM YSH LK KLJ GWLH WGLH JWMM LYJNJHM WGLJT MMQWMK; I have recently discussed also this description of old seafaring in my Commentary Nahum)). Thus is more understandable here stated “Say then: Thus said the Lord God: I have indeed removed them far among the nations and have scattered them among the countries, and I have become to them a diminished sanctity (Miqdash- “sanctuary”) in the countries whither they have gone” (Tanakh translation Ezekiel 11:16) This statement of Ezekiel 11 describes notoriously the situation of people scattered around, among different countries and different folks: God Himself has become to them small Sanctuary (AHJ LHM LEMIQDASH MYT BARZWT ASR BAW SM). With this description it is really understandable that “Jerusalem” is here in Ezek 11:14ff actually identified with the MURSAHA place (harbour or safe haven). We read some more descriptions also in Psalm 61. I have in my preceding Commentary of Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 more discussed the notorious details of vision production (MIKHTAM and Greek rendering STEELOGRAFIA) described in those Psalms. However, Psalm 61 is NOT a Mikhtam Psalm- in this Mikhtam Psalm genre are reckoned Old Testament Psalms 56-60 and 16 where the MIKHTAM is noticed; and the theme “Jerusalem” or MWRSH is in the Mikhtam Psalms not important. Furthermore, the Psalm 62 is Psalm of Jeduthun and has certain importance in the histories of Obadiah and Temple Musicians, and this Psalm 62 has been therefore somewhat discussed in my recent Commentary to Book of Obadiah. Neither Psalm 62 discusses “Jerusalem”. Now we consider some details in Psalm 61 that are clearly important for current discussion concerning MURSAHA and “Jerusalem”. Ideologically is noteworthy that in this Psalm 61 is apparently emphasised matters concerning to seafaring KJ ATH ALHJM SMYT LNDRJ NTT JRST JRAJ SMK JMJM YL JMJ MLK TWSJP SNWTJW KMW DR WDR We can read the JMJM YL JMJ being from JAM “sea” even if translations prefer to read here the JOM “day” (this is one of the famous and actually quite often occurring puns of reading Hebrew Bible). Recognising this apparent detail notices in this statement strongly matters concerning seafaring. We thus notice that NTT JRST JRAJ SMK describing how God has given JRSH HARBOUR to those who honour his name, those from Seas; and here is also noticed that God has enthroned a king over the seas. Also is worth noticing the Hebrew word TNHNJ that is form with sg.1 suffix (NJ) and formed of NH; the apparent reference to NH or NOAH clearly refers Readers to attentively here consider matters of seafaring, especially when JAM seas clearly here are discussed. Actually quite nice description of piers is here alluded to in writing of “ends of the earth” in the meaning that quite concretely indeed piers of harbours are “ends of earth”; here Psalm 61:3 writes of MQZH HARZ. This sentences namely also notices TWP floating, and the BBZWR notices also such places that are surrounded by bars, such as balconies (or piers, see Jastrow 183). Thus are in this Psalm 61 interestingly noticed seas and harbours JRSH. Important seafaring traditions are written in Isaiah 33-34, and we now notice first Isa 33:21 and 34:1 stating “for there the Lord in his greatness shall be for us like a region of rivers, of broad streams, where no floating vessel can sail and no mighty craft can travel (BL TLK BW ANJ SWT WZJ ADJR LA JYBRNW) - their ropes are slack, they cannot steady the sockets of their masts, they cannot spread a sail…approach, O nations, and listen, give heed O peoples! Let the earth and those in it hear, the world (WMLAH TBL) and what it brings forth” (the Tanakh translation). Here is the TBL importantly written in description of floating vessels. The Isa 33:8 also emphasises words of rising, QWM and RWM and the 33:10 notices TEBEL here in Isaiah. And in this discussion Isaiah writes of Jerusalem in words “Your eyes shall behold Jerusalem as a secure homestead (YJNJK TRJAJNH JRWSLM NWH SANN) A tent not to be transported, whose pegs shall never be pulled up, and none of whose ropes shall break” (Tanakh translation) Readers comprehend that thus is Jerusalem here connected to NOAH traditions, thus to the Biblical traditions of seafaring, in writing of this NWH; and the SANN also refers to the ANJH noun, usual word in Hebrew for ships and boats. What is, then, such notable tent AHL edifice? Apparently here is described a tent like edifice where boat was resting (NH) in the landing place, and this harbour place with this boatshed tent edifice is here called “Jerusalem”. Also in important seafaring description in Ezekiel 27 we find interesting references to floating. The Ezekiel 27:28 writes namely in Hebrew Bible that LQWL ZYQT HBLJK JRYSW MGRSWT In the current Study we here below shall more notice these emphasised RS words JRYSW MGRSWT, that they are important words of seafaring life that describe how boats are in anchorage tossing and shaking much (RYS), so well known for every sailor, and the MGRSWT noticing the safe anchorages and safe harbours (cf. Mursaha in Surat HUD and Mersa coastal harbour cities- for more discussion, see below). Here we notice LQWL ZYQT HBLJK where also THB is written, somewhat appropriately with word HBL noticing these captains, they apparently being important for keeping boats and ships afloat. Below we shall comment the SYR word of tossing and shaking with “Following the Tanakh translation we then question HOW such isles and islands might tremble or quake? Obvious answer of course is that they look somehow like seen from a boat- seen from the quaking boat the islands indeed seem quite much trembling (even if the islands themselves are strong and stable), the quaking and tossing of those islands is caused by the quaking of place of observer, that the islands are Also in Haggaj 2:6-7 is important detail that RYS words in Old Testament notice Harbours and safe havens; thus “Jerusalem” is not name for one city but old noun for safe harbours. We study now details of Haggaj 2:6-7, especially the Hebrew RYS word; and thus we comment that very large and important question of Old Testament study, namely question concerning meaning of the numerous RYS words in Hebrew Bible. We shall notice that often also these RYS words importantly notice anchorage, safe havens and safe harbours. In Quran we remember the Sura HUD where the safe anchorage is noticed MURSAHA. Thus we even more consider that quite big question of Biblical research, to what extent Old Testament and especially Apocrypha of Old Testament describe reality of ancient maritime empire. Of course Readers much consider that mostly Old Testament describes events in ancient times in the area that we currently know as Palestine (or Israel), and many happenings generally in regions of modern areas of Jordania, Syria, Egypt and especially Lebanon. But we shall see that notoriously much Old Testament describes reality of such regime and rule that was a naval trade empire, stretching from East to West. Thus one important detail is that we notice reality typical of such naval empires- and thus are questions of harbours and safe havens of very big importance. The current writer Pasi K Pohjala also recently has discussed previously question of distant ancient trade settlements and trade voyages between these trade stations in discussing writings of the GOLA in Old Testament. Usually is GOLA seen as quite hapless and unhappy exile, and pious are looking forward to divine help to gather together pious from such utterly wretched situation. But I have recently put forward important argumentation in the tradition that comprehends such GOLA rather as description of reality of maritime trade empire whose trade posts and trade settlements are located in distant areas and much of activity of that regime is concerning the successful voyages between these settlements, so that trade, commerce and cultural exchange are reality. Now we more study the question of HARBOURS in Old Testament, studying RYS words in Old Testament Now we more study the question of HARBOURS in Old Testament, studying RYS words in Old Testament, also in Haggaj 2:6-7. We notice the currently understood usual lexical meanings of RYS words (and some similar words) in Hebrew Bible. Marcus Jastrow translates RYS with “to tremble, be in commotion, rage” and the Hifil as “to shake, disturb”. And Marcus Jastrow notices the noun RYS with “commotion, earthquake” (p. 1489). Everyone who has been in a boat or travelled in a smaller ship well knows how much these are shaking and are trembling. Boats and ships in anchorage especially much are shaking and are in disturbance. And the BDB (that is fundamentally continuing and developing the Gesenius) notices the RYS “quake, shake” and “tremble, quake, toss rage (of sea)” (BDB 950). It is now really important to notice that the BDB that is based on Gesenius and is thereby developed during generations of Biblical scholars here indeed notices RYS ALSO as “toss, rage (of sea)”. this important notice of RYS having circumstance in seafaring and seas is now noticed as actually quite usual in Old Testament, so that RYS quite often notices trembling and quaking on seas, amidst waves, and importantly, also in the situation that boat or ship is anchored in a harbour. In the Ezekiel 27:28 we read LQWL ZYQT HBLK JRYSW MGRSWT “at the outcry of your pilots the billows shall heave” (Tanakh) Thus is noticed a kind of strong cry from captains and that then in MGRSWT areas shall be quaking. The RYS word is here explicit describing situation of seafaring, and thus it is in these widely received translations such as Tanakh rendered. The Septuagint tradition indeed translates here the HBL as KUBERNEETAI. And description of circumstances of harbours and naval affairs is important also in Ezekiel 26:15 that in Hebrew Bible states of TYRE that KH AMR ADNJ JHWH LZWR HLA MQWL MPLTK BANQ HLL BHRG HRG BTWKK JRYSW HAJJM “Thus said the Lord God to Tyre: The coastlands shall quake at the sound of your downfall, when the wounded groan, when slaughter is rife within you” (Tanakh) The word AJJM also may be translated as islands or isles (see BDB)- thus is noticed the RYS doing and AJJM isles and islands that clearly thus specifies RYS being importantly relevant also in context of maritime culture and seafaring. Following the Tanakh translation we then question HOW such isles and islands might tremble or quake? Obvious answer of course is that they look somehow like seen from a boat- seen from the quaking boat the islands indeed seem quite much trembling (even if the islands themselves are strong and stable), the quaking and tossing of those islands is caused by the quaking of place of observer, that the islands are seen from a boat or ship that is in midst of sea quaking and tossing. And thus Ezekiel 26:18 concludes that YTH JHRDW HAJN JWM MPLTK WNBHLW HAJJM ASR BJM MZATK “now shall the coastlands tremble on the day of your downfall and the coastlands by the sea be terrified at your end” (Tanakh). Also interesting notices are in the following prophecy concerning Tyre in Ezekiel 27 where the 27:4-5 notice “your frontiers were on the high seas, your builders perfected your beauty. From cypress trees of Senir they fashioned your planks;they took a cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for you” (Tanakh) BLB JMJM GBWLJK BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM MSNJR BNW LK AT KL LHTJM ARZ MLBNWN LQHW LYSWT TRN YLJK This prophesy is concerning Tyre, the important ancient naval centrum. Appropriately thus is noticed BLB JMJM GBWLJK, that the frontiers of Tyre were on seas. And then we notice in Hebrew stated BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM and ask what, then, is this BRWSJM. Preceding words BLB JMJM GBWLJK refer clearly to situation or place beside high sea, that is, harbour. Thus we now render this BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM so that this statement refers to RWS HARBOUR, thus rendering that “your builders perfected your beauty IN THE HARBOUR”. Of course, this is really appropriate description of that ancient famous flourishing Tyre, appraisal of that magnificent beautiful harbour of Tyre. Now the BDB translating tradition, of course, does render this BRS as denoting cypress or fir (BDB 141) but there also acknowledging that the specific meaning of BRS root is, however, unknown. We notice that even if BRS in some statement indeed notices cypress or fir trees, attentive Readers of Hebrew Bible shall specifically notice the B-RS where the meaning of noun RS (or RYS) is central; THUS reading now B-RS we indeed find reference here to the RS harbour and can thus render here IN THE HARBOUR. This is of course specially appropriate because this statement immediately before writes of place being the frontier beside the high seas- and harbour is exactly such place, built by builders. Then this statement continues noticing that plank structures in that harbour were of planks from Senir; and structures of poles and masts were of poles of cedar trees. We now observe here in Ezekiel 27:4-5 written BLB JMJM GBWLJK BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM we notice that apparently here is written of area beside the coast, so that the RWS here designates the harbour of Tyre, that truly famous ancient naval centrum, Thus we compare this apparent statement with writing in the Ezekiel 27:28-29 that LQWL ZYQT HBLJK JRYSW MGRSWT WJRDW MANJWTJHM KL TPSJ MSWT MLHJM KL HBLJ HJM AL HARZ JYMDW Here is described clearly how seamen and captains come to land from their ships. Apparently that area MGRSWT where this happens is usually designated as “harbour”, and I thus present slightly emended form of Tanakh translation (emendation in capital letters) “At the outcry of your pilots TREMBLE THE HARBOURS (MIGROSOT) and all the oarsmen and mariners, all pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships And stand on the ground” (Ezekiel 27:28-29) Apparently coming to land from ships occurs in harbours: thus in this statement we have really obvious description of harbour MIGRASA in this prophesy concerning Tyre. We have now noticed in numerous Old Testament writings that the R-S word MURSAHA indeed in many statements there refers to harbours and safe anchorages. Now we consider some writings of word MGRS (Migrash) that is in Old Testament quite often and well defined part of many cities, word used in apparently well defined meaning in Old Testament. This word is in current translation tradition usually rendered as “common-land” or “open land” (BDB 177), but apparently this tradition more reflects considerations of cities located inlands. However, when we realise that some (or many) cities noticed in Old Testament may have actually been located in coastal areas, Readers surely ask how Biblical statements might then tell of the harbour of such coastal cities. Answer is now that current Bible translation much less considers questions of harbours because of the assumption that there described cities were inland cities. Here noticed quite many descriptions of RS words and Mursaha words noticing apparently harbours, also constructed and developed harbours, importantly lead Readers to consider that actually the MIGRAS city part noticed in Old Testament may have been in some (or in many texts) the HARBOUR of that city. We shall now see that indeed some MIGRASH statements in Old Testament clearly are descriptions of HARBOURS of cities. Thus we consider more statements in Old Testament. We consider more statements in Isaiah 57. There are RS words mentioned interestingly in Isaiah 57:20 writing “the wicked are like the troubled sea which cannot rest; whose waters toss up mire and mud. There is no safety, said my God, for the wicked” (Tanakh) Thus we consider this statement in Hebrew Bible writing that BWRA NWB SPTJM SLWM SLWM LRHWQ WLQRWB AMR JHWH WRPATJW WHRSYJM KJM NGRS KJ HSQT LA JWKL WJGRSW MJMJW RPS WTJT (57:19-20) This statement in Hebrew Bible writes of GRS (of form NGRS) and RSYJM, and the modern translation clearly acknowledges that indeed here is written concerning seafaring and sailing and seas. We easily notice that RS words noticing harbours and anchorages in Hebrew Bible are there quite usually written clearly in this meaning, in many statements and in many books of Hebrew Bible. This is especially important to notice; merely some occurrences could still be regarded as belonging to style and special vocabulary of a particular book or prophesy. Merely some scattered examples of RS words designating harbours and anchorages and safe havens could also be thought as occurring for merely referring to suspect practises of older cultures or cultures surrounding, presented thus mostly for purpose of criticism. Thus the task in the current study was to show that RS words designating harbours and anchorages in Hebrew Bible indeed occur in many books and by many authors and prophesies, AND that these RS words thus describe and name the OWN culture and practises of the culture and religion of these writers and prophets. With this argumentation we then described to the Readers that indeed in Hebrew Bible RS words in many statements and in many descriptions and prophesies do occur as positive description of the culture of these prophets and the Biblical religion. This is to say, in these statements the prophets and writers thus were describing everyday life of their societies and practises of their culture and religion, their OWN practises of seafare and harbours, anchorages and safe havens. We now especially remember that the region of Palestine was from the times ancient indeed very famous for their seafaring. Tyre and Sidon little north of the area of modern Palestine were in ancient world enormously famous for their seafaring, their seafaring in the whole Mediterranean region and even beyond. Remember well that the famous ancient sea god in Hellenistic world is POSEIDON whose name unmistakably to everyone referred to SIDON, that enormous centrum of ancient seafaring; and worth is remembering that POSEIDON actually had established status as one patron of ancient polis ATHENS. Ancient Phoenicians were very important seafaring people, their naval trade empire was in Eastern Mediterranean from time ancient very important, and old Egyptians often employed specialist Phoenician captains, seamen and ship builders for their endeavours in Mediterranean naval trade. This regarded, where have all the seamen gone in modern Bibles- this question is essential for really many versions of modern Bible understanding, as well in Christian Bible translations, as in the modern Tanakh project “the Tanakh is an entirely original translation of the Holy Scriptures into contemporary English, based on the Masoretic- the traditional Hebrew- text. It is the culmination of three decades of collaboration by academic scholars and rabbis representing the three largest branches of organised Judaism in America. Not since the third century B.C.E, when seventy-two elders of the tribes of Israel created the Greek translation of Scriptures, known as the Septuagint, has such a broad-based committee of Jewish scholars produced a major Bible translation.” (Tanakh translation, The Jewish Publication Society). The Tanakh project indeed is monumental and the representants thoroughly learned. Alas, we questioned their translation already considering word BHR or B-Har, because famously is BAHARI in Arabic language the “sea”. And so on. Also their use of word “Jewish” is completely unacceptable, because Rabbinic Judaism was ONLY ONE of the branches of ancient Judaism, well known in ancient literature also groups of Sadducees and generally temple Priests, Zealots, general people or the Am Ha Aretz; and importantly we remember that early Christianity and followers of Jesus of Nazareth indeed were one important and growing group of ancient Jews. Maintaining that Rabbinical party is and was well established branch of ancient Judaism well is in accordance with reality; but simply appropriating the title “Jew” only to those who are or were of Rabbinical party is thorough perversion of truth and enormous humbug. These questions are in modern Bible research of course well known; and worthy reading and contemplating for these questions are also letters of Paul, former Rabbi who was educated in school of R. Gamaliel. We can thus conclude this study: indeed Old Testament often writes of MURSAHA and MEGRASA harbours and indeed some Old Testament statements very clearly identify “Jerusalem” as noun designating safe harbour. But we remember that actually many statements in Old Testament where “Jerusalem” is mentioned are actually somewhat vague and unspecified in their descriptions so that in reading many Old Testament statements mentioning “Jerusalem” we really should attentively consider if that particular statement actually describes a “safe harbour, Jerusalem”. Old Testament records many histories of ancient naval empire where overseas trade and travelling were important actions. END OF VERRE ET BIBLE FIFTEEN.
WHERE IS YOUR LOCAL JERUSALEM? IN OLD TESTAMENT “JERUSALEM” OFTEN IS NOUN FOR SAFE HAVENS AND SAFE HARBOURS, NOT NAME OF ONE CITY (VERRE ET BIBLE 15) A Biblical Study of Old Testament, By Pasi K. Pohjala , January 28, 2013 Studying Old Testament statements concerning Jerusalem we first specify precisely the topic of this study. Thus we first notice questions of orthography: in the Old Testament this name is almost always written as JRWSLM; only in few statements is the variant JRWSLJM written (thus in 1 Chron 3:5, 2 Chron 25:1, Esther 2:6 and Jer 26:18). In the Greek Septuagint translation is written of IEROUSALEEM, and Greek New Testament writes of HIEROSOLYMA. And in cuneiform equivalents is of URUSALIM and URUSALIMMU written. Especially important now is to notice ideas concerning etymology of this name; in the scholarly consensus, at least among Editors and Editorial Board of the TDOT, this question is now solved in favour of finding JRH word, stating “etymologically, the name may mean something like ‘foundation’ (JRH I yara) of the God Shalem. This would be a pre-Israelite name” (thus Editor Helmer Ringgren in Art. Jerusalem in TDOT VI). Everyone knows well that discussions concerning “Jerusalem” is of quite importance for Biblical religion, so that Scholars and Editorial Boards of thus important co-operations as TWAT (in English translation this is the TDOT) have discussed and pondered this question profoundly. Thus it is important to notice that the little older large Scholarly consensus result is reflected in BDB article of “Jerusalem” (BDB 436, the BDB is founded upon the work of Gesenius, translated by Robinson and thereafter developed noticing much progress of Scholarly discussions) where is concerning etymology listed possible derivation from JRH “foundation of peace” or “foundation of Shalem” but ALSO in the BDB concise article is noticed scholarly tradition of finding the derivation from RWS words: JRWS SLM “possession of peace” or “Salem’s possession”. Currently in the important TDOT dictionary now the scholarly consensus more prominently emphasises the derivation from JRH “founding”. And Marcus Jastrow does not make any special references to etymology of the name “Jerusalem” (Jastrow 595), but in this Dictionary the name Jerusalem is mentioned after JRWSH that means “conquest, taking possession” and “inheritance, heirloom”; and after “Jerusalem” the Dictionary writes of JRWTA “conqueror, heir” and “conquest, possession” (Jastrow 595); this suggests to the Readers more referring to RWS words. These now may here represent current more widely represented scholarly comprehensions of the etymological origination of the name Jerusalem, reflected in the widespread scholarly opinions as recorded in the TDOT, BDB and Jastrow’s Dictionary. Many of best current and past Biblical Scholars and many religious leaders have written extensive books and articles concerning Jerusalem: indeed, enormous number of books and articles in huge number of languages and religious groupings have been written concerning Jerusalem during hundreds of years, and even numerous are well researched bibliographies. Important question thus is to consider what the Jerusalem then may refer to. Usually of course is considered that Jerusalem refers to one city, the city that is capital of current Israel and that was founded in Israelite rule as the capital of Davidic kingdom. This study, however, studies mentions that strongly argue that often the Biblical mention of Jerusalem does not refer to ONE city (as usually is thought)- this study argues that in Bible many mentions of Jerusalem rather occur as general NOUN, the noun meaning safe harbours and safe havens and safe anchorages. For Readers might this comprehension sound quite surprising, regarding that the current city Jerusalem is inland in the mountainous Judaea and that no other major city with that name is currently known. How could thinkably Jerusalem be thus comprehended? But we find surprisingly easily important and even contemporary support for such argument. We should well remember that Old Testament does know actually quite much of realities of maritime trade and ancient seafaring, also according to the currently widely accepted translations (English RSV, NRSV, King James’ Bible and other modern translations in main European languages); world of seafaring and sailing is to some extent indeed known in Old Testament, according to widely accepted comprehensions. But Jerusalem? Let us first remember the ancient and important Mediterranean busy harbours Marseille and Barcelona. Everyone of course quite often in casual contexts talks also of these well known and busy cities. But studying their names surprisingly reveals these names as close parallels to name Jerusalem. Name Marseille includes the M-R-S, clearly possible noun formation of root R-S, and reference to EL (usual designation of God, also in Bible and Semitic traditions). Name Barcelona is currently really famous in whole world and especially amongst followers of top football; but attentive reading of name Barcelona reveals in this name interestingly R-S and SELN (that is actually really close parallel to SALEM or SELEM). Every Reader well knows something of Barcelona and Marseille and easily now finds these names as close parallels to name Jerusalem. And looking in southern Mediterranean coast, we find there still currently existing and also prospering harbour cities MERSA or cities whose name include this MERSA (thus in the Arabic-speaking coast of South Mediterranean coast). We of course remember that from times ancient, Phoenician sailors sailed across whole Mediterranean sea and established settlements also in Western Mediterranean areas, even in Spain. It is quite worth considering that the busy and prosperous harbour city of Athens of Greece is PIREAS, also in this name of thus important harbour is the R-S element found. Historically worth considering is also that Apostle Paul was native of Tarsus and missionary journeys of Apostle Paul in Eastern Mediterranean were to many important harbour cities of Eastern Mediterranean. Pauline Christianity of Gospel of Jesus was spreading in many ancient harbour cities of Eastern Mediterranean, and seriously worth emphasising is also that Bible knows the Joshua-Jesus as the Joshua Son of NUN –indeed, NUN is in Egyptian religion designation for the Waters, the Primeval Seas and Deeps. And in front of the harbour of ancient megalopolis Alexandria was the island PHAROS- and the lighthouse of PHAROS was considered as one miracles of ancient world. We remind the Readers also of that the Quran Sura HUD indeed notices MURSAHA as harbour. In reality of Catholic Europe, we remember that Order of St. John of Jerusalem, or the Hospitallers, was anciently indeed a major naval power in Mediterranean. Thus from many important and quite different religious traditions we find widely well known and surprisingly usual details that clearly suggest this comprehension that JERUSALEM is a NOUN for harbours. We have thus many details both modern and ancient that strongly suggest to seek clarification of “JERUSALEM” by seeing that “Jerusalem” was an ancient NOUN FOR HARBOURS and SAFE ANCHORAGES. It is thus quite worth to read with much consideration how the current TDOT writes of Jerusalem, there also stating “Although the installation of the ark and the building of the temple were acts of kings, the election (9) (footnote 9: H. Seebass BHR bachar TDOT II, 80f.) of Jerusalem as the site of God’s rest and presence was always understood as an act of God’s free will.” (TDOT VI, art “Jerusalem” by M. TSEVAT). This statement by M. TSEVAT- and certainly well in detail considered by the General Editor Helmer Ringgren, he wrote smaller part of that article- is truly notorious. In writing of Jerusalem, here M. Tsevat makes reference to article BHR written by H. Seebass; this is from M. Tsevat really clear reference to matters concerning “sea” because name Seebass translated from German includes reference to “sea” (der/die See) and the BHR refers to SEA when the Arabic usual noun for sea BAHAR is considered (this Arabic BAHAR word for seas is important also for considering many details of the important ancient Cabbalistic BAHIR; we seriously should remember that many ancient Jews were living in regions were Arabic was the usual language). And in this statement of the Jerusalem article in TDOT, the writer M. TSEVAT emphasises Jerusalem as the place where God rested- and this apparently alludes to idea that a harbour and an anchorage is place where ships are resting. Of course this writer M. Tsevat in writing the article keeps to the current comprehension that Jerusalem indeed refers to one city, that in current Palestine, but such very clear allusions to considering matters of sea and seafaring here in the TDOT article are truly thought-provoking! Considering Jeremiah 32:8 is also important, because there is JRSH word written (BDB 440 “possession, inheritance”, of JRS). In this statement the semantic field of JRSH is interesting for current study, here is written that BARZ Binjamin KJ LK MSPT HJRSH WLK HGALH QNH LK Here are letters JRSHWL written that is almost the name Jerusalem, or some orthographical variant of name Jerusalem (if we consider grammatically the name containing plural masc, this JRSHWLK would be, indeed, form of “your Jerusalem” with sg. 2 possessive K). This statement writes name Binjamin where reference to high seas JAM, JAMIM is heard; and the word GAL also notices reference to such Phoenician usual ships that in Greek were famously called GAULOS boats. Here this text writes of purchasing some area of land. NOW we importantly find that this well can have been in Book of Jeremiah 32 description of purchase of place for anchorage or small private harbour, or place for boat shed, reading JRSHWLK as “your Jerusalem”. Really, this semantic context very strongly writes concerning matters of sea, Binjamin and GAL or Gaulos boats. We apparently render: TRANSLATION: please, purchase in area near to sea (area of Binjamin) that small harbour place for you (HJRSHWLK), suitable for GAULOS boats; you have right (Mispat) for that. (translation of Pasi K Pohjala 2013). Details of semantic context here quite clearly specify that here concerned area is actually a small harbour area, so clearly words in this sentence describe matters of sea and seafaring. Thus is considered response to Hanamel son of Shallum (SLM) for QNH LK AT SDJ ASR BYNTWT Prophet Jeremiah is thus offered to purchase field that is in Anatot; it is worth noticing that really this name ANATOT includes reference YNJ that indeed refers to ships and boats (ANJH); and the name well may include reference to THOTH who had important role in Egyptian mythology concerning seafaring, e.g. by ruling winds. It is indeed comprehensible that here considered area HJRSHWLK located in Anatot was actually a small harbour, a nice place for anchorage. (This Jeremiah 32 occurs in such situation that “Jerusalem” was under siege by Babylonians, so that here is notorious word play: the city Jerusalem being under siege and thus dangerous, Jeremiah is encouraged to purchase his own “safe haven” HJRSHWLK). In this text of Jeremiah 32 we also can suppose much specific terminology: this text Jer 32 describes in great detail procedure of making purchase of area: the offer, negotiation, writing the document, sealing the document and taking witnesses, weighing silver for payment, giving the deed of purchase to his secretary Baruch in presence of witnesses, for being included properly in archives. This Jeremiah 32 is widely regarded to be one good detailed description of writing of official documents and documents of purchase and their archival: the terminology is concrete and well reflects official parlance in court of those times. Thus finding here word HJRSHWLK is apparently and clearly then officially used title or noun for “your harbour area” or “field for your landing-site”- we thus observe here that here is not merely described area as “possession” but specifically “harbour area” HJRSHWLK is here discussed. Importantly, the JRSH noun is also in Judges 21:17 written in discussion of matters concerning the tribe Benjamin. Here is written that WJAMRW JRST PLJTH LBNJMJN The PLT in Hebrew Bible notices escaping and being fugitive, so that JRST PLJTH can here well notice harbour place for fleeing or becoming refuge, especially appropriate because name Binjamin here is noticed, referring thus to JAMJM seas. The chapter Judges 21 describes a very difficult episode in history of the Twelve tribes; in the situation described in Judges 21 these words may refer to encouraging some Binjaminites to flee overseas via the JRST PLJTH harbour of fugitives. (We present merely as important speculation that the PLJTH here refers to Philisteans, famously reigning the rich Levantine coastal lands, usually under Egyptian rule, so that here JRST PLJTH could notice that Benjaminites shall reign some “PHILISTEAN HARBOUR”, historically well appropriate. Importantly, the following discussion of Blessing of Moses Deut 33 also presents MWRSH clearly as harbour in Philistean regions.) Apparently the name refers to some connection with seas; thus here may be heard some foundational myth why some ancient Israelites were seafarers and thus travelling around, when others were mostly settled in life of agriculture. This Chapter Judges 21 concludes the Book and is concluded noticing how people of different tribes journeyed to possessions of their tribes. Apparently was situation of seafarers different because they did not have special allotted land areas in their possession but rather practised their profession in sailing in seas; rather were the harbours and safe anchorages for sailors centrally important- and indeed, here in Judges 21:17 are noticed the JRST PLJTH where we encounter the JRSH apparently referring to harbours. Well worth mentioning is tradition of ancient poem in Deuteronomy 33:5 writing TWRH ZWH LNW MSH MWRST QHLT JYQB WJHJ BJSRWN (Jesurun) MLK BHTASP RASJ YM JHD SBTJ JSRAL Traditions of this very old poetry are really ancient and of such times that much precede foundation of Jerusalem capital for Davidic kingdom or times of Jebusites immediately preceding times of foundation of Jerusalem capital. Here in Deut 33 is written concerning Israel. Thus we more freely can trace this very old parlance of MWRST QHLT JYQB, in this statement this MWRST apparently is compared with the Jesurun, noticed that he reigned as king in Jesurun. What do we, then, find here? The Jesurun only seldom occurs in Hebrew Bible, mostly being “poetic name of Israel, designating it under its ideal character” (BDB 448). However, when we consider the almost similar name SHARON (SRWN) we consider area traditionally recognised as the very fertile lowland north of Joppa (ancient major harbour) (BDB 450). Considering the Jod as poetic variant of orthography, we find here reference to reigning king in that Sharon fertile lowlands near to Joppa, something that of course was historically important; and in THIS context of geographically discussing that area near to Joppa is obviously important to talk of HARBOUR, and indeed here is of MWRSH discussed! (This Deuteronomy 33 is the famous Blessing of Moses, in Old Testament formally placed in situation where Israel had arrived near to the borders of the Promised Land and had not yet started conquering that Land- especially, normal historiography regards that in those times the Mediterranean coastal land was inhabited by the powerful Philisteans whom Israelites for considerable times could not win in battlefield for the military superiority of Philisteans. More pondering such questions are special questions of early history of Israel. Who were, exactly, Israelites? Who were those “Philisteans” who reigned those enormously fertile coastal lands? Much of modern research of course does not regard the episodes of Exodus and subsequent episode of conquering the Promised Land even partially as historical descriptions but rather mostly as beautiful and ideologically important mythologies. NOW we merely STOP at noticing that certainly it is appropriate to consider reigning king in those specially fertile Levantine lands Sharon north of Joppa and in those coastal areas certainly is interesting to talk of a harbour- thus is here indeed noticed the MWRST place!! But it is certainly really important that in this ancient Blessing of Moses the MWRSH is actually connected to Mediterranean Levantine coastal region and that in conclusion of Book of Judges the JRSH is clearly discussing matters of seas and coasts, Benjaminites. Apparently in these ancient traditions the JRSH word is much more specific than merely “possession”, it more specifically designates area governed that was actually a good harbour area. We now consider some details in Isaiah 8. Recently the current Writer Pasi K. Pohjala has published more extensive commentary on Book of Joel in the increasingly popular and increasingly discussion generating Verre et Bible publication series, and in this Commentary were much discussed ancient developments of watering and irrigation technologies, arranging channels, conduits, dikes, and narrower irrigation channels; these were much developed from ancient times in Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures, and in the Commentary of Book of Joel I presented that in Bible such irrigation agriculture is well known and surprisingly much in detail described. Now we notice in the current discussion the extensive description of different waters in Isaiah 8, there is written that “because that people has spurned the gently flowing waters of Siloam Assuredly, My Lord will bring up against them the mighty, massive waters of the Euphrates, the king of Assyria and all his multitude. It shall rise above all its channels, and flow over all its beds, and swirl through Judah like a flash flood reaching up to the neck” (Tanakh translation of Isaiah 8:5-8) In the Old Testament this is one vivid and in its tragic description, regrettably, quite realistic description of often prevailing circumstances in the countries where much dikes and channels were built- those somewhat often tended to break asunder and the following flooding and its devastation is well known in numerous ancient documents from those countries. Such flooding waters are quite violent waters, spreading around and bringing large devastation. Here Isaiah 8 importantly contrasts such waters with silent waters of Siloam. It is thus interesting that Siloam is thus clearly by Isaiah connected with peaceful water; we recognise that also waters in harbour behind the wharfs are such peaceful and calm waters, clearly in contrast with the roaring stormy waves in the high seas just beyond the piers built to protect the harbour (or the natural formations of that style that in the more ancient times were so centrally important for choosing suitable places for harbours and anchorage). Waters of Siloam are silent, calm; and Hebrew Bible states this MJ HSLH HHLKJM LAT and reading the name as Siloam is in Translations well supported. Here Isaiah emphasises that Siloam is place of such silent, calm waters. And in this Chapter Isaiah 8 is studied the remarkable name MAHER-SHALAL-HAZ-BAZ, this is also the name that Isaiah should give to his newborn son, thus emphasised in 8:3. We now remarkably notice that this name includes the MHRSLLH that is also apparent parallel to MURSA, MURSALA and MERSA MERSAHA nouns or a possible dialect variant or orthographical variant to these, thus referring to harbours, especially for including the SLH letters and the following writings specifying that the waters of SLH are calm and silent; and this name also parallels the name Jerusalem. The Siloam is of course usually in this context comprehended to denote the famous “tunnel of Siloam” that directed Gihon waters to Jerusalem; but in this context especially the remarkable name MAHER SHALAL HAZ BAZ being MHRSLLH alerts Readers to consider also matters of harbours whose waters also are silent. In this notorious name MAHER-SHALAL-HAZ-BAZ would thus be possibly referred to harbours whose waters are silent and calm. We now consider descriptions in Ezek 36:2 HAH WBMWT YWLM LMWRSH HJTH LNW We notice here