Thursday, 4 July 2013

iron in Bible part 4

designating hail and hailstones; but Arabic verb BARADA has also another important meaning describing practises of metal working, to file a piece of metal, and MIBRAD notices in Arabic files and rasps; and BIRADA notices milling as part of metal industry; and BARRAD is a tool cutter. Interestingly, the BDB tradition does clarify the Hebrew BRD root by referring to Arabic BARADA meaning “be or become cold” (BDB 135); but importantly, this meaning is only ONE of the usual meanings of Arabic BARADA- and indeed, following the OTHER usual meaning of Arabic BARADA word we now promptly consider practises of metal industry and metal working; but such meaning is, regrettably, silently bypassed. Now we shall improve the discussion for rejoicing of all Readers! We also importantly remember that some Jewish documents from Egypt of Hellenistic times refer to iron products as BALLATHA of Jews; these traditions much further motivate comprehending Hebrew BARAD words as designating iron in Old Testament, because of similarity of L and R letters; it is also worth comparing such old Hellenistic Egyptian tradition of BALLATHA iron with Russian word BULATU that designates iron and steel; and Readers also may consider etymology of English widely used word “bolt” because many iron devices are with the word “bolt” designated. (Also is quite worth considering that in Russian language verb VYBRAT notices to select or to choose, thus noticing something special; and the Russian verb VYBROSIT notices various acts of throwing and casting). Considering the BARAD word in Hebrew Bible we also notice that the BRD consonants are in Aramaic/Hebrew quite related to BRZ consonants; alas, this would lead to more extensive discussion concerning the main argumentation of scholars concerning etymology of BARZEL. Now we shall see that indeed, such BARAD words in Hebrew Bible often notice meteorites and notice metals and metal production, this is especially quite understandable considering the Arabic traditions of BARADA. Another hugely important question considering BARAD words in Hebrew Bible is considerations of styles of handwritings. Namely, in Hebrew Manuscripts consonants BRD are actually almost similar with consonants BRK, because letter K (Kaf) written in end of Hebrew word is written almost similarly as the Hebrew letter Dalet ending a Hebrew word (such as in BRD). The BRD words in Hebrew Bible are not usual; but the BRK words of Hebrew Bible are one of the most important topic in discussion of Bible- Blessing and being Blessed! Also ancient readers (those who were literate) studying some Hebrew writings must have necessarily often pondered concerning many words whether there is in Hebrew BRD or BRK meant! This recognition fully respects the utter holiness of written Hebrew Script, together with noticing this well known detail that in many handwritings Dalet and ending Kaf can look almost similar and often can cause ponderings (although reading Kaf more can be preferred by Readers who foresee to find in Script some Blessings rather than some unclear and maybe archaic references to some “hailstones”). We now shortly present MAIN QUESTIONS for finding in Hebrew Bible many interesting statements of meteoric iron and working of such iron: ONE: Hebrew word Barad is currently comprehended to notice hailstones- that kind of “stones” that have dropped from heaven. Recognising usual Arabic meaning of BARADA noticing metals and metalworking, we shall see in Hebrew Bible descriptions of meteors and working of meteoric iron. This is supported with Jewish Hellenistic Egyptian traditions of calling iron products as BALLATHA; an even with modern parlance of iron “bolts”. TWO: Discussing notions of Hebrew Bible concerning meteors and meteoric iron, we notice BARAD words and ALSO words BRK because such words are quite similarly written in handwritings and thus can be very easily changed. Of course, BRK words notice in Hebrew Bible “blessing and blessedness” and are in Old Testament quite usual and important! Now we first consider tradition of rain of big stones from heaven upon Amorite forces that were gathered to fight against Israelites lead by Joshua, written in Joshua 10. We now notice tradition in Joshua 10:11 writing that while they were fleeing before Israel down the descent from Beth-horon (BMWRD BJT HWRN), the Lord (Tetragrammaton) hurled huge stones on them from the sky (ABNJM GDLWT MN HSMJM), all the way to Azekah, and they perished; more perished from the hailstones ((MTW BABNJ HBRD) than were killed by the Israelite weapons (BHRB) (Tanakh translation) This Old Testament narrative notices also Joshua’s praise to Lord that the sun and moon stayed still upon valley of Ayalon during this fight, until the final victory was completed by Israelite forces. But now we more consider this notice of rain of big stones from heaven upon those Amorite troops so that they thereby perished in the fight in large numbers. The Hebrew text notices that God (Tetragrammaton) hurled from heaven big stones upon Amorite troops, ABNJM GDLWT MN HSMJM; and thereafter this text more specifies these stones, so that they were ABNJ HBRD stones. Here we encounter in this archaic narrative the BARAD stones hurled from heaven. This archaic narrative also very interestingly compares these “big stones from heaven, the BARAD stones” with Israelite weapons (the HRB, that specially often denotes swords). This ancient narrative is thus interesting mythological description of fighting capacities of stones hurled from heaven, compared with fighting with HRB swords. Importantly, meteorites were first source of iron for ancient iron production; importantly, the meteoric iron always containing quite much nickel (and cobalt), such alloy could give specially strong iron products, in strength somewhat comparable to steel (alloy of iron with some other metals, usually nickel etc). Now it is also important to notice geographical details of this quite concise ancient narrative- here is mentioned the AZEKA. Before the serious destruction of Judaea by Babylonians and Assyrians, the AZEKA was one of the important fortifications in Judaea. One of the important “Lachish letters” attests then importance of AZEKA in Judaean defences; one letter ends noticing watching for fire signals of Lachish; whereas the fire signals of AZEKAH could not be observed according to special instructions that had been given. Probably AZEKAH was destroyed by Assyrian forces in the campaign of Sennacherib (701 BCE) during time of king Hezekiah (when prophet Isaiah was active); then the main battle was in Lachish; but then Assyrian siege of Jerusalem was surprisingly not successful. Joshua 10 thus notices historically important site mentioning the AZEKA. Importantly, Hebrew roots ZK and ZQ refer to activities of MELTING; thus we hear echoes from ancient centre of metallurgy and some iron technologies where some kind of processes of metal production (perhaps melting) were practised and where big BARAD stones were found. The levelling, complete destruction of Judaean fortifications by Assyrians and Babylonians have much annihilated also memories from such important centra and their advanced (industrial) activities. But in Joshua 10 we hear interesting history of big BARAD stones thrown from heaven, compared with Israelite swords HRB, and thus brought destruction of Amorite forces, this happening in regions of AZEKA, later an important Judaean town whose name clearly indicates their fame for metalwork. One quite interesting detail in this description of campaign of Joshua is in Hebrew Bible found in Joshua 10:9 stating WJBA ALJHM JHWSY PTAM KL HLJLH YLH MN HGLGL In the current study we shall often notice that LHM LOHEM notices practises of smiths and the ALHJM divine designation is comprehensible reading EL-LOHEM, the divine Smith (LOHEM can also be Warrior; and smiths produced then the weapons); maybe we here recognise a reference to Joshua’s knowledge of practise of Smith’s profession (LOHEM)- Judges 2:9 tells that Joshua was buried in Timnat-Heres and this connects Joshua clearly to industries of smiths, the HRS in Hebrew Bible being usual designation of works of artificers and the name Timna echoes ancient industrial copper mines (SE of the Salt Sea, or site Timnah near to Gezer and Gibeon.) Importantly, this statement Joshua 10:9 can also refer to JOSHUA the DIVINE SMITH. (And in Christian cult of Jesus of Nazareth usual became the crucifixes where a image of Jesus-Joshua was on the edge of wooden stick lifted higher so that whole audience could see glimpse of this important cult image; then many cult images were attached on poles but in Christian thought the “crucifixion” got especially violent meaning.) But the details of Joshua 10 are worthy of much contemplation. Very important writing concerning the BRD in Old Testament is description of the plagues of Egypt, where the plague of rain of BRD “hailstones” from heaven is interestingly described in Exodus 9. Now we find written in Exodus 9:18 that HNNJ MMTJR KYT MHR BRD KBD Meod ASR LA HJH KMHW BMZRJM LMN HJWM HWSDH WYD YTH Here is described very heavy BRD stones and noticed that such were to Egyptians a novelty, incomparable from the early times of foundation of Egyptian rule. Also writes then 9:19 notoriously interestingly that WYTH SLH HYZ AT MQNK WAT KL ASR LK BSDH KL HADM We remember that the MQNH is noun derived from QNH and thus generally notices wealth (in ancient Near East often in form of herds). This statement thus, interestingly, strongly encourages to go to the fields and gather all the worthy, certainly all that is in the field, with every staff. This interestingly refers apparently to serious efforts to organise effective gathering of such precious BARAD stones from fields! Here is also important to consider that mostly agriculture in Egypt is in the fertile places around river Nile, other regions of Egypt are mostly desert and not even pasturising herds is practicable. But campaigns in larger areas could probably be arranged for seeking after meteorite BARAD stones because of their notorious worth for metal working. Then we notice also importantly in Exodus 9:23-24 that WJTH MSH AT MTHW YL HSMJM WJHWH NTN QLT WBRD WTHLK AS ARZH WJMTR JHWH BRD YL ARZ MZRJM WJHJ BRD WAS MTLQHT BTWK HBRD KBD Meod ASR LA HJH KMHW BKL ARZ MZRJM “So Moses held out his rod towards the sky, and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire streamed down to the ground, as the Lord rained down hail upon the land of Egypt. The hail was very heavy- fire flashing in midst of the hail- such as had not fallen on the land of Egypt” (Tanakh translation) Notoriously thus was thus the hail BRD was very heavy, fire was flashing in midst of the BRD hail; thus interpreted by the Tanakh Translators. Importantly, thus this BARAD was specially connected with fire- “fire flashing in midst of the hail” BARAD; and for metalworking of meteorites BARAD use of furnace was important. Then we notice also WJK HBRD BKL ARZ MZRJM AT KL ASR BSDH…WAT KL YSB HSDH HKH HBRD We now notice here writing of HKH verb with this remarkable BARAD, here in stating WJK HBRD and HKH HBRD. These statements write Hebrew verb NKH (see BDB 645) that generally notices smiting and is in Old Testament quite usual. BUT attentive Readers remember that the Hebrew verb KTT notices beating and specially beating with hammer; this verb is written e.g. in the famous glorious hope of Micah 4:3 foreseeing how swords shall be hammered into ploughshares- this verb KTT describes vividly the special activities of smiths, producing metal devices by hammering metal. Attentive Readers thus here interestingly find that this notorious BARAD is specially connected with beating, especially hammering activity. This notorious history of BARAD occurring in Egypt (as plague) thus interestingly describes important activities connected with such BARAD: those riches should be carefully collected from the fields; the BARAD is importantly connected with fire, resembling how fire furnace is used in metal working; and BARAD is connected with NKH striking, or rather KTT hammering. These are interesting details describing mythologies of ancient BARAD metal producing. It is important to remember that this BARAD is here presented as special miraculous method of show of force; something like secret weapon. (Thus is worth remembering that Job 38:12 tells of storages of BARAD that God has kept for times of war and crisis). Arabic BALAD city, well defended; compare with BARAD iron products. Surat BALAD. Ancient Lud or Lydia. Ephesus and Sardis. St Paul in Ephesus and tumult amongst local smiths; and there important Bithynia and Cibyra mines- especially CIBYRA/Corancez iron mines were famous that there iron was more easily accessible (so Strabo- see FO 183). Questions of telluric iron! ANCIENT MAGNETS AND COMPASS Considerations of ancient use of magnets is one important detail of study of ancient iron production and ancient use of iron products. Well known, the magnets have the special power of attracting iron; and natural magnets are particular type of iron ore magnetite. We shall of course especially clearly remember that the nomenclature of magnets and iron is in the modern metallurgy well established; but for the ancients descriptions were much unclearer and more discussed in various alchemical traditions and various legendary forms. Ancient seamen and travellers well knew the power of LODESTONE to reliably find direction of north. Nomenclature of magnets in those earlier times was understandably somewhat unspecific and we shall specially notice that ancient Greeks named then magnets also as HERACLEAN STONES. We here first consider Plato’s detailed description of power of magnets in the dialogue ION. This dialogue ION, interestingly, begins with noticing ION’s coming from Ephesus (POTHEN TA NUN HEMIN EPIDEDEMEKAS; E OIKOTHEN EKS EFESOU Ion 530A). Ancient Ephesus was located in midst of important ancient mining area in Asia Minor. Readers certainly remember also New Testament description of huge tumult in Ephesus when Apostle Paul was there teaching, the tumult begun by the silversmith Demetrios in attempting to defend then centrally important Artemis religion. Importantly, we shall see that this connection to Ephesus of ION of Platonic dialogue and there tumult of silversmiths of Artemis for teaching of Paul are indeed importantly connected in considerations of role of Ephesus in this mining area, and also in the cult of Artemis of Ephesus. We thus first consider Plato’s notoriously detailed and realistic description of powers and use of magnet, described in the dialogue ION. We talk of MAGNETS in modern parlance; and thus we importantly notice that Plato in this dialogue does write the similar Greek word MAGNETIS LITHOS and IMPORTANTLY; with this word MAGNETIS LITHOS Plato clearly denotes stones that WE nowadays also call MAGNETS; this important specific use of word MAGNETIS LITHOS by Plato is in dialogue ION fully apparent in considering there Plato’s description of the characteristics of this stone that he calls MAGNETIS LITHOS. We thus proceed to consider the detailed and almost modern scientific description of the powers of magnet by Plato in ION 534D stating ESTI GAR TOUTO TEKHNEE MEN OUK ON PARA SOI PERI HOMEROU EU LEGEIN, O NUN DEE ELEGON, THEIA DE DUNAMIS EE SE KINEI OOSPER EN TEE LITHOO (dat) EEN EURIPIDES MEN MAGNETIN OONOMASEN OI DE POLLOI HEERAKLEIAN. KAI GAR AUTEE E LITHOS OU MONON TOUS DAKTULIOUS AGEI TOUS SIDEROUS , ALLA KAI DUNAMIN ENTITHEESI TOIS DAKTULIOIS OOST AU DUNASTHAI TAUTON TOUTO POIEIN OPER E LITHOS, ALLOUS AGEIN DAKTULIOUS, OOST ENIOTE ORMATHOS MAKROS PANU SIDERIOON (pl.gen) KAI DAKTULIOON EKS ALLEELOON EERTEETAI PASI DE TOUTOIS EKS EKEINEES TEES LITHOU E DUNAMIS ANERTETAI For, as I was saying just now, this is not an art in you, whereby you speak well on Homer, but a divine power, which moves you like that in the stone which Euripides named a magnet, but most people call “Heraclea stone”. For this stone not only attracts iron rings, but also imparts to them a power whereby they in turn are able to do the very same thing as the stone, and attract other rings; so that sometimes there is formed quite a long chain of bits of iron and rings, suspended one from another; and they all depend for this power on that one stone (Translation of Fowler in LCL) This description in ION 533D of the powers of MAGNETIS LITHOS are very important, and appear for modern Readers almost of scientific in their detailed and realistic description of powers of magnets. Here we importantly notice that for many people this stone was then known being the HERACLEAN STONE. Notably, Plato here refers to Euripides for writing of this stone in terms of MAGNETIS LITHOS. The DAKTULOUS is here rendered by reference to rings, here especially iron rings. But this word may also refer to small needle like iron sticks that in their form much resemble fingers. This discussion importantly notices the power how this stone KINEI, or causes movements, of iron rings and iron needles. Here is the Greek word AGOO describing the movement caused by this magnet stone TOUS DAKTULIOUS AGEI TOUS SIDEROUS…DUNASTHAI…ALLOUS AGEIN DAKTULIOUS. The AGOO verb describes here that indeed the magnet stone can in reality move iron rings and iron needles. And the second centrally important verb here is the ARTAOO. In the dialogue ION, Plato also more discusses the powers of lodestone, describing And are you aware that your spectator is the last of the rings which I spoke of as receiving from each other the power transmitted from the Heraclean lodestone? You, the rhapsode and actor, are the middle ring; the poet himself is the first; bit it is the god who through the whole series draws the souls of men whithersoever he pleases, making the power of one depend on the other. And, just as from the magnet (OOSPER EK TEES LITHOU EKEINEES ORMATHOS PAMPOLUS EKSERTEETAI) there is a mighty chain of choric performers and masters and under-masters suspended by side-connexions from the rings that hang down from the muse. One poet is suspended from one muse, another from another (Plato ION 536, translation of Fowler in LCL) Indeed, what more miraculous and religious rosary than a rosary connected together by the miraculous power of magnet stones among iron beads! The rosary usually is connected by some thread, but rosaries without such connecting thread, kept together with powers of natural magnets among the metal beads, really are miraculous rosaries. During the recitation such rosary very concretely depicts to believer the surprisingly miraculous power of magnetic stone, transmitting along the whole rosary; and the attracting power of magnet is already by Plato in ION compared with power of divine inspiration. Proceeding the recitation and touching the beads of that magnetic rosary really manifests powers of magnets, compared with power of Divine inspiration. In the Greek speaking discussions the ARTAOO and ANARTAOO are important verbs denoting the power of magnets to attract iron. Philo of Alexandria mentions these ARTAOO and ANARTAOO in his writings in some interesting descriptions; importantly, these descriptions notice travelling, navigating and seafaring. Cherubim 67 notices doings of LABAN that GELOOTA MOI PLATUN KAI LABAN O TOON POIOTEETOON EERTEEMENOS DOKEI PARASKHEIN IAKOOB TOO (dat) PRO TOUTOON TEEN APOION FUSIN OROONTI Laban who clings to qualities (POIOTEES) seems to provide big laughter to Jacob who has been observing the nature that is not described with qualities (TEEN APOION FUSIN). Here the ARTAOO describes doings of LABAN. It is much worth comprehending that LABAN notices the “white” colour and thus this remarks also how “white” metal has the power of ARTAOO attracting; this is much relevant in considering magnets because some magnets were of white colour and thus in general terms could be considered some “white” metal, the most usual being the silver. Thus we compare this with sensations described in terms of APTOMAI touching, Cher 64 noticing PROTEROS D’ O NOUS TEEN AISTHETIKEEN DUNAMIN EKSAPSAMENOS KAI DI’ AUTEES PASAN IDEAN THEREUSAS SOOMATOS But this would lead to more developed discussions of philosophy of senses and sensation, and describing sensation occurring through ”touch” and ”touching”. This is fundamental comprehension of working of senses, and the media, and Readers may read more e.g. in Aristotle’s De Anima II.5 where sensation is described arising in process of acting and being acted upon (POIEIN, PASKHEIN), or PASKHEIN and KINEISTHAI; and De Sensu 442b is detailed discussion with other theories that base all sensation on “touch”. (Aristotle discusses in II.12 also the important Platonic description of receiving in soul imprints of visible objects like in the imprinting of signet ring on wax, and thus arising sensation of visible object). And thus we consider questions of touching and medium and we notice APTOMAI touching and ARTAOO attracting. Especially, in De Anima II.11, Aristotle states that AISTHANOMETHA GE PANTOON DIA TOU MESOU (423b7) thus emphasising that we perceive all things through medium. Here Aristotle especially considers question that some senses (e.g. taste and touch) seem to act by contact, but other senses act at distance. Discussing this fundamental question, he emphasises in 423b7 the centrally important role

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