Tuesday, 28 July 2009

theory of vision in psalm 58 and Aristotle's De Sensu and De Anima, and Philo's De Ebrietate


The Mikhtam Psalm 58 is easily compared with important passages in De Ebrietate (On Drunkenness) of Philo of Alexandria. The comparisons will straightforwardly argue, that Philo has been considering especially the Mikhtam Psalm 58 when writing some important passages of De Ebrietate. In the book De Ebrietate is easily found reference to the wife of Lot in the Ebr 164, Philo here writing
Philo here notices that Lot was parent only to daughters- he had two daughters from his wife who was turned to stone (LITHOUMENES)- Lot could not raise complete male growths in the soul. This statement in De Ebrietate 164 very clearly paraphrases the Biblical history of Lot, especially the LITHOUMENES here notices the Gen 19:26
This reference to the history of the wife of Lot in Gen 19 thus clearly notices in this writing of De Ebrietate the ideas of STELE and generally ideas of stone. Philo further notices in Ebr 164 concerning the wife of Lot that
She was lagging behind and seeing round to old and familiar things, and was then remaining among them in the manner of stele without soul
In this Midrashic interpretation of the Gen 19:26 the STELE is clearly noticed. Also for other Mikhtam Psalms has been noticed that Philo makes references to them especially in such texts where he writes interpretations of this Biblical history of wife of Lot, understandably, because here the Greek Bible writes the important word STELE noticing the stele pillar of stone material. The writing of the wife of Lot occurs in this De Ebrietate 164 here in very notorious text: this writing of De Ebrietate is well known among the historians of philosophy for its clear listing and discussing of the famous TROPES OF AENESIDEMUS, especially in Ebr 170 ff and – the writing of Ebr 164ff. is very clearly echoing the teachings of Sceptic philosophers (see, for example Colson’s comment for Ebr 164ff “the sections which follow are very extraordinary. Philo seems to jettison his general dogmatic principles and to enrol himself in the school of the Sceptics. In fact he reproduces so clearly several of the ten tropes of the famous sceptic Aenesidemus, as given by Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus, that he enables the historians of philosophy to lay down a terminus ad quem for the date of that philosopher” (Philo V, 314 in the Introduction to the book De Ebrietate). The general philosophical questions of the Sceptic philosophers concerned truth and impossibility of attaining to the truth and descriptions of sources and circumstances of making errors in sensations and in making assent. The writing of De Ebrietate 164ff. very detailed considers such difficulties, and is very notoriously writes also interpretation of the history of the wife of Lot. Among the Mikhtam Psalms the Psalm 58 in the Greek Bible very clearly commences with questioning
This statement in the Greek Bible explicit writes alert to consider if they were in accordance with TRUTH speaking concerning righteousness. The Greek Bible notices this topic often in this Psalm 58 (the Psalm 57 in the Greek Bible)- 58:2 writing question if EUTHEIA KRINETE, the 58:4 noticing APELLOTRIOTHESAN (of ALLOTRIO, undergoing alterations) and ELALESAN PSEUDE. Importantly, it is this Psalm 58 of the Mikhtam Psalms that writes the clear and unmistakable references to practises of magic and doings of magicians and the incantations- clearly noticing of the snakes and the 58:6 writing of the FARMAKOU TE FARMAKEUOMENOU. Very importantly, Philo clearly makes references to THIS Mikhtam Psalm 58 in many details of his writing in De Ebrietate 164ff in manner following the Sceptics. The following study will argue for this- and thus the following argumentation will argue that the Mikhtam Psalm 58 was in the time of Philo applied for highly educated Jewish discussions with then very influential philosophies of the Sceptics (they are, of course, even currently very important for many philosophical argumentations)- the current argument will argue for this reading of the Psalm 58 in the Greek Bible; but the current study will NOT argue that the Greek translation itself of this Psalm 58 into the Greek language would have been written to discuss with some earlier forms of Sceptic thought. The writing of the 58:2 EI ALETHOS LALEITE to 58:4 ELALESAN PSEUDE clearly notices in this Mikhtam Psalm 58 questioning for truth and notices of false speaking and thus clearly motivates Philonic references to this Psalm in his writing in the style of Sceptic philosophers here in Ebr 164ff. Philo writes here of errors concerning visions and seeing especially in Ebr 181ff. and here Philo writes clearly words that unmistakably refer to the ideas of STELOGRAPHEIN of these Mikhtam Psalms, especially the Ps 58. Philo concludes the Ebr 183 with writing
The words PSEUDOGRAFEITAI and SUNEPIGRAPSAITO concluding this discussion of alterations of visions and illusory visions of Ebr 181-183 thus very clearly notice the GRAFEIN writing or depicting- and more specifically they notice the EPIGRAMMA and EPIGRAFEIN- these words especially notice in Philonic writings carving inscriptions on stele, such esp. in Philo’s book Heres where Heres 30 writes the only occurrence of STELOGRAPHEIN in Philonic literature and words of EPIGRAMMA and EPIGRAFEIN are importantly written. Philo writes the word SUNEPIGRAFO here also in Ebr 205 in very Sceptic style discussion for suspending judgement- Philo here considers that mind cannot clearly and firmly grasp neither sleeping nor waking. Importantly, after this concluding Philo commences more discussing the gluttony following drunkenness- thus is the SUNEPIGRAFO in Ebr 205 in very important text written. This discussion is importantly written in Ebr 205 to be interpretation of the two daughters of Laban, the Ebr 203 referring to Gen 19:33-35. It is in the descriptions of episodes of Laban that also the word PSEUDOGRAFEIN is written in this De Ebrietate. Philo writes here in Ebr 47 concerning Laban who did not see the true laws of nature describes wrongly (PSEUDOGRAFEI) the laws among people. Philo is also in Ebr 46 commenting making errors in apprehending something
Philo here notices some one wandering like miracles the colours and forms concerning what is outside the body and concerning of body in such manner that the senses are deceived. Importantly, the Hebrew name Laban exactly means white and whiteness, and especially for Platonic writings of senses white and seeing white are very fundamental for descriptions of working of seeing. Very importantly, thus Philo writes in this discussion of STELE (noticing the history of wife of Lot) and writes of errors of senses with words SUNEPIGRAFEIN and PSEUDOGRAFEIN. Clearly is the central topic of STELOGRAPHEIN Psalms 56-60 thus referred to.

Many parallels to the Psalm 58 written in the Greek Bible are easily found in this writing of De Ebrietate. For the Psalm 58:6 the writing of FARMAKOU TE FARMAKEUOMENOU PARA SOFOU is notorious; and in De Ebrietate Philo writes notably often of FARMAKON. Philo notices wine and especially unmixed wine here to be chemical producing folly, writing thus of AFROSUNES FARMAKON in Ebr 128 and Ebr 27; this notice connects to the central topic of this book De Ebrietate, concerning describing wine drinking and drunkenness. Notably, such writing of AFROSUNES FARMAKON so much echoes this Ps 58:6 noticing SOFOS and FARMAKON. The word FARMAKON also appears in the Ebr 184; the Ebr 183 writes of errors in visions and illusions, and writes of PSEUDOGRAFEIN and SUNEPIGRAFEIN, these comparing to the STELOGRAFEIN of this Psalm 58. The Ebr 184 writes of rightly measuring the medicines in accordance with the knowledge of medical science
Philo here discusses the effects of measuring the medicines rightly, or making erroneous measurements either excessive or too weak, and their harmful consequences. The word FARMAKON also is written in the Ebr 172 in somewhat more general meaning, considering
Here Philo writes of some animals to which the helpful nature has given changing of colours to be remedy (FARMAKON) for the dangers of captivity. This word FARMAKON echoes also this Ps 58:6 writing of the FARMAKON, and more attentive considerations of these texts further establish Philonic reference here to the Psalm 58. Philo writes here in Ebr 172-175 a list of animals that change their colours. This is written to discuss the trope of AENESIDEMUS called
This trope of Aenesidemus considers that the differencies of the constitution of animals give rise to differencies of sensations coming from such animals. Very importantly, Colson comments that the list of the examples in the animal world here in Ebr 172-174 written is notable “the introduction of these examples, which have no parallel in Sextus or Diogenes, is quite illogical...Philo, or the source from which he drew, was attracted by the interest of these supposed changes in the animal world and could not refrain from noticing them in a passage which deals with animals” (Philo V, 506). However, easily is found that Philo with this list of animals is commenting the Psalm 58, this emphasising his reference to Psalm 58 here, also writing of FARMAKON, STELE and GRAFEIN, especially EPIGRAFEIN. For the Philonic style of writing interpretations of Biblical texts, such reference to Psalm 58 in this highly Sceptic style writing of De Ebrietate was surely obvious, because so many illusory or visual sensations are here in De Ebr considered or their erroneous interpretations and the Psalm 58:1-2 commences writing that EIS STELOGRAFIAN EI ALETHOS...Philo commences in Ebr 172 writing of chameleon and polypus
KHORIS GAR TON KRINONTON IDE KAI TON KRINOMENON ENIA OIA TON KHAMAILEONTA, TON POLYPODA. This notoriously echoes the Ps 58:6-7 writing of the FARMAKON and noticing TAS MULAS TON LEONTON. The Ps 58:5 also notices the snake, such crawling creature; and Philo continues the description of the chameleon noticing its changing colours similar to places where it is crawling
The notice of the polypus finds parallel in the Psalm 58:10 where some bowl or pot is noticed; the Greek Bible here writes PRO TOU SUNIENAI TAS AKANTHAS HUMON TEN RAMNON- and often such bowls or pots occur in literature with their names noticing how many feet they had. Also Philo here connects such polypus to waters- this further comparably to the usual water containing pots with many feet- Philo here specifying the polypus changing its colours growing similar to the rocks of sea to which it is clinging
To these creatures polypus and chameleon Philo then notices that the nature has given the ability to change their colours to be remedy (FARMAKON) for dangers of captivity. In this list Philo clearly writes thus reference to the Psalm 58, in this discussion considering truth, error and sensations. Philo writes here in Ebr 174 a further example of such changing of colours of creatures-
Here Philo writes description of “elk” (so translation of Colson here), that was known for its changing colour of its hair to be similar of its place and the trees and its thus escaping the sight of those it meets. Philo writes that such creature is famously occurring in the land of Scythians, known also as Geloans (TOIS KALOUMENOIS GELOOIS). Attentive reading of this descriptions finds easily parallels in the Mikhtam Psalm 60. There the Ps 60:8-9 writes of AGALLIASOMAI...GALAAD echoing the KALOUMENOIS GELOOIS in Ebr 174; the notice of the change of the colour of the hair notices in Ps 60:4 where are emphatically changes describes, also the SUNETARAKSAS – this noticing the TRIKS (nom. Greek for hair) and also noticing the TARANDROS “elk”. Philo emphasises here in Ebr 174 that such ability of changing colour of hair makes such “elk” difficult to catch and helps its evading the passers-by; and so notices Ps 60:6 TOU FUGEIN APO PROSOPOU TOKSOU. Also is notable the statement of the Mikhtam Psalm 56:7 PAROIKESOUSIN KAI KATAKRUPSOUSIN noticing for Readers of Greek sojourning in a place in hiddenness, or sojourning in a place and hiding themselves. Philo also writes example of creatures in Ebr 173 considering how the neck of dove changes its colours- and mention of dove does find notorious parallel in the commencing of the Mikhtam Psalm 56:1 (Hebrew) YL JWNT ALM RHQJM that writes of the Jona, that is, the dove. Philo here writes a notorious Midrashic interpretation of statements of the Psalm 56 (the LXX Psalm 55) for describing the variable colours of the dove. The Psalm 56 in the Greek Bible concludes with the words EN FOTI ZOONTON, thus describing something of the light of the living beings; and writing an ingenuous interpretation of these statements, Philo describes in Ebr 173 exactly how the neck of dove is seen to change its colours in thousand varieties in the sun light, writing that
This clear description of observation of natural creatures and their alteration of their colours is in this writing of De Ebrietate 173 a very ingenuous Midrashic interpretation of details of the Mikhtam Psalm 56 writing of the Jona-dove and concluding EN FOTI ZOONTON.

Further textual details in this discussion of De Ebrietate notice to the attentive Readers, that writing this text Philo is making references especially to the Mikhtam Psalm 58. Philo commences in the Ebr 175 discussion of another trope of the Sceptic AENESIDEMUS, writing here of the trope called
Thus is this trope named by Sextus Empiricus, and this trope considers the difficulties and impossibilities of apprehension due to changing of the impressions because of the changes in the situation of the observers themselves. De Ebr 176 writes of this
This notices that different observers receive different impressions from objects at different times. Philo writes to exemplify this trope descriptions for situations where something is liked by some people but disliked by other people. The Ebr 177 writes description of Philo’s having attended some theatre and noticed that some single tune of melody sung (ENOS MELOUS) by the actors or played by the musicians has produced totally different effects among the audience. Some people in the audience are utterly praising such melodies and tunes; but some other among that audience have become utterly irritated by such melody, leaving then the theatre and very importantly, then they have stopped their ear with their both hands so that echoes of such tunes would no further irritate their souls- especially here are notable the descriptions of
This is notable Midrashic interpretation of Psalm 58:5-6 writing in the Greek
This Greek text of the Psalm 58:5-6 notices exactly stopping ears and not hearing to the voice of those who are singing. Once more it is very important to notice that this text from the Psalm 58:5-6 is then followed by the notice of FARMAKOU TE FARMAKEUOMENOU PARA SOFOU that was already in this study noticed for its clear parallels in De Ebrietate, especially Ebrietate 184-185 describing amounts of chemicals and the science of medicine and the Ebr 172 writing of the different animals having been given by the nature the special ability to change their colours for remedy for the dangers of capture, TEN EIS TO POLYKHROMATON AUTOIS TROPEN FARMAKON. Philo writes here in De Ebrietate thus references especially to the Mikhtam Psalm 58. The Mikhtam Psalm 58 in the Greek Bible also notices creatures of different ages; for the readers considering some philosophical theories such writing is very specific notice of important alteration for living beings, their being young, adult and elderly beings. Philosophically thinking Readers thus might suppose Philo making at least some references also to such alterations when thus writing of further trope considering O PARA TAS PERISTASEIS. Philo indeed does continue the discussion of this trope after now quoted writing of the theatre and some of the audience leaving the theatre covering their ears after some for them irritating tunes and melodies. Philo continues thus in the Ebr 178 the discussion of this trope noticing that every one is
Especially, Philo notices for such alterations that people are some times healthy, some times they are sick; some times people are sleeping, some times awake; and importantly, they are young and they are old. Such notices parallel clearly the writing of the Psalm 58, especially 58:4 APELLOTRIOTHESAN OI AMARTOLOI, and the 58:2 noticing HUIOI TON ANTHROPON, the 58:7 even noticing the whelps of lions. Especially is notorious the statement of the 58:2 writing
This statement exhorting people to make right judgements directly notices the topic of this trope- alterations of people their being younger and elder, and their making judgements (KRINEIN). Importantly, now the KRINEIN is used in these context of epistemology to denote judgements, not in the juridical sense of the KRINEIN; so is the KRINEIN in these discussions of De Ebrietate written and so can the KRINEIN of 58:2 also be comprehended.

Further very important parallel to the writings of Psalm 58 is found in Philo’s discussing of the trope called by Sextus Empiricus O PARA TAS THESEIS KAI TA DIASTEMATA KAI TOUS TOPOUS (see PH 1.118-120), so writes also Philo in this Ebr 181. Philo follows here discussing the examples of fishes in the sea and that some oars seem to be bent under water; different illustrations for this is there written by Sextus Empiricus, noticing in PH 1.118-120 pillar, tower and ship- and concerning ship noticing how it appears to be larger and moving when seen near and its appearing smaller and steady to observers situated far from it (DIASTEMATA); and here is also written the example of that oar seems to be bent under water. Importantly, the Psalm 58:8-9 writes of
This statement in the Greek Bible notices how living (or streaming) waters make stretching – this statement is clear although the current division of verses discourages the Readers from finding this clear statement concerning waters (once more the division into verses is difficult for the Readers). This notice of stretching by waters here in Psalm 58:8-9 constitutes clear parallel to the notice of Ebr 182 writing
The Translation of Colson for this statement reads
“We see that fishes in the sea, when they swim with their fins stretched, always look larger than nature has made them” (Philo III, 413). Philo had many contemporary parallels for writing such description of magnified visions seen through waters, especially seeing fishes magnified in waters. Especially important is that then wide spread cult of Atargatis, according to the descriptions of Lucian, did also include observations of fishes in the fish ponds and making observations of their huge magnitudes- Lucian much writes of this in the De Dea Syria. This specific writing of Philo was more discussed by the current writer in the Book “Divination by Bowls in Bible, Septuagint, Qumran Texts, Philo and Matthew 13:1-12. Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls in Bible Interpretations” (2007), the Chapter 2.5.4. there more interpreting this text of magnified fish in Ebrietate 182 and noticing Hellenistic context. The current study establishes that the highly Sceptic style discussion of senses in De Ebrietate is writing many Midrashim clearly referring to the Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16 in the Old Testament, especially the Psalm 58 there being referred to. It is very important that these Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16 write the only occurrences of the word STELOGRAFEIN in the Greek Bible- the GRAFEIN exactly does mean production of visual signs and visions. We can thus retrieve important pieces of ancient Jewish somewhat theoretical writing of production of visions and visual signs- importantly, this Philonic writing of De Ebrietate 164ff. is very clearly written writing of philosophical style, discussing with contemporary philosophies- and this writing of De Ebrietate is widely also recognised for its philosophical writing among current historians of philosophy. It is further very important to notice that Philo of Alexandria writes these somewhat more philosophical style considerations of senses and sensations in this writing of De Ebrietate- this writing is profoundly a Midrash for the Old Testament statement of Noah’s wine drinking according to the Genesis 9. Noah’s becoming sober from his wine drinking is described in Gen 9:24 WJJQZ NH MJJN WJDY (Hebrew Bible); and this statement is profoundly studied in the De Sobrietate by Philo of Alexandria. Importantly, prophetic state of mind is often described to be some sober drunkenness. We notice also that the very philosophical writing of the senses is in De Ebrietate written to be Midrash for wine drinking, the Gen 19:33 writing of the daughters of Laban that they EPOTISAN TON PATERA OINON, this quoted in the Ebr 166- the Ebr 164 already had noticed the wife of Lot who had become STELE HALOS. We can thus conclude that these Jewish traditions concerning wine and wine cups contained in the writings of Philo of Alexandria descriptions of productions of visions and visual signs and sensations written with very specialised and philosophical style writing, discussing with contemporary philosophical theories. The traditions of wine and wine cups especially notice the Biblical histories of Noah and wine drinking, so that the Hebrew QZ words are always important (WJJQZ NH MJJN WJDY), also some Qumranic writings of the QZ thus being . Philo’s more philosophical writing of such theories of producing of visions in De Ebrietate make clear Midrashim for details in the Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16- these Psalms expressly write of the STELOGRAFEIN or production of visual signs and visions; and in Hebrew Bible the STELOGRAFEIN translates the MTKM or Mikhtam, this rare word thus noticing vision-producing and even referring to the famous Kittim so often noticed in the Qumranic writings. Thus is found important theoretical discussion concerning producing of visions with philosophically very specialised writing among the Jewish of the Hellenistic times.

Philo writes in the discussion of the Ebr 172 considering the trope of Aenesidemus O PARA TEN TON ZOON EKSALLAGEN (see Sextus Empiricus PH 1.36 and for more of this trope in PH 1.40ff). Writing of the alterations of colours is generally for the Greek and Hellenistic theory of seeing very serious argument indeed, because of the central role the colour has for the seeing. Aristotle writes of the senses and sensations in De Anima very extensively; and the objects proper to the sense of seeing are especially colours. Some notices to Aristotle’s writing of the sense of seeing are here helpful for better comprehending the seriousness of these examples from nature mentioned by Philo concerning the change of colours. Aristotle writes in De An II.7 commencing the more extensive writing of the sense of vision that
All writings of Aristotle are very detailed and very difficult and much debated, but here major idea for discussing the sense of sight notices that the visible is object of sight. Aristotle here further notices that such visible are colour and something else: ORATON D’ ESTIN KHROMA (418a26-28). Further Aristotle writes here even more specifically TO GAR ORATON ESTI KHROMA. TOUTO D’ ESTI TO EPI TOU KAT’ AUTO ORATOU; thus is noticed that the visible is colour- and that such colour is on something that in itself is visible (418a28-30). Thus is the colour (KHROMA) very fundamental for the sense of sight according to the De Anima of Aristotle. For the sense of seeing is further very central the idea of some transparent medium, and De An II.7 writes of the DIAFANES transparent medium
Here is noticed that every colour produces some movement in the actually transparent (418b1-2). Further is written in De An II.7 concerning light, ESTI TI DIAFANES (418b3-4); Aristotle notices among such transparent media air, water and many solid objects (POLLA TON STEREON), thus writing in 418b5-7. What might be such transparent solid objects- the modern Readers might well suppose some crystals and possibly glass objects (that is, transparent glass objects!) thus been noticed. Aristotle writes further in 418b10-11 that TO DE FOS OION KHROMA ESTI TOU DIAFANOUS thus considering light in some sense to be colour of the transparent, although writing more difficult statement here FOS DE ESTIN E TOUTOU ENERGEIA TOU DIAFANES E DIAFANES writing thus a difficult statement concerning the actuality of the transparent, and light (418b9-10). Further continuing the writing of sense of sight, Aristotle here in De An II.7 emphasises that what is seen in the light is colour, TO MEN EN FOTI OROMENON KHROMA (419a9-10). Very important although difficult statement of the essence of colour is here written in 419a10-11 TOUTO GAR EN AUTO TO KHROMATI EINAI TO KINETIKO EINAI TOU KAT’ ENERGEIAN DIAFANOUS E D’ ENTELEKHEIA TOU DIAFANOUS FOS ESTIN. This is VERY fundamental statement of the essence of colour. Furthermore, Aristotle writes also of the sense of sight in De Sensu. There Aristotle considers more questions of potential and actual and senses (439a). Aristotle continues here writing of De Anima and notices PERI FOTOS...OTI ESTI KHROMA TOU DIAFANOUS KATA SUMBEBEKOS. OTAN GAR ENE TI PURODES EN DIAFANEI E MEN PAROUSIA FOS E DE STERESIS SKOTOS (439a18-21). Here Aristotle notices observable bodies and colour and colour’s appearing in their limits or surfaces TO GAR KHROMA E EN TO PERATI ESTIN E PERAS (439a30-31); thereafter is a notice to the theories of the Pythagoreans written. Further he writes in 439b10-11 that KHROMA AN EIE TO TOU DIAFANOUS EN SOMATI ORISMENO PERAS, thus noticing the limit of observable body and the transparent, and there appearing colour- more specifically this describes KHROMA AN EIE. Very important notice of production of colours seen through air or waters is written here in De Sensu 440a6-10
This describes exactly attempts for making something seen in waters or in air (EN AERI!) and the appearance of colours of that object to the sight in such situations, the DI’ ALLELON being here central. Aristotle here continues in De Sensu 440a13-15 writing of the situation DI’ ALLELON and writes the statement
Aristotle writes here very clearly concerning attempts of those people OI GRAFES to make visions through water (and through air), clearly writing example of sun seen with different colours in different air conditions. Why does Aristotle here write of POLLAI KHROAI? Does this POLLAI denote the numerousness of different colours? Other obvious possibility is that such POLLAI refers to spatially magnified visions seen from objects through water filled glass bowls, glass chalices, glass cups and glass bottles. Aristotle in this De Sensu specifically writes that the colour is something that is limit of the observed body and the transparent, especially in 439b10-13 KHROMA AN EIE TO TOU DIAFANOUS EN SOMATI ORISMENO PERAS. KAI AUTON DE TON DIAFANON OION HUDATOS KAI EI TI ALLO TOIOUTON. Notoriously, here is especially WATER noticed to be example of such TRANSPARENT. Thus is very important question the comprehension of POLLAI KHROAI in the situation of making something visible through water (and air). Clearly, such POLLAI can here with arguable grounds be comprehended to notice that the limits of observable bodies seem to be spatially stretched from the waters, that is, transparent water containers produce magnified visions of objects. The full and comprehensive academic discussion of these difficult details of Aristotle’s writings and their later interpretations is, however, to be left to specialists of that philosophy. (Also many statements especially in Meteorologica of Aristotle are for such discussions of notorious importance). Importantly, Aristotle here writes of those attempting to produce such visions the term OI GRAFES; the current study is devoted to translating and commenting the Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16 of the Old Testament, the Greek Bible writing for the Hebrew word Mikhtam the notorious word STELOGRAFIA. Aristotle refers here to the example of seeing sun either white when it is directly seen, and seeing sun red if seen through DIA AKHLUOS KAI KAPNOU. Aristotle’s writing of colour and sense of sight is very difficult; but these references to the important writings in De Anima do clearly emphasises to the Readers of the very fundamental role of colour for seeing and the sense of sight. Thus Philo’s writing in De Ebrietate concerning the changes of COLOURS of animals, the chameleon, polypus, “elk” and dove noticed address very important questions concerning the impressions arriving to eyes and the functioning of the sense of sight and mind’s working.

comparison of theory of seeing in Philo of Alexandria's De Ebrietate (the Sceptic discussion), and Aristotle's De Sensu and De Anima, for study of Mikhtam Psalm 58, written by Pasi Pohjala 2009, copyright Pasi Pohjala 2009 based on fre art licence http://artlibre.org

theory of dream visions in Aristotle and De Somniis of Philo

The current study attempts to translate the Mikhtam Psalms of the Old Testament, the Psalms 56-60 and 16, and for these Psalms is a Commentary written in this study for clarifying the principles of translation and for arguing the here written translation into English. Very many parallels to these Psalms are found also in the writings of Philo of Alexandria, understandably enough, because Philonic writings are vast and complicated writings. Many parallels are found especially in Philo’s writing of dreams- especially his writings in the books De Somniis 1 and 2 have now been found very important with their writing many references to the Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16. Therefore some notices of writings of dreams in the Hellenistic world is advisable; such topic is, however, well known to be vast study of numerous and very difficult books. Important information of Hellenistic theories for comprehending dreams and sleeping can be found among Aristotle’s writings: the current study wishes to notice some important details of Aristotle’s theory of dreams and prophecy in sleep for thus discussing more the environment of Greek and Hellenistic philosophy that was often so well known to Philo and that is so manifold and often so difficult noticed in his writings. The current study wishes to notice especially the books of Aristotle writing theory of prophecy in sleep with the Greek title PERI TES KAT’ HUPNON MANTIKES, (de Divinatione per Somnia, or hereafter referred Div.Somn.). Also is here studied some theories in the writing of the theory of sleep in Aristotle’s book PERI ENUPNION (de Insomniis, hereafter referred Insomn.). The Greek text here follows the ed. of Sir David Ross of these Books in the Parva Naturalia (1955); and especially are noticed the English translations of these Books by J. I. Beare in The Works of Aristotle Translated into English (vol. III, 1931), and the currently popular translation by W. S. Hett in the LCL 288. The current study is still written for commentary of the Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16 in the Old Testament. These Psalms are in the Greek Bible specially distinguished by their title STELOGRAFIA that in these Psalms always translates the Hebrew word MIKHTAM but does not occur in any other writing of the Greek Bible. This study of the theory on prophecy in sleep and theory of sleep and these Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16 can now be commenced by noticing that Aristotle writes in the commencing of the PERI TES KAT’ HUPNON MANTIKES very interesting reference to STELE, writing in 462b24-27
This writing continues the commencing of the discussion of divine causation of dreams- Aristotle discusses the theory that it is God who sends dreams- and then writes these notices of PERI TON EF’ HERAKLEIAIS STELAIS and TON EN BORUSTHENEI- and for the current world, these words are well attested in the Mss. Here is notoriously written notice of seeing something and the STELE- and thereafter are the dreams discussed to be signs (SEMEIA). The currently followed translation of such STELAIS comprehends these to be Pillars of Hercules (Beare), similarly trl. Hett writing Pillars of Heracles. In the ancient world the Pillars of Hercules were, of course, well known reference to certain place. The attentive Readers should, however, be cautious for possibility of writing such word to symbolise something or some objects. Once more it is important to notice that the STELE generally denotes some block of stone, and that Herodotus writes the word STELE to denote even “block of rock crystal in which the Ethiopian mummies were cased” (so in the Liddell-Scott for “STELE”). The attentive Reader thus considers these writings with very special detail. Especially, the PROORAN is therefore very important- this word denotes “foresee”, this noticing the ability to foresee or predict future events and occurrences, but importantly, the PROORAN does denote also “see before one” and “see what is just before the eyes” (see Liddell-Scott 1492), these obviously comprehending the meaning of the Greek PRO. Currently such PROORAN is here comprehended to notice foreseeing something (thus also Hett and Beare), especially foreseeing some events occurring at the Pillars of Hercules (so e.g. the commentary of Ross “of the supposed power of certain people to foresee events in distant parts no reasonable explanation can be found” (1955, 279)). However, the attentive Reader surely considers if the notice of the Pillars of Hercules is here written in some symbolic meaning- such is more possible because this text is writing of dreams and prophecy and therefore can be supposed to write in some places some more symbolical writings. The Readers will also notice the PERI TON EF’ HERAKLEIAIS STELAIS writing the EF’ or EPI- such notice easily echoes the EPIGRAMMA and EPIGRAFEIN that were written on STELAI of obelisk style (for example, Philo is found to write such EPIGRAMMA and EPIGRAFEIN for the STELE to denote the signs and inscriptions written or carved on such STELAI). Furthermore, Aristotle here continues writing if dreams are possibly SIGNS (SEMEIA) for events. The Readers will therefore surely consider that this writing of Heracles’ pillars with good grounds can be considered to denote some object (or some special device) in front of a observer who attempts to see there something occurring in front of his eyes. This notice of the Aristotle’s writing in the PERI TES KAT’ HUPNON MANTIKES is thus very important notice to further specify the writing of the STELOGRAFIA in the Greek Bible writing of the Mikhtam Psalms.

The notice of such special prophetic style seeing and Pillars of Hercules written here by Aristotle can be further compared with noticing some details in the writings of Philo of Alexandria. The attentive searching for possible parallels focuses the attention especially to the Q. G. II.5 (Quaestiones et Solutiones in Genesin, II). The Readers can read some studies of the history of these mainly in the Armenian language preserved books Quaestiones by Philo of Alexandria; the current study merely notices the details of Q.G. II.5 important for THE CURRENT STUDY; here is the translation of Yonge followed, this translation based on the Latin translation of these mainly in Armenian preserved very important Books. The Q.G. II.5 comments the Gen 6:15 writing
“why did God give the measures of the ark in the following manner; the length to be of three hundred cubits, and the breadth thereof to be fifty cubits, and the height to be thirty cubits: and above it was to be raised to a point in one cubit, being brought together gradually like an OBELISK?” (trl.Yonge). This writing writes much of the measurements of width, height and breadth and notices an OBELISK- being based on the Younge’s thus translating the Latin translation of the Armenian text of Quaestiones. The Greek Bible here does not, of course, write words denoting pillars or obelisks, neither do these many times translated Philonic texts with this mention of obelisk make specific reference to the Door of the Ark- this is in detail more studied by Philo in the following Q.G. II.6. Philo’s commentary of this text in the Q.G. II.5 is very notoriously writing in much detail of measurements (and Philo writes of numbers very often in the style of Pythagorean school); here are written of measurements of the ark, the animals and measurements of different creatures. Very importantly, in this writing of Q.G. II.5 Philo makes also an interesting reference to Heraclitus (clearly referring to the Greek philosopher Heraclitus; but with regard to the notorious and complex stages of transmission of these writings of Quaestiones in Armenian manuscripts and thereafter more well known in the Latin translations, even such reference to Heraclitus is important for the current study of Heracles’ pillars mentioned by Aristotle in theory of prophecy in sleep and for the notices of STELOGRAFIA in the Old Testament Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16). In this Q.G. II.5 Philo notices Heraclitus’ saying that the number thirty is called “generation”, Philonic writing here “on which account it was not without some foundation and sufficient reason that Heraclitus called that number “generation,” when he said: a man in thirty years from the time of his birth can become a grandfather”. This notice of Heraclitus attests Philonic writing of Heraclitus and numbers in such text that mostly studies numbers and measurements and writes of an obelisk. Philo can here make special reference to Heracles and pillars. It is now to be emphasised that Philo writes of the theory of senses and sensations often interpreting the place Charran and Abraham’s migrating (see, for example, current author’s writing of the Charran texts in the Book “Divination by Bowls in Bible, Septuagint, Qumran texts, Philo and Matthew 13:1-12. Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls in Bible Interpretations” (2007), the Ch. 4.5. “Philonic allegories of Haran, the Place of Seeing: the Cavities of Vision”)- and some of these interpretations of senses and Charran write the word STELE, interestingly enough, because the name Haran among all names in the Bible somehow does resemble the name Hercules. (Philo very specifically writes in the interpretations of Haran that it symbolises some cavities for senses; attentive Readers now recall that generally the STELE does notice some block of stone, even blocks of rock crystal where Ethiopian mummies were buried, thus STELE in some texts noticing some carved or somewhat hollowed block of stone, too. It is to be further studied how Philo writes STELE in interpretations of Haran.). Thus can be noticed that in the Philonic writings it is the Q.G. II.5 that appears to be important text for the current writing of STELE, especially for the Pillars of Hercules noticed by Aristotle in his PERI TES KAT’ HUPNON MANTIKES.

In the Books PERI TES KAT’ HUPNON MANTIKES and PERI ENUPNION Aristotle writes notoriously often seeing something in waters, or seeing something reflected in waters. It is very important to notice that the treatise of prophecy in the sleep actually concludes with a notice of seeing visions and figures reflected in waters, this according to Aristotle is illustrating skilful judging of dreams; this text is for the current study of visions and reflections seen in waters obviously very central, having the very authority of Aristotle himself, and therefore this statement from conclusion of the PERI TES KAT’ HUPNON MANTIKES is here to be noticed (464b5-12)
The translation of J. I. Beare of this text reads
“The most skilful interpreter of dreams is he who has the faculty of observing resemblances. Any one may interpret dreams that are vivid and plain. But, speaking of ‘resemblances’, I mean that dream presentations are analogous to the forms reflected in water, as indeed we have already stated. In the latter case, if the motion in the water be great, the reflexion has no resemblance to its original, nor do the forms resemble the real objects.” (Translation of J. I. Beare in The Works of Aristotle Translated into English, vol III, 1931). This text writes of interpreting dreams- central is here the ability to observe resemblances, or likenesses. Importantly, here are such resemblances by Aristotle compared to PARAPLESIA SUMBAINEI TA FANTASMATA TOIS EN HUDASIN EIDOLOIS; such resemblances are like forms reflected in water. Importantly, this statement of Aristotle thus specifies that skilful interpretation of dreams is very comparable to the ability of seeing forms reflected in water. Aristotle does write much of forms reflected in waters also in the book PERI ENUPNION, especially 461a14-18
The translation of J. I. Beare for this text is
“Hence, just as in a liquid, if one vehemently disturbs it, sometimes no reflected image appears, while at other times one appears, indeed, but utterly distorted, so as to seem quite unlike its original; while, when once the motion has ceased, the reflected images are clear and plain; in the same manner during sleep the phantasms...” (Translation of J. I. Beare in the Works of Aristotle Translated into English, vol. III, 1931). The Commentary of Sir David Ross for this 461a14- in the Parva Naturalia writes “Thus, just as in a liquid that is being vigorously stirred, sometimes no reflection is seen, sometimes quite a distorted one, but when the liquid has quieted down the reflections are pure and clear, so in sleep the images and residual movements are sometimes extinguished by the greater movement” (1955, 274). The writing in the conclusion of PERI TES KAT’ HUPNON MANTIKES writes of the TAS HOMOIOTETA THEOREIN...PARAPLESIA TA FANTASMATA TOIS EN HUDASIN EIDOLOIS; and here is written EN HUGRO...FAINETAI EIDOLON...FAINESTHAI ALLOION E OION ESTIN. Thus these texts write very clearly of the EIDOLON appearing in water or some liquid (EN HUDASIN or EN HUGRO) and their being resemblances, especially here studying their being some times resemblances but some times their not being resemblaces- because of the disturbing (or stirring) of the water or liquid. It is very notorious indeed that both books here notice visual forms reflected in waters when discussing prophecy in sleep and studying dreams. It is further notable that Aristotle further mentions visions seen in waters, writing here in PERI ENUPNION the description
The translation of J. I. Beare here reads that
“and there display themselves as the disturbance (of waking life) subsides. We must suppose that, like the little eddies which are being ever formed in rivers, so the sensory movements are each a continuous process, often remaining like what they were when first started, but often, too, broken into other forms by collision with obstacles” (Translation of J. I. Beare in The Works of Aristotle Translated into English, vol. III, 1931). This statement rather notices the streams and rivers, the POTAMOI, and in those occurring TAS MIKRAS DINAS, small eddies; the forms of such appearances are especially here noticed writing of the DIALUOMENAS EIS ALLA SKEMATA or their sometimes appearing with HOMOIOS resemblances. Also here are visual forms appearing in waters, especially river and stream, thus central, and noticed that such can be resemblances. Especially, this is here written to clarify why after dinner or to very young people dreams do not occur.

Aristotle does write also notoriously concerning the device “mirror”, the KATOPTRON or ENOPTRON, in these books writing of dreams and prophecy in sleep. In the Book PERI ENUPNION is written notice of such mirrors, the 459b23-
This writing very clearly considers KATOPTRON and ENOPTRON, and especially importantly notices how the senses can observe even very small differences, the MIKRAS DIAFORAS. The translation of this statement by Hett reads
“an example of the rapidity with which the sense organs perceive even a slight difference is found in the behaviour of mirrors...if a woman looks into a highly polished mirror during the menstrual period, the surface of the mirror becomes clouded with a blood-red colour (and if the mirror is a new one the stain is not easy to remove, but if it is an old one there is less difficulty”
(Translation of Hett in LCL 288). This is obviously very learned Translation although can be somewhat considered. The EKMAKSAI of the EKMASSO means either to wipe off or wipe away (this chosen by Hett), and means also impressing images (see also the L-S 513)- this motivating the famous more Platonic EKMAGEION. Clearly in translating this text is preferable the meaning of impressing images rather than the meaning of cleaning- this text thus writes rather of production of images in such mirrors. Furthermore, the EN GAR TOIS ENOPTROIS TOIS SFODRA KATHAROIS more generally some mirrors that are very pure- it is only the assumption of placing this statement to the context of polished bronze mirrors that necessitates translating here “highly polished mirror”. The word KHALKOS (for bronze) is in this writing much later noticed, in the 460a 15, so that much attention is here called for- indeed, Aristotle does very often in the theory of senses write of the famous “transparent” or DIAFANES. This is very clear statement of production of visual images in mirrors (or seeing devices), the KATOPTRON or ENOPTRON- and their specific material should be attentively be discussed. Especially, Aristotle continues this writing in 460a1- finding such to be exemplifying that the sense of sight is also active- OU MONON PASKHEI TI E OPSIS HUPO TOU AEROS ALLA KAI POIEI TI KAI KINEI, OSPER KAI TA LAMPRA. KAI GAR E OPSIS TON LAMPRON KAI EKHONTON KHROMA. The LAMPROS generally denotes some bright objects, and it is surely very notorious indeed that immediately after writing notices of production of visions in the “mirrors” Aristotle here notices LAMPROS; Hett translates this “the organ of sight not only is acted upon by the air, but also sets up an active process, just as bright objects do” (LCL 288).

Philo writes concerning his interpreting of dreams in the books De Somniis, or PERI TOU THEOPEMPTOUS EINAI TOUS ONEIROUS, and notoriously writes there of the Haran and STELE. Clearly Philonic writing of the dreams is discussing partially also with the Aristotelian theory, especially noticing the difficult problem of the (divine) causation of dreams. In the Aristotle’s writing of PERI TES KAT HUPNON MANTIKES or on Prophecy in Sleep there was found in the beginning of this book considerations of the divine causation of dreams, the 462b21 directly writing of God’s sending dreams TO TE GAR THEON EINAI TON PEMPONTA- this directly is discussed in the title THEOPEMPTOUS of Philo, noteworthy even if this topic is usual in dream books, and the writing and copying of titles to Philonic books includes several considerations. Here Aristotle writes of the Pillars of Hercules, PERI TON EF’ HERAKLEIAIS STELAIS...PROORAN TINAS; and in this book De Somniis Philo writes often of STELE and discusses much Haran the place of senses. Among the Biblical names the Haran does somewhat closely resemble even the Greek name Hercules. Importantly, Philo does write of STELE and such places of sense in this Book. Philo notices in Somn 1:41 that Haran can be considered to be a sort of mother-city to senses (METROPOLIS TIS AISTHESEON). Here he allegorically interprets that Haran means sometimes “dug”, sometimes “holes”
Philo also notices that O APO TOU FREATOS EKSELTHON EIS AUTEN ERKHETAI- that one coming from the well (FREAR) arrives there to Haran. Philo notices in Somon 1:42 that
Philo here writes a theory that organs for senses are some ”dug-out of each sense” (so Colson). This writing of the OPE, FREAR and TROGLAI is explicit commented with STELE somewhat earlier in Somn 1:11-13. Philo writes that TO MEN OUN EPISTEMES FREAR ORON KAI TELEUTEN OUK EKHON TOIOUTON APEDEIKHTE (1:11); this writing is part of commentary for Jacob’s journey and the vision of Heavenly Ladder in Gen 28. In the 1:11-13 Philo studies why this well was called well of Oath, the FREAR TOU ORKOU (Gen 28:10-11); in 1:13 Philo emphasises SAFOS EIDOS OTI EN EUORKON GRAFESETAI STELAIS. Here Philo, importantly, connects the interpretation of Haran and the wells in Haran with the STELE, especially applying the GRAFEIN to this notice of STELE. This argues for that Philo considers the idea of “Pillars of Hercules” (especially in the theory of Aristotle’s writing of the prophecy in sleep) when writing interpretation of the wells of Haran (for Gen 28)- Philo emphasises that such wells and cavities of Haran were the places of senses. (In the continuation De Somniis 1 Philo does write further of the STELE in 1:238ff.- these writings especially notice seeing vision from God, the TO PRESBUTATON IDEIN AITION and notices that STELE GAR TRION PRAGMATON SUMBOLON STASEOS ANATHESEOS EPIGRAMMATOS. Such echoes Aristotle’s writing after noticing here the Pillars of Hercules, that dreams are AITIA, SEMEIA TON GIGNOMENON or SUMPTOMATA. (The Somn 1:247 notices Lot’s wife GENESTHAI STELE HALOS). Further evidence for connection of STELE and Haran (especially the wells of Haran) are easily found in Fuga 119-122. Philo notices here Lot’s wife who became the STELE (here not writing merely GENESTHAI STELEN but not noticing the ALOS); encouraging to observations of what is directly in front of one (TA MEN PROSO); and here Philo refers to the Gen 16:7 EUREN AUTEN AGGELOS KURIOU- importantly, Greek Bible here writes EUREN AUTEN AGGELOS KURIOU EPI TES PEGES TOU HUDATOS EN TE EREMO- so Philo also here connects STELE and some “source of water” this echoing the history of Haran noticed in De Somniis 1 and its connecting to STELAI and thus emphasises echoes of Pillars of Hercules in interpretation of the Biblical writings of Haran.

study for theory of dream visions in psalm 16, in greek, compared with Aristotle's writings of Dreams and Prophecy in Sleep (PARVA NATURALIA), written by pasi pohjala 2009, copyright pasi pohjala 2009 based on free art licence http://artlibre.org

Wednesday, 24 June 2009



16:1 Mikhtam Psalm concerning Davidic style bowls. God- I observed Nun- stretching (SMRNJ)- truly, it is with Your help that I can comprehend.
16:2 Its utterance (AMJRH) is concerning God my Lord – so is its visual sign (AT) that its goodness does not occur without (BLJ) Your making the magnifying (YLJK).
16:3-4 For the holy vessels that are of earthly matter occur these: miracle producing (ADJRJ) are the holy vessels (KL HPZJ) in them. They magnify (JRBW) and their divination appearances (YZBWT) are according to their visual keenness (MHR). I will not offer the libation offer (NSK) in these libation offer vessels that make similitude (NSK, demut) without that there the fire light producing there visual sign- in completeness it is there magnified (TM, YL, SPH).
16:5 God makes measuring of my making of divisions (HLQ): thus occurs in the CUP (KWS), its visual sign (AT) makes magnifying-seeing (TMH) of my Goral divination.
16:6 The hollow vessel (HBL) of waters made to me bowl divination (NPLW), such well formed visual figures (NYM), magnified from waters (AP, NHL), this occurred to me in clearness (SPR).
16:7 I will thus praise God for his making visual sign (AT) that informs me of Nun stretching (YZH, NN): it is magnifying of evening style visual signs that the vessels of signs (OT, KL) produce, such Nun-stretching bowls (JSRWNJ), such from my hollow vessels (SWA).
16:8 God, there, light-flame (lun) in front of me (LNGDJ) always: because water-bowl makes such stretching (MJM, NN) if I do not shake (the bowl).
16:9 The LEKANE (LKN) thus makes successfully (SMH) this my heart formed vessel (LBJ), it makes revelation (WJGL) such Kavod visual appearance that is magnified (KBWD AP); this occurs with help of the angel (B-SR) who is there appearing (SKN, the famous Shekina).
16:10a This is for making observation of living beings. You will not ignore the petitions of my soul, surely not!
16:10b-11 You will give for the seeing of Your Hasid such floating figures in waters (TTN LRAWT SHT), You will make known such Nun stretching, extensions of living beings in the waters (ARH HJ, JM). In muchness there appear successfully (SMH) such visual sign (OT), such vision sent from You (AT PNJK), well formed vision (NYM) from waters of light, in full clarity (NZH)

16 GENERAL COMMENTARY Generally can be noticed that the whole Psalm 16 in its Greek translation very much notices words describing cups, vessels, visions and magnifying. The STELOGRAPHIA notices the GRAFEIN vision producing and drawing and writing; miracle making is noticed writing ETHAUMASTOSE; cup is clearly noticed mentioning the POTERION, and the word KRATISTOS twice written in this context even echoes the KRATER larger wine mixing bowl; measures and measuring are well described writing the MERIS, KLERONOMIA and SKHOINIA; muchness and magnifying is emphatically described EPLETHUNTHESAN and PLEROSEIS; even is announcing muchness noticed EGNORISAS PLEROSEIS. Clearly is thus special circumstances involving the use of cup and observing special visions described- such context is also the “libation offering” or “ritual of cup” that is mentioned here in this Psalm 16: 4. Notably, the Greek translator comprehends such ritual of cup in the religious gathering of synagogue, writing SUNAGAGO TAS SUNAGOGAS. Such words well specify this MIKHTAM/STELOGRAPHIA Psalm 16.
16:1 COMMENTARY The Hebrew text notices also here the Mikhtam Psalm, and the Greek translation also here writes the STELOGRAPHIA; it is thus very notable that the rare word MIKHTAM is consequently translated in the Book of Psalms with the Greek word STELOGRAPHIA, thus in 56:1, 57:1, 58:1, 59:1, 60:1 and here 16:1. This choice of word notices the STELE and GRAPHEIN; often this STELOGRAPHIA is thus rendered to denote writing on a stele style pillar of stone that were known in Egypt. It is important that thus is some product of stone material noticed, such produce that could convey well defined visual signs; the full meaning of the word STELE is thus important: the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing really consisted mainly of different pictures and images. Thus is the STELE more widely comprehensible to be a device of stone material that can convey well defined pictures and information in pictures; easily one can think also of bowls of stone material than do produce and convey pictures. The SMRNJ is in the Greek rendered FULAKSON, echoing e.g. the Hab 2:1 writing YL MSMRTJ where the Greek writes EPI TES FULAKES, this Hab 2:1 emphatically writing of visual observation there. The mentioned BK is smaller detail, but in this Psalm the B- words are notably often written, the BL (v. 2, 4 and 8) and the BM (v. 3), and the v. 9 mentions the B-SR thus noticing the angels SR helping the vision. Attentive Reader further notices that the SMRNJ notices here the NUN stretching/ magnifying; and emphatically the Greek here writes OTI EPI SOI that also can be read in the form writing O TI EP’ ISOI (something that is more than those being of same measure (ISOS)). Evidently, this notices magnifying; and the word ISOS noticing items of same measure is hugely relevant for this Psalm, because so much is measuring discussed: God is the MERIS, and the SKHOINION measuring cord is also mentioned (and some other occurrences of ISOS can also easily be here found).

16:2 COMMENTARY The word AT in this Psalm 16 emphatically notices “visual sign” and “vision”. The whole Psalm concludes AT-PNJK that emphasises the PNJM mentioning face or appearance. The Greek text notices here nicely comparisons translating the TWB with TON AGATHON MOU and later in the v. 6 writing the KRATISTOS, the superlative of AGATHOS. Such comparison of AGATHOS and KRATISTOS its superlative form in v. 6 notices comparisons especially writing of the measuring cord SKHOINIA; and the SHKOINIA translates the HBLJM of Hebrew text in v. 6, and this echoes clearly the BL of this v.2.

16:3-4 COMMENTARY This text writes of the NSK libation offers and offering the libation offer from the holy vessels ASJK NSKJHM. It is thus very notorious that (also) here the Greek text writes OU ME SUNAGAGO TAS SUNAGOGAS AUTON, writing thus words of SUN-AGO. Very clearly this notices in the Greek text some religious ritual of cup of the synagogue. Clearly the translator thus emphasises that some important religious ritual of the CUP was practised in the gatherings called “synagogue” gatherings. (The Reader might wish to read more of the history of the institution of Synagogue, for example in the writings of Levine). This text describing such libation offers/ ritual of cup were in the Greek context emphatically comprehended involving some magical or miraculous elements- the ADJRJ of Hebrew text is in the Greek translated ETHAUMASTOSE that notices the whole context of miracles and miracle making in the ancient Greek speaking world (THAUMA, THAUMATOURGEIN, THAUMAZEIN etc). Specially can be found that here is written that ETHAUMASTOSE...EPLETHUNTHESAN (for JRBW, noticing making special muchness or special multitude), making miraculous muchness, or even making magnifying miracle. Such miracle occurs from KL HPZJ, the specially precious vessels: KL HPZJ BM JRBW, and they show specially detailed visions MHR (also here it is very important to ignore the current division of verses, reading the semantic context of 3-4). The Hebrew writing of BL-BL emphasises that whenever I offer libation offer with such vessels of libation offer, necessarily there occur visions in fire light.

16:5 COMMENTARY This writing in the Hebrew text very clearly and unmistakably writes of vessels and visions, mentioning KWS cup, AT visual sign, Goral divination, and TMH seeing surprising growths. This is very clearly these describing cup divination- clearly thus continuing the topic of ASJK NSKJHM mentioning the offering of libation offers in the v. 4. Greek here very emphatically writes of making measuring with help of cup and cup divination, writing of KURIOS MERIS...TOU POTERIOU MOU. Furthermore the Greek notices the making of measuring for portions, the KLERONOMIA is here manifold written, and in this 16:5 the KLERONOMIA renders into Greek the Hebrew writing of HLQ and GWRL.

16:6 COMMENTARY Comprehending the GWRLJ HBLJM NPLW (of 5-6) is here the central topic. The HBL are the empty-vessels or hollow vessels and this continues clearly the topic of cup and there divine producing of divination. Especially comparison with Jonah Ch. 1 is very informative for this mention of NPL and Goral divination, there the Book of Jonah writes extensively of TIL cup divination, Goral divination and NPL. Generally is notable that for divination of lots some empty box or empty container was necessary for placing the lots. The Greek writes here of KLERONOMIA, but the Greek also writes here of KRATISTOS that echoes the word KRATER denoting larger wine mixing bowls. The KRATER larger bowl is here especially relevant, because also the wine cup POTERION is here noticed in v. 5. The SPRH clarity here especially echoes the v. 4 writing of YL SPTJ whose SPH does denote generally multitude, stretching and even magnifying; thus is production of multitude in clear visions noticed in this Hebrew text. Furthermore, the NYM is in this Psalm specially describing good visual forms, the concluding v. 11 writing emphatically of AT PNJK NYMWT, noticing thus PNJM visual appearance and AT visual sign. The Greek writing here mentions the KRATISTOS, the superlative of AGATHOS, and thus the Greek writing notices emphatically comparisons.

16:7 COMMENTARY This text notices the AT-H’ the visual sign sent from God, comparable to the v. 11 writing of AT-PNJK and the continuing v. 8 writing that H’ LNGDJ TMJD. The AP LJLWT continues the AP (magnifying) discussion from the v. 6 writing AP-NHLT that notices AP magnifying occurring in waters; and clearly the v.9 writes emphatically WJGL KBWDJ AP where the AP magnifying clearly specifies the producing of Kavod visual appearances in the GLL revelations. This text also notices a list of vessels, mentioning the SR bowls, the word KL denoting generally vessels and the SWH denoting empty or hollow vessels. Reading the SWH word in this list is very clear because of the semantic context; but the current division of the verses also here destroy the clear semantic context describing different vessels, placing the SWH word to 16:8. But the attentive Readers always notices the semantic context of the Hebrew text itself, some times therefore ignoring the later made division into verses that can be gravely misleading and foreign to the Hebrew text. This context very clearly writes of KL vessels, SR bowls and SWH hollow vessels; continuing notices of the holy vessels KL HPZJ of v. 3 and KWS cup described in v. 5 and the very central discussion of the libation offer and its vessels of v. 4-5. Noticing here the context of the libation offer is very central; also the Greek Readers will such notice. The word YZH-NN of this Hebrew text is into the Greek translated SUNETISANTA (of SUN-ETIDZO) denoting some form of instructing. Such choice of Greek SUN-ETIDZO is truly notable, because this Greek text of v. 7 does later write the more usual word of educating, the PAIDEUEIN (writing the EPAIDEUSAN). This choice of SUN-ETIDZO straightforwardly refers to the words SUNAGAGO TAS SUNAGOGAS of v. 4, that translate the description of the LIBATION offering/ritual of the cup. This emphatic connecting of instructing (SUN-ETIDZO) with the ritual of the cup (SUNAGAGO) clarifies that the Greek translator here maintains that the ritual of cup brings some instruction and knowledge. Such knowledge can, of course, be found observing visual signs appearing in the cup of the ritual of cup. Furthermore, the writing of this SUNETISANTA...ETI DE KAI EOS notices ETI ISAN or something more than those of same measure (ISOS); thus is furthermore the notice of v.2 writing of EP’ ISOI echoed. The word ISOS (equal, being of same measure) is clearly important for this Psalm so much writing of measures and measuring (KURIOS MERIS, SKHOINION etc.).

16:8 COMMENTARY This writes clearly H’ LNGDJ, that God appears in front of me. Such continues the v. 7 writing AT-H’ or visual sign sent from God; the v. 11 AT PNJK suggests that this text can maintain seeing visual appearance of God (usually the PNJM is the “face”). Such is for the tradition, however, incomprehensible; the Readers surely notice the writing of LUN here, the LUN noticing the famous fire-flame of divination. Such fire-flame rather can be connected to such special visual appearances. In the usual texts of lecanomancy there often occur mention of divine appearances in fire flame, and divine angels appearing in fire flame (see esp. Hopfner and Delatte). But the OT texts mentioning prophesy do often mention fire and fire-flame, so also the famous mention of divine angel appearing to Moses in the fire in midst of the burning bush. Reader might therefore notice that also here is written PROOROMEN TON KURION ENOPION MOU; the Greek translator writes here such PRO word that also echoes the PUR denoting fire and fire flames; notice of the ENOPION MOU already describes divine appearance.

16:9 COMMENTARY This text very clearly writes of revelation of Kavod visual appearances magnified. The Greek writes here
The Greek words AGALLIAOMAI and GLOSSA very emphatically thus notify the GL consonants that denote the occurrence of revelation. Furthermore, the AGALLIAOMAI noticing GL consonants also notices the Greek word LIAN that usually denotes some excess and surplus, thus this AGALLIAOMAI here noticing revelation of surplus, or revelation of magnifying. The attentive Reader notices in this text the SKN of Shekina, divine presence, and this emphasises reading the BSR to denote B-SR, with help of SR angel. It is a further important detail that the very description of the libation offering in the Hebrew text does notice here the consonants SKN of divine Shekina, because ASJK NSKJHM is written; thus is noticed surely that also in the ritual of cup there could occur such Divine Shekina.

16:10a COMMENTARY The LBTH...LSAL makes one semantic context and is thus translated, the details of text here notice the Lamed emphatically commencing the words and the LA...LA emphatically echoing the LSAWL. The SAWL usually notices making of questions and it is also thus here translated, even if “Sheol” is here often detected. This text 10a notices the seeing of living beings in the rituals of cup, so the LBTH commences this text (of HBJT observing), and the text 10a specially notices making petitions for finding such seeing during the ritual of the cup. The 10b thereafter describes clearly the divine answer to such petitions for seeing, TTN LRAWT notices the surety that God will hearken to these petitions and give such visions to seeing. Very important for the ancient use of this text is that the writer of Luke-Acts makes quotation of this 16:10 in the Book of Acts to argue for the reality of resurrection of Jesus, the speech of Peter in Acts 2 quotes for this purpose the 16:8-11 and the speech ascribed to the Apostle Paul in Acts 13 quotes 16:10 for that. Clearly, the writer of Luke-Acts thus comprehended this Psalm 16:10 to be plausible OT prooftext for reality of resurrection. The question of the resurrection itself is ideological and theological question and thus completely beyond this current translation of Psalm 16; here is important rather to notice something of the style of the writer of Luke-Acts. Generally, the question of resurrection is one of the major questions that involves all the study of Judaism and Hellenism, the very difficult and delicate discussions of Greek and Hellenistic words and ideas when the originally Hebrew-Aramaic writings and ideas were thus made known. The Reader might therefore find more information generally of the Judaism and Hellenism, and in older literature find much writings of Reitzenstein and other Scholars of the Religionsgeschichtliche Schule who so much have studied the process of applying words and ideas of Hellenistic world and Greek language to making known the Biblical writings. Occurrences of the category of resurrection especially in the mystery religions of Hellenistic world and its applications to the Biblical world have magnificently been studied in extenso by these Scholars, and the Reader might read much of their writings. For the current Translating of this Psalm 16 is enough to notify that author of Luke-Acts is generally known to be one of the most “Hellenistic” style writers of the New Testament, so that much of the discussion of Judaism and Hellenism and Religionsgeschichtliche Schule and mystery religions are very important for better comprehending the style of Luke-Acts. It is very important to alert the Reader that well acknowledged explicit quotations of Psalm 16 in the New Testament writings are only these two quotations in the Acts 2 and Acts 13, so that the question is mostly concerning the style of the acknowledged very Hellenistic style writer of Luke-Acts and his style of finding prooftexts in the Greek translation of Old Testament.

16:10-11 COMMENTARY This conclusion of this Mikhtam Psalm actually mentions words that in the other Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 are mentioned usually in their beginning. Thus is here mentioned the LRAWT SHT (also TSHT is thus found), this echoing the usual introduction of the Mikhtam Psalms the AL TSHT LDWD MKTM. The SHh usually in OT Hebrew notices to float or to swim; and thus these notices of SHT or TSHT very clearly notice visual floating figures; in lecanomancy the figures were, actually, seen somehow “floating” on the waters (or wine) of the bowl or cup. The Greek here writes the IDEIN DIAFTHORAN where are notoriously found the inf forms of ORAO, the ORAN and IDEIN (the aor. Inf). Especially, the similarly sounding IDEIN DIAFORAN is thus echoed, and this noticed seeing some difference (but the DIAFTHEIRO rather notices destruction); the AF for Readers might further echo the often written AP Hebrew word denoting magnifying in this Psalm (v. 6, 7 and 9, and see commentary above). Seeing AP magnifying evidently means seeing of some difference or DIAFORA. The Greek here does write that God makes known some special muchness, writing EGNORISAS...PLEROSEIS (for the Hebrew ARH, notably, ARH is for the Greek Translator not only “extension” but more specifically “muchness”). So is commented this text mentioning AT PNJK, noticing AT visual signs appearing. The word NZH here concludes this Psalm and also this word refers to the usual introduction of the Mikhtam Psalms 56-60, they are commenced LMNZH (Lemenazeah). For the usual scholarly discussion this word appears difficult and it will neither here be translated but only transliterated in the vocalised form Lemenazeah. However, in this conclusion of this Psalm 16 the form NZH appears more translatable and is thus comprehended from ZH, clarity and clear light.


56:1-3 Lemenazeah, concerning Jonah-style magnified (RHQ) visual signs (AT) in ULAM water-containing bowls (ALM, ulam)- that is, in Davidic style bowls (LDWD). Mikhtam, of visions reflected in waters (BA, HZ)- of visual signs of Philistean style in such container cavity (BGT), of the magnified fish living there (H-NN, the NUNA). God! See, so is its visual appearance (PN) in the empty-vessel (SA) , it is such place of prophesy (A-NS or place of NSA production of prophesy). It is vessel of lights (KL-HJWM) of Melah Melah salty waters for observing of nun-stretching (HZ-NN). So is the magnified (S-AP) with the angelic doing (SWRR) in the vessel of lights (KL-HJWM); so is the magnification from the salty waters (RB, MLH, MJM). For me thus appear magnifying (MRWM).

56:4 Light of the place of seeing- my vessel the Lekane- thus I observe living beings.

56:5-6a To God I will praise for his divination; with God’s help I will find surety in the place of seeing (AJ, RA) because the “what” He will make in reflection visions (YSH) with His angel (B-SR) in the vessel of lights.

56:6-7a The divinations of advises (DBR, YZ) there (BW) appear, such increases (YL): it is such vessel of thoughts/ideas (KL-MHSBT) to be observed (RY) there (GR).

56:7b They observe the bowls (SMR, YQB), they see the nun-stretching (ZPH, NN) when their soul is seeing the water containers (NPS, QWW).

56:8 Upon stone material, upon such mystery bowl container with waters, by magnifying vision from water God makes magnifying.

56:9-10a In my bottle You made measuring (SPR) of its visual sign (AWT) that appeared in this “sea of my tears” (S-JM DMYTJ) that is Your bottle (NADK) of glass (HL), it is device of Your measuring (AB, SPR). Then they reflect (SB) in this source (AWJB) of transformations (AHR) with lights (JWM).

56:10b-11 I call to God: “I know this because God helps me!” I praise God for the divination; I praise H’ for the divination!

56:12 With God’s help I will find surety in the place of seeing (AJ, RA), the “what” I will reflect, vision in the place of similitudes (demut) for my visions.

56:13a God! My increases are from Your ball formed vessel (ND, DR), I make those in completeness!

56:13b-14 I praise You, because You made shadow-visions (ZL), such ensouled appearances from earthly matter the place of glass. My visual observations (RGLJ) are for measuring living beings in methodical observations (HTHLK) of the visual appearances (PNJM) sent from God: by help of the light flame there are the living beings in waters (HJ-JM).

56:1-3 COMMENTARY This is very important introduction to this Mikhtam Psalm 56. The commencing “jonath elem rehokim” is often merely such transliterated acknowledging the difficulties of this statement, so also in the current very learned Tanakh translation by the Committee. Considerations of this text of v.1-3, however, is very important. The v.2-3 writes twice the KL-HJWM that alerts the attentive Readers for considerations of vessels and utensils, kelim. Further the Psalm writes of KL-MHSBTM in the v. 6 thus emphasising the status of the word KL of kelim vessels and utensils, noticing its connection to JWM light and MHSBT ideas and thoughts. Thus is the Reader alerted to considerations of words for vessels, utensils and containers, and so is the ALM (currently vocalised elem that actually is very difficult to understand) to be considered in the vocalisation ULAM (the Plene writing AWLM)- indeed, the Hebrew ULAM word is often in the Hebrew Bible occurring word for porch and pond, thus denoting some voluminous places of waters (see e.g. the BDB 17-19 for the ULAM). Much is also in v.1-3 written of waters, especially the v.3 noticing the RBJ MLH MJM or magnifying from salty waters is very emphatic notice. This Psalm 56 further mentions of multitude of salty waters, so especially in the v.9 where collecting of “tears” in some container is noticed with emphasis- the tears (DMYT) are, of course, salty and clear water. The v.1-3 further notice with special emphasis the Melah, so are found in the v. 2 the notice of MLH MLH the Melah Melah- and this is specifying there the seeing of nun-stretching. Thus the ALM is very surely to be considered in the vocalisation ULAM (such considerations of vocalisations is very usual and definite method of reading of the consonantal text of Hebrew Bible, very central in the Midrashim). Importantly, the Greek translation writes of the UPER TOU LAOU; also here are the letters ULA found, clearly for transliterating Hebrew reading of ULAM. Further commentaries of the writings of this Psalm will notify many echoes of the introduction v.1 in the texts of this Psalm; thus are very notable the Greek writings of OLEN TEN HEMERAN (v.2,3,5,6) in this Psalm- thus is clearly the Greek ULA expression echoed. The Greek Reader will thus be alerted of mentions of “glass” material, the usual words being HUALOS and HUALE (see esp. Trowbridge for the development of the terminology for “glass”); indeed such is here definitely echoes, because the LAOS is in LXX 55:8 found written in form ORGE LAOUS that contains letters UOALE when read backwards. (It cannot too much be emphasised that every textual detail could be of special meaning and motivating much and very elaborate interpretations- even philosophically, e.g. in the writings of Midrashim of Philo of Alexandria where minute details of Biblical text, even in Greek translation, motivate very elaborate considerations echoing Platonic theories and Stoic thoughts. Reading of this detail in LXX 55:8 for the letters UOALE is very apparent and clear reading, and it specified the ULA word with notice of UALE material). The words of containers and water containers are thus very clearly and emphatically noticed in this introduction of v.1-3. Also words for visions and seeing are in this v.1-3 clearly noticed. The Hebrew text writes here of
Here the Hebrew text emphatically notices the HZ for Haza seeing, the AWT visual sign, and the word BA for water-reflected visual signs (the BBA but noticing the Dagesh). Emphatically, the Greek text writes for the MIKHTAM the translation EIS STELOGRAPHIAN- its being concerned with GRAPHEIN, intentional production of visual signs and writing. For the letters AHZ the Greek Bible writes the translation EKRATESAN; and attentive Reader will thus consider especially KRATER and operating of KRATER larger wine-bowl, operating such larger wine-bowl also for producing of visions in practises of divination. The HNNJ clearly here describes the famous NUNA-fish, fish living in salty waters, and its stretched vision. The idea of stretching and magnifying is noticed also in the Greek translation, the MEMAKRUMMENOU noticing MAKRUNO (Hebrew the RHQ) but echoing even magnifying. Further is in the v.3 written the word PNJ for visual appearances. This CONTEXT thus emphatically writes of visual appearances and visual signs; thus the attentive Reader will further consider the meaning of the Jona here written, because Jona-style visual signs were famous in the Jewish discussions. (Apparently, see more in the Book of Jonah and its ancient versions, and interpretations, and worth is considering that it was the Jonah-dove that brought to Noah the “sign” in the history of Deluge of Gen 8). It is here very emphatic that visual signs and water containers are thus described in v.1-3.

56:4 COMMENTARY The Hebrew text here writes very emphatically of the letter Aleph, in this sentence all but one words begin with the Aleph. The Reader is thus alerted to consider meanings of Aleph words. Especially is thus referred to the ALM (ulam) word of the v.1, that was found to denote place of water, porch or pond, or more generally some water-container, this echoed even in the Greek translation where the clear transliteration TO ULA was found there written in v.1. Thus the Reader will easily consider Aleph words of special meanings, especially the AN word is noticing the ANH “vessel, utensil”, the AJ word generally noticing “places” (in questions usually written to question the “where?”) (see BDB 58 etc.). Emphatically are thus places and especially places of waters, or water-containers, thus noticed in these AJ, AN and ULAM words. The Greek writes here the FOBETHESOMAI noticing “fearing” (Hebr. JRA words); but even here the attentive Reader notices the THESOMAI (cf. TITHEMI) that notices “placing” in the Greek text. In the CONTEXT of this Psalm (and the other MIKHTAM Psalms) such FOBETHESOMAI (of FOBEOMAI) is further specified, especially here the v. 12 writing the EPI TO THEO ELPISA OU FOBETHESOMAI TI POIESEI. This statement and here commented 56:4 both write the FOBETHESOMAI and ELPIDZEIN: thus is emphatically the FOBETHESOMAI further specified in this v. 12 writing the OU FOBETHESOMAI TI POIESEI. So is found also written in the following v.5, the OU FOBETHESOMAI TI POIESEI. This describes that God produced the TI, that is, God produces “the something”. It is important to notice that the question of TI (the famous TI ESTI TOUTO etc. searches after something somehow definite or somehow definable, searching after somehow the what-ness of some appearances). Thus here in v.4 the Greek specifically considers the divine production of some-thing in the visual appearances, so is the more specific meaning clear for the attentive Reader. Furthermore, in the context of these MIKHTAM Psalms the LXX Ps 56:2 writes EN TE SKIA TON PTERUGON SOU ELPIO, thus is also the ELPIDZEIN (“hope”) specifically connected to “shadows” or shadowy visions that are seen.

56:5 COMMENTARY The context is found here the BALHJM...KL-HJWM. The v. 4-5 write here semantic context beginning with the JWM lights, and concluding with the KL-HJWM, vessel of lights. The KL-HJWM is especially emphatically written in this Psalm, because such is written also in the v.3; notably, the v. 3 writes the SWRRJ KL-HJWM and here is the B-SR KL-HJWM written. This is very important, because the SR often in OT and especially in the prophetic texts notice divine angel bringing the divination or divine angel who is clarifying the prophesies. So is the vessel of lights also in this Psalm emphatically connected to the SR or angel or angelic doing. The v.4-5 notice importantly letters, the v.4 notices words of Aleph, and this v.5 writes specially many words beginning with the letter B. So are written the B-ALHJM here twice, the B-SR noticing the angelic doing, and the BTHTJ; and in the introduction of v.1 is emphasised the BA- the famous word noticing producing of water-reflections (BBA-and noticing the effect of Dagesh). This emphasis of words commencing with B alert the attentive Reader of considering the doings of Divine and divine angels, and the BTH surety or trust. Especially is the Reader of v.4-5 alerted to consider the BTH words, because here is the BTHTJ written, specially noticing the BTH surety and trust (see BDB 105; clearly also in context of observation and surety of knowing); but the v. 4 writes the ABTH where is more the HBJT emphasised (the Hif. of NBT that denotes the HBJT seeing and attentive observations, see BDB 613). In the Greek translation is very notorious that also in this v. 5 is the OLEN TEN HEMERAN written although such not found in the Hebrew text. This continues the commencing HEMERAS of v.4; and also is written the EPI TO THEO ELPISA OU FOBETHESOMAI TI POIESEI. This is similarly written in the v.12, and emphasises that God is producing the some-thing, the something that is somehow determinate and definable.

56:6-7a COMMENTARY Here is very notably the KL- MHSBTM written, differently than more often in this Psalm written notices of KL-HJWM. The MSHBTM clearly notices here something of ideas or thoughts, although the Greek well developed philosophy of ideas surely shall NOT be directly read to such MHSBTM. But clearly the emphasis is here somehow considering something of epistemology and theory of cognition, thoughts, ideas, hypothetical thoughts, suppositions etc. This is emphasised because here also the YZ usually denoting “advises” and “advisory” is written, notably here specifying the divine DBR. So is the emphasis here specified, and completed with writing of the Gimel word GWR “residing”, “abiding” noticing that such advises and ideas are so intrinsically connected to the vessel and the divinations from the vessel. Such Gimel word GWR here emphasises the v.4 writing of Aleph-words (place) and v.5 emphasising the B-words (help, doing etc.). The Greek here writes for the YZB the EBDELUSSONTO, read of BDELUGMA; but the attentive Reader is here alerted to consider the EBD-ELUSSONTO- the famous EBDOME is the “seventh” usually noticing the “seventh” day or the Shabbath. (Importantly, the Greek in this Psalm emphatically writes of the HEMERA, so that also the “seventh day” or the EBDOME is thus important). In the writings of Philo of Alexandria there are many very elaborate discussions of the EBDOME “seventh” denoting the seventh day Shabbath (see e.g. De Opificatio Mundi where the creation and numbers are discussed; but Philo’s writing of numbers is usually very much echoing the Neopythagorean theories of numbers). Notably is also here in the Hebrew text found the letters SBT or Shabbath (importantly in the MHSBTM denoting the thoughts). The EBD-ELUSSONTO then further notices the ELUSSONTO noticing the LUSSA/LUTTA and LUSSOO- they notice fury, rage and even frenzy, a frenzy also describing the occurrence of divination. Thus the EBD-ELUSSONTO for the Greek readers could emphasise state of mind of divinations, and connected to Shabbath. The writing of the Gimel words here, the GWR of residing and abiding, is here continuing the Aleph and Beth words in v.4 and v.5; and also this Gimel word GWR finds its reference in the introduction of v.1. The v.1 writes of the BGT noticing the GJ “cavity, cave”; also the Greek translation here writes the Gamma, EN GETH. Such writing is clear also for the PAROIKESOUSIN for the GWR in Hebrew Bible.

56:7b This semantic context is clearly specified with the notices of ZPH, SMR and QWW observing and seeing. The word QWW of QWH especially notices for the Readers of Hebrew text the word Miqwa denoting “water-ponds”; according to numerous texts there were many Miqwa water containers, especially importantly for the religious practises of Rabbinical Judaism and their writing of Miqwa much already in the Mishnaic writings. The JQB generally notices some wine vat or larger container of wine. Notoriously, the Greek translation of the SMR observing is also here FULASSO, writing the FULAKSOUSIN- in this Psalm such word is emphatically very notorious, because the Greek ULA was in here in v.1 found to transliterate the ULAM water pond or water-container- thus is such FULASSOO observing specifically connected to water-ponds and water-containers IN THIS PSALM. The Greek writing of such FULASSOO is here emphatically notorious, because TEN PTERNAN MOU FULAKSOUSIN KATHAPER HUPEMEINAN; this context thus writes this FULASSOO with two words writing NAN, this clearly echoing the Hebrew NWN or nun-stretching and the NUNA fish, found in the v.2 writing the H-NN whose visions were important. Here the ZPH-NN of Hebrew text emphasises the observing of nun, that is, observing of the nun-stretching. The Greek text translated this ZPH with KATAKRUPSOUSIN thus noticing concealing, and the AKRU noticing the DAKRUA “sea of tears” contained in the bottle in v.9.

56:8 COMMENTARY The word PLT in this statement is notable- the LT/LWT notices mystery and containing, containment and envelopes and the PL notices miracle even echoing the Greek word FIALE denoting bowls. The translation of PLT to denote bowl, mystery container, is thus well motivated in the generally acknowledged scholarly readings of the Hebrew Bible. The AWN notices in the current vocalisation even stone-material, this coherently with notices of bowls here written. Notoriously, letters for the word HUALE can be found in READING BACWARDS the Greek translation of this sentence the LAOUS (the letters UOALE)- and in the v.1 the TOU LAOU (of LAOS) was found to denote ULA that is the transliteration of the ULAM bowls and water containers. Therefore such bowls and containers can be of glass (or crystal) material, of HUALE. Furthermore the OLEN TEN HEMERAN (written in v.2,3,5 and 6) is thus echoed very clearly, such HEMERA denoting light or even more generally vessels that produce and contain some light, light lamps. Thus are light, light lamp and ULAM vessel connected in this Psalm- echoing the conclusion of v.14 ENOPION TOU THEOU EN FOTI ZONTON, some vessel containing “tiny faces” (even if such OOPION of OOPS the tiny faces might be magnified forms) and light. The word HWRD notices the RDD stretching, that is, producing of stretched and magnified visions in such bottle or bowl. It is very notorious that also here is the Greek name Jesus found in the BACKWARDS reading of the word SOOSEIS- thus are the letters IESOOS found, clearly denoting the name Jesus. This SOOSEIS (fut. of SOODZO) is here translating the word PLT, found to denote mystery, containment and bowls. Generally, such PLT notices something of bringing out, escape, tear off, saving and being saved etc. (see even Jastrow 1179), but PLTJA more specifically noticing open places and wide streets (Jastrow 1179, comparing with PLATEIA of Greek). The occurrence of references to the name Jesus is very understandable. In the world where Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek were spoken, many individuals had the Greek style name IEESOUS (Jesus); so is the Greek name of the Joshua of the Biblical Book of Joshua, the leader of the spies (or KATASKOPOI) sent to observe the promised Land. For the Readers of the Christian Gospels is thus also clear that in that society there were many individuals with Greek name Jesus, and they lived in various places of Palestine (and outside of Palestine). The Christian Gospels very detailed describe what “Jesus” did or taught in various locations of Palestine; considering that hundreds or thousands of sufficiently educated Jewish religious people of the time of Jesus of Nazareth had the Greek name Jesus, it is well arguable that many of the histories, event and teachings referring to “Jesus” can have occurred to some local individuals of name “Jesus” of the time of formative Christianity. The Gospels are written in the genre of BIOS, the biography, but the current scholarly Research has detected how the Gospels are composed of material coming from different sources (see esp. the very detailed summary of Kloppenborg 2000 “Excavating Q”). The Gospels are compositions of material coming from different sources, describing events and teachings occurred to “Jesus” in different places of Palestine; noticing that there were hundreds or thousands individuals with the name “Jesus” it is well comprehensible that the Gospels can be (or in some place are) collections of local histories of “local Jesus individuals”, their doings and their teachings. Some events and miracles can be (or arguably are) “local adaptations to Jesus” of some more widely known histories of doings of miracle workers and ethical teachers. The acknowledged earliest canonical Gospel, the Gospel of Mark, was written tens of years after the life of Jesus of Nazareth, according to wide current scholarly consensus. Many “Jesus” traditions were circulating in those times; and many Gospels mentioning Jesus and some apostles are still known outside the Christian canon. Such is one important idea of the historical research of scholarly research of Gospels, and it is here very worth mentioning. The usual occurrence of the name Jesus in these Greek translations of these Psalms becomes thus more compared with other very important writings where name Jesus is central.

56:9-10a COMMENTARY This is very emphatic statement of bottle and operating a bottle for visions. The NAD (Hebrew) and NWDA (Aramaic) denote some skin or skin-bottle, thus more generally some “bottle” (see BDB 609). Here is emphatically written of bottle of tears; literally, there is “sea of my tears” (JMH DMYTJ) in such NAD bottle. This continues clearly the mention of Melah Melah (salty waters) in the v.2; the tears are water but salty. The meaning of pond and bowl is more attested in Rabbinical Hebrew, the NDJJN especially denoting a wash-pond (so Jastrow 879), this being notoriously comparable to the ULAM pond mentioned in the v.1 here. The Hebrew text here twice mentions the SPR words describing measuring and sending of divine information; the Greek here emphatically translated with the AGGELLOO, writing the EKSEGGEILA and EN TE EPAGGELIA SOU, thus writing the aorist form and noun of the AGGELLOO. For comprehending the NAD and NWDA words for bottles is important to notice that the Greek here translates the ENOOPION SOU...KAI EN TE EPAGGELIA SOU. This writing is in this Psalm very emphatic, because the conclusion in v.14 writes ENOOPION TOU THEOU EN PHOTI ZONTON. The v. 14 and v. 9 thus both write the ENOOPION, ZOEN/ ZONTON and ETHOU/ THEOU. The word OOPION generally notices the diminutive of OOPS “face, the face” (see L-S 2042 and 2035) the ENOOPION thus also denoting “containment of small faces”; such containment can apparently be some bottle or bowl where small faces and visual appearances are visually appearing (either in diminished or magnified form). This is here clear, even if ENOOPION usually notices “in front, before” and in translations of Greek Bible more usually its being written to translate the LPNJ; so the ENOOPION does also here translate the LPNJ in v.14, but the writing of ENOOPION in v.9 for translating the NAD “bottle” notices here more meanings. Clearly, bottle and “faces” are connected when is considered visual appearances of “faces” appearing in some bottle of glass or crystal. The Greek translator thus here emphasises this connection of faces and the bottle of sea of tears. Furthermore, the structure of the Greek sentence ENOOPION SOU OS KAI EN TE EPAGGELIA SOU writing the EN-EN alerts the Reader to think of such “containment-of-faces” (bottle) and the divine prophesy of AGGELLOO, thus alerting the Reader to consider such bottle being device of visual prophesies.

56:10b-11 COMMENTARY The text of 10b-11 very clearly constitute a semantic context describing praise to God and prayers to God, in the Hebrew text writing the AQRA and AHLL. The Greek notices this writing the sg.1 futures of EPIKALEO and AINEO. The Greek Bible here writes very much emphasised detail mentioning the EPI of EPIKALEO; the text of 10b-11 consists of mentions of EPI. So are written the EPIKALESOMAI, the mentions of EPI TO THEO and EPI TO KURIO. In the Greek text such mentions of EPI specify this semantic context. These mentions of EPI further specify the context of such praise and prayers, because further EPI words are found in the v. 9-10 EN TE EPAGGELIA SOU EPISTREPSOUSIN. The EPAGGELIA notices the divine prophesy and the EPISTREPSOUSIN notices making reflections. These EPI words here emphatically describe thus making of prophesy, visual reflections from a bottle, and some prayers and recitations of such practises of divination. Notably, parallel to the AINEO is found here in the v. 5, and this text writes EPAINESO (this v.5 writes thereafter the OLEN TEN HEMERAN that emphatically connects such EPAINEO to vessels of light- so is in the Greek written in v.5 even if such mention of KL-HJWM cannot be found in this Hebrew text). Especially, the Hebrew text writes the ZH JDYTJ that in the Greek text is translated IDOU EGNON O TI that emphasises knowing something because of visions. The IDOU emphasises the visions although being an usual word, because it is actually formed of ORAO.

56:12 COMMENTARY This statement is the same text what is written in the v.5b differing only in the mention of the mention of the angelic help there mentioned although this v.12 more writes of place or device of making demut similitudes. The context of the v.5b is therefore obviously important also for this v.12; especially often the context of the v.5 mentions the KL-HJWM (“vessels of light”) thus in the v.3 and v.6. These mentions of “vessel of light” clearly specifies such place of making similitudes, especially noticing the writings of v.4 of the Aleph words that so clearly emphasise the places and vessels, specifying the here written Aleph.

56:13 COMMENTARY The NDRK is here important to read considering the context of this Psalm, so emphatically are the ND and NAD bottle noticed in the v.9 that writes of bottles of tears and denotes such bottles of tears with ND and NAD. Clearly is notice of such ND bottle thus found also here in the word NDRK. Therefore is very important that the DR notices in its more general reading something ball formed and round formed; thus is easily found that this NDR notices a round formed bottle of tears, or a ball formed bottle of tears. The NAD bottle is only seldom mentioned in the OT, and for comprehending this v.13 is important to read the mention in the Book of Joshua (Greek: the Book of Jesus), where the chapter 9 mentions also such NAD containers. The v. 4 mentions the NADWT JJN BLJM. The NAD is thus a container of wine; and usually the BLJM is comprehended to denote “worn”, the usual comprehension of these words is that so are worn leather bags of wine noticed. Further are NAD containers noticed in Joshua 9:13 NADWT HJJN ASR MLANW HDSJM (Greek: ASKOI TOU OINOU), containers NAD of wine are thus also noticed. Surely the Readers notice this Psalm 56 concluding with the words BAWR HJJM; so is emphatically echoed the JJN of Joshua 9. The MLANW notices, furthermore, AN vessels (cf. especially 56:4 writing of Aleph words and AN vessels and containers) that are ML speaking and uttering (prophesies). The here studies word NDRK especially notices the ND and v. 13 writing BLW MRB HDRK MAD. Here mentioned word ASLM is echoed especially in the Joshua 9:15 describing the success of envoys sent from the Gibeon, that WJYS LHM JHWSY SLWM. (Comparable to the ALM RHQJM of 56:1 is that the envoys were coming MARZ RHWQH, Joshua 9:6, where the Greek reads the MAKROTHEN similarly to this LXX Ps 55:1 writing the MEMAKRUMMENOU).

56:13b-14 COMMENTARY The HZLT clearly in this context is to be read of the ZL, shadowy visions and appearances and their producing. The Greek translates here ERRUSOUSIN; and in the context of this Psalm such word echoes the DAKRUA of v.9 and KATAKRUPSOUSIN of v.7 that translates the ZP-N or visual seeing of the nun-stretching. This context of 56:13-14 emphatically notices the RGL observations, PNJM visual appearances (the “faces”). This conclusion especially writes of the HL, thus HTHLK, MDHJL, HLA, and such notices of HL clearly emphasise the descriptions of glass and glass vessels. Such vessels are important for visual observations, and for the RGL observations here mentioned. The Greek here concludes writing TOU EUARESTESAI ENOPION TOU THEOU EN PHOTI ZONTON. Thus is the “containment of small faces”, the EN-OOPION or the mentioned bottle of sea of tears described with light. The ZONTON concluding this Psalm thus emphasises mention of this LXX Ps 55:9 that TEN ZOEN MOU EKSEGGEILA SOI- such living is something that is part of the AGGELLOO prophesy here described.


57:1 LEMENAZEAH, concerning floating vision-appearances (AL-TSHT) in Davidic style bowls- Mikhtam. Of the water reflected visions of extensions (BB-RH) of visual appearances (MPNJ), coming when that asked (SAL), in the revelation vessel (MYRH)
57:2 The magnified fish! God, see, magnified living fish! (twice the H-NN). Your light-lamp makes it understandable in visions to my soul (HS, KB), and from the shadow vision (ZL) of the stretched fish fin (ZL, KNP) shown by You I thus understand: magnifying (YD) makes transformations of living beings (YBR)
57:3 I will cry to Lord the most high, to God who brings from containers for me all things in full completeness.
57:4 God sends thus from heavens: thus appears to me in Jesus/Joshua style such transformations, such magnifying from empty-containers. Sela. So God sends his HSD and truth.
57:5 For my soul, in midst of the vessel (KL) of water-reflecting (BAM) there is fire flame of lamp (AS, KB) burning (LHT), such made by men; and their doublings are living beings stretched (SN, HNJT), such living beings in containers (ZM)- for the doubling of waters is of the magnitude (RBH) of that being in clarity.
57:6 God, magnify up to the heavens your Kavod-vision, upon the whole earth might it appear!
57:7 Such heaping (RST of JRS) these vessels produce truthfully (HKJNW) in front of me is that heaping (LPNJ-YM) in the container (KPP); for my soul these KR bowls produced vision in front of me (LPNJ) floating (SH)- so they produced miraculously in their midst. Sela.
57:8 My heart formed white glass vessel is so truthfully producing! God, my heart formed white glass vessel is so truthfully producing- I will sing, and praise!
57:9 God! Make revelation of the Kavod appearance. God! Make revelation of the NBL. Thus in method of lamp (NR) I will wake up the dawn-light!
57:10 I will give praise to You God, in midst of folk- I will sing to You in midst of nations.
57:11 So magnified it is, up to heavens, because of your HSD! So magnified it is, up to the clouds, so is truth from You!
57:12 God, magnify up to the heavens Your Kavod-vision, upon the whole earth might it appear!

57:1 COMENTARY This commencing of this Mikhtam Psalm notices many details. The MPNJ noticing PNJM and BB noticing the water-reflections (thus very often in the Hebrew Bible) very directly refer to the conclusion of this Psalm, the word Kavod denoting visual appearances. Very emphatically is thus the production of visions thus noticed central to this Psalm. The Greek writes also this Psalm EIS STELOGRAFIAN for the Hebrew Mikhtam, the GRAFEIN clearly noticing intentional production of something visual, writing or drawing. So much the Greek text emphasises this writing the EIS TO SPELAION echoing the STELO-, the SPELAION noticing place in a theatre behind the scenes (L-S 1627). Making visible, announcing visually is thus emphasised in these STELOGRAFIA and TO SPELAION. The Hebrew text writes of the MYRH that echoes the v.9 emphasising YWRH, YWRH and AYJRH- and especially these are written in context of GDL (v. 11) and the RWMH (v.12 and v.6). Making visions is thus noticed, especially in heights and “magnified”. The LSAWL is often comprehended to denote the name “Saul” of the king; but in THIS context much more important reading notices the SAL making questions and making petitions: after the Sela of v. 4 very much are described singing and praising to God (and making petitions concerning the producing of visions).

57:2 COMMENTARY The HNN is now read H-NN that denotes living being, the famous NUNA fish, and stretched. Mention of the KNP or the fish fin emphasises this from shadow vision of ZL, especially writig of the BZL KNPK noticing the shadow vision of the fish fin. Importantly, the MT writes here HNNJ HNNJ and the v. 5 here writes of SNJHM HNJT WHZJM WLSWNM. For the Readers of the Hebrew text such emphatic writing of HNNJ HNNJ expresses emphatic petition towards the deity; but in this very context finding the HNJT in v. 5 with TWO notices of the SN- words is very important, because the SNJM usually denotes “two”, “doubled” or “twice” etc. In this context the doubling of HNNJ in this v. 2 is thus clearly elucidated with this notice of v .5 that SNJHM HNJT WHZJM WLSWNM. The attentive reading of this notice of v. 5 is thus necessary in THIS VERY CONTEXT, and indeed, this notice contains (according to the Masora) very rare expression, the SNJHM, the only twice occurs in the Hebrew Bible, the second occurrence found in the Numeri 11:33 (see the Masora of BHS). The Numeri 11 describes the divine actions in Kibroth-hattaavah, concerning providing alimentation during the Wilderness wandering. The rare expression is found in statement 11:33 HBSR YWDNW BJN SNJHM. This sad realisation of the wishes in the Num 11 refers to the very complaint they expressed, the 11:4-5 mentioning MJ JAKLNW BSR ZKRNW AT HDGH ASR NAKL BMZRJM HNM...This complaint expresses the question concerning who was giving meaty food to them- “we should rather remember the DG fish who fed us in Egypt, the HNM” (own translation; usually this is comprehended to denote that the Israelites were, among other alimentation, eating fish in Egypt). It is notorious that here is the name HNM found easily to denote the name or title of such special “fish” DGH, obviously some fish-goddess. We must well be aware of that the Num 11 is a description of very rebellious complaint towards H’, so that in this speech of the rebellious complainers it is well motivated to read thus: according to their ideas, the special “fish” (some fish deity) was providing alimentation to them in Egypt. Importantly, the DGH is here in Num 11: 4-5 then further mentioned with the title HNM, and it is this HNM that so emphatically now refers to this HNNJ HNNJ (in addition to the usual use of NUNA name in Aramaic for “fish”). Thus it is very clear in THIS CONTEXT to read the HNNJ HNNJ to denote fish, or the NUNA fish living in water, noticing further that NWN generally notices in OT Hebrew magnifying or stretching (see BDB 630). The Greek text is here notorious, because ELEESON ME is here twice written and in the v. 1 the BMYRH is translated EIS TO SPELAION that very clearly echoes this ELEESON. Importantly, the SPELAION notices also a theatre-place behind the scenes (LS 1627), so that the Greek here writes emphatically of some visual show production, especially because also this Psalm is noticed in v. 1 EIS STELOGRAFIAN where the GRAFEIN is found. Further is important to notice that this Psalm in the Greek text notices in v. 4 TO ELEOS AUTOU KAI TEN ALETHEIAN AUTOU- thus is clearly the ELEOS connected to visual revelation because the truth of ALETHEIA also notices A-LETHES or coming forth from hiddenness. Also is notable that here v. 11 mentions EMEGALUNTHE ..TO ELEOS SOU, so that the ELEOS is something that is specially large or much. Mention of the ZL of course emphasises here producing of shadow style visions; the Greek translated this EN TE SKIA. It is thus clear that this mention of HNNJ HNNJ or ELEESON ME, ELEESON ME very emphatically notices something occurrences of vision production in THIS CONTEXT of Psalm 57: thus is found in 57:2 easily reference to the NN or NUNA-fish and its shadow vision (ZL or SKIA) , such occurring in specific visual showing place MYRH or TO SPELAION.

57:3 COMMENTARY The Reader of the Hebrew text here will unmistakably find notices of high and producing something high: the text here reads that
Here the notices of AL and YL unmistakably describe the God most high and his producing something high. Here such producing is further specified, so that comprehending of the LAL GMR YLJ is now central. For the OT readers is clear that the GOMER was a measure of volumes; and the GMR means generally “to complete”. Thus this mention of GMR describing the divine activity of YLH very easily is comprehended to notice occurrence of some special completing and completeness from special vessels; thus is here translated “who brings from containers...in full completeness” that specifically notices completeness of measures or magnifying – the YL-YLJWN unmistakably notice comparison of extensions and making something very specially extended. It is notable that such writing of YLJWN here continues the writing of v. 2 where the NN words denoting stretching are found. The Greek text here of TON THEON TON HUPSISTON using the superlative form and thus emphasising comparisons of extensions. The actions of God are described TON EUERGETESANTA ME, noticing the EUERGETES divine helping activities. However, the Reader notices that this EUERGETES writes consonants G-R and thus echoes the Hebrew GMR it translates. Further reading of this Psalm in Greek emphasises this, because the v. 9 emphatically writes the EKSEGERTHETI and EKSEGERTHESOMAI thrice, these writing G-R words and especially noticing “rising” or “waking up” (EKS-EGEIRO); and such meaning of “rising” clearly is coherent with v. 3 so emphatically writing of YLJWN and YL. The rising and thus magnifying is thus emphasised here also in the Greek text. Therefore is very important that also this Psalm in Greek commences EIS STELOGRAFIAN (for MIKHTAM) where the GRAFEIN is found, one more G-R word. Notice of these emphatic words of this Psalm, GRAFEIN, EUERGETES and EKS-EGEIRO thus emphasise that here is “rising” or magnified divine visual producing mentioned.

57:4 COMMENTARY Here the MT writes twice the SLH and Greek translates these both words EKSAPESTEILEN. This word is notable, because thus is APOSTELLO in Greek written, of which is the noun APOSTOLOS formed, the very noun so known to the Readers of Greek New Testament. Such APOSTELLO word is here, especially written where the Hebrew text writes of WJWSJYNJ where is clearly echo of name Joshua/Jesus found. Notoriously, the Greek translator also here writes occurrence of this name, choosing the words KAI ESOOSEN ME where the letters IESOOS are found, that is, the name IESOUS or “Jesus”; this is even clearer in the ancient style lectio continua. The Greek text here thus writes of name IESOOS of “Jesus” and mentions the APO-STELLO of which the APOSTOLOS is formed (modern English word is the apostle). This surely is something to be much further pondered. The Hebrew text here further writes of KATAPATOUNTAS ME where the “trample upon” is found of PATEO; but attentive Reader will now notice further the KAT-APATAO or misleading, or producing of misleading images. Such is here actually more plausible, because Greek text writes EDOKEN EIS ONEIDOS TOUS KATAPATOUNTAS ME where is found EIS ISON EIDOS TOUS KAT’ APATOUNTAS ME; this notices of producing of image (EIDOS) of similarity (ISON) instead of producing misleading and deceitful image (APATAO). Such emphasis of divine sending of image of similarity instead of producing deceitful images is much emphasises, because this text mentions further that God thus sent his “truth”, EKSAPESTEILEN...TEN ALETHEIAN AUTOU. Such mentions of the truhful producing are clearly central in this Psalm, because the 57:8 writes emphatically NKWN LBJ...NKWN LBJ where the Nakhon clearly notices truthfulness, echoing here noticed sending of truth JSLH AMTW. Further is notable that the 57:6-7 notice KAVOD appearance and HKJNW word noticing “making” (for KWN and NKWN see BDB 465ff. and other lexica). The Hebrew text here writes notice of WJWSJYNJ...SAP that compares the SWY and SA letters, where are Joshua and SA empty-container noticed; and this is in the translation noticed.

57:5 COMMENTARY The MT here unmistakably describes a fire lamp, writing KB, AS and LHT, emphasising the idea of container writing BTWK (in midst) and notice of ZM containing (cf. the famous zimzum idea, containing of light, and the 60:4 writing of AR ZP ZM or contained light for visions). The SNJHM is notorious expression in the OT, its only parallel found according to Masora in the Num 11:33; and here written SNJHM HNJT was above studied for commenting the v. 2 writing emphatically HNNJ...HNNJ. Here is further notable that this 57:5 writes the words SNJHM and the word WLSWNM, both of which notice the SN letters, even thus the SNJM or doubling. Such reading of these SN words in THIS CONTEXT is actually very important considering the structure of the whole Psalm 57. The 57:6 and 5:12 are the same text, noticing RWMH..., and thus is the Reader alerted to comparing 57:5 and 57:11 (or rather these semantic contexts that are written before these RWMH texts that are in the current division of verses denoted 57:6 and 57:12- but the Reader surely notices often that such latter written division is foreign to the Hebrew text; Readers of ancient Midrashim are well aware of their method of making references to the Hebrew Books). The SN words of 57:5 are thus to be compared with ideas of context of 57:11, and there is actually found KJ GDL YD SMJM (Greek: EMEGALUNTHE). The Gadol magnifying of 57:11 is clearly now comparable to these SN words in their meaning of “two” and “doubling”; and so clearly this GDL echoes the central notice of YL and AL in the 57:3.

57:6 COMMENTARY The text of this 57:6 is the same as the text of 57:12; see the commentary there.

57:7 COMMENTARY Here it is very important to compare the words HKJNW and KRW noticing producing. The KR generally notices vessels and containers (even noticing fish or salted fish contained in such containers), and the HKJNW of KWN notice producing truthfully (this is emphasised from the following NKWN...NKWN). The Hebrew text very emphatically writes this statement of containers, noticing the KR vessels and bowls, KPP containing, NPLW BTWKH
in their midst (currently translated e.g. noticing a pit dug in front of the Psalmist). The mention of this SJHH especially notices the usual introduction of the Mikhtam Psalms, AL TSHT LDWD MKTM (thus in the 57:1, 58:1 and 59:1) and the Mikhtam Psalm 16:10-11 writes LRAWT SHT TWDJYNJ ARH HJJM, of seeing of TSHT that makes known extensions of some beings. The Greek writes here clearly PRO PROSOPOU MOU BOTHRON comparable to v. 1 APO PROSOPOU EIS SPELAION (theatre place), whereof is clear that PROSOPON and mention of SPELAION theatre place here specify such “pit” or cavity also specially being place of visual seeing. The mentions of the Sela/DIAPSALMA further connect this v. 7 with the v.4 where is so much described divine sending of truth, or truthful visions.
57:8 COMMENTARY This text is written after the Sela, thus commencing new semantic context. This statement of twice written NKWN LBJ is very emphatically mentioning the NKWN (true, truthful etc.). Before the Sela of 57:7 there are mentioned the LPNJ and LPYMJ noticing visions and echoing the LBJ words here written, and the HKJNW of 57:7 is of KWN root of OT Hebrew and therefore connected to this NKWN word here twice written. Thus is clearly truthful production described here with the NKWN, and it is connected to visions. Such mentioning of NKWN and HKJNW also echoes the emphatic commencing of this Psalm 57:2 writing the HNNJ ALHJM HNNJ, also here mentioning the addressing to the divine and two NUN-words, so is also this 57:8 constructed mentioning twice NUN words NKWN and clear addressing to the divine. The 57:3 continues then noticing crying or praying to the divine, and in this 57:8 such is clearly echoed in mentions of praying to God and uttering praises to Him. The mention of the LBJ (“my heart”) is IN THIS PSALM notoriously further specified with word LBAM in the statement of 57:5 NPSJ BTWK LBAM ASKBH LHTJM, that was found unmistakable description of fire-lamp, because words LHT for fire-flame, AS for fire, BTWK noticing “in midst” that notices clearly some container and the word KBH for fire-lamp are written. Thus is IN THIS CONTEXT the LB with solid grounds translated “my heart formed vessel”. The Greek readers notice here twice written ETOIME E KARDIA MOU that recalls the v. 7 writing PAGIDA ETOIMASAN that also notices some cavity or pit, the ORUKSAN BOTHRON. Further interesting comparison is found in v.5 EK MESOU SKUMNON EKOIMETHEN, that notices the NPSJ BTWK here discussed. In the Greek text, the OIME of EKOIMETHEN are similarity, here written the ETOIME; the EKOIMETHEN thus alerts the Reader to think here of “sleep” and “dream-visions”- generally, divination was in the Ancient world often compared to seeing dream-visions. Also is thus the word OIMAI denoting thinking noticed. Furthermore, the EK MESOU SKUMNON echoes here emphasised singing and praising.

57:9 COMMENTARY After the Sela in v. 7 the Psalm much more writes of prayer style, mentioning in 57:8 the praising and singing to God. The 57:8 writes emphatically NKWN..NKWN of truthful producing, and here is the YWRH...YWRH and AYJRH emphasised, written with the Kavod visual appearance. Producing of VISIONS is thus very clearly here described, and here it is the topic of these prayers. Thus is noticed making revelation, and waking up the light. In THIS Psalm this emphasis of YWRH...YWRH...AYJRH is notorious, because this Psalm commences in v.1-2 MPNJ SAWL BMYRH HNNJ where the MYRH is found. This notices making some visual spectacle. The Greek here very emphatically writes EKSEGERTHETI twice and once the EKSEGERTHESOMAI, thus is the arising of visual appearance noticed, the EKSEGERTHETI E DOKSA MOU. Importantly, the Greek translates thus with EKSEGERTHETI these YWRH words, and the BMYRH of v.1 is there translated EIS TO SPELAION noticing a theatre-place. The vision producing is thus emphasised. The SHR notices dawn light, and this clearly suggests reading the KNWR to denote K-NWR, or lamps. This is emphatically clear noticing the general use of K-N words in THIS Psalm, because the NKWN, HKJNW noticing vessels and vessel producing are thus echoed. The Greek notices, likewise, EKSEGERTHESOMAI ORTHROU that recalls the ORUKSAN BOTHRON, so that dawn-like light and some cavity thus are here connected.

57:10 COMMENTARY The AZMRK notices in the v. ASJRH WAZMRH, of singing praises and making petitions to God. The BLAMJM (B-LEUMIM) notices the v.5 NPSJ BTWK LBAM ASKBH. These notices emphasise these descriptions of singing praises and uttering petitions. The BYMJM differs only slightly from the BLAMJM that writes the Aleph and Lamed.

57:11 COMMENTARY This text is unmistakable description of special magnitude, or magnifying. The Hebrew text writes KJ GDL YD SMJM... and the Greek translation is OTI EMEGALUNTHE, clearly noticing MEGAS and producing of MEGAS. In this Psalm especially is recalled the v. 4 that also notices the AMT and HSD that is JSLH MSMJM text; and notoriously is the v. 4 preceded with the notice of divine producing in complete fullness, the v. 3-4 writing LAL GMR YLJ JSLH MSMJM...The Greek text notices the EUERGETESANTA ME for GMR this noticing the G-R words of THIS Psalm, the GRAFEIN (of STELOGRAFIA), EGEIRO of v.9 there THRICE written. The SHQJM “clouds” even recalls the Job 37:21 of AR BHJR HWA BSHQJM, so importantly quoted in the Bahir 1. It is very notable for this Psalm in Greek that here is written EMEGALUNTHE ...TO ELEOS SOU (for HSDK) and v.1-2 writing EIS TO SPELAION ELEESON ME, O THEOS, ELEESON ME (for the HNNJ). The Greek thus writes of SPELAION theatre place of producing visual spectacles and connects that to magnifying, EMEGALUNTHE.

57:12 COMMENTARY This text is also written in statement currently indexed v.6, so that this text is emphatically very important for this Psalm. The whole Psalm concludes with the word Kavod of visual Kavod appearances, and this emphasises to the Readers that visions or especially Kavod visions are the very central topic of this Psalm 57. Similarly does also the Greek translation conclude this Psalm with words DOKSA SOU. The RWMH (Gr. HUPSOTHETI) noticing magnifying up to heights is somewhat clearer than the v. 9 writing of the Kavod vision emphatically YWRH...AYRJH (Gr. EKSEGERTHETI). The Reader find here written thus emphatic statements YWRH...GDL...RWMH that in Greek are translated EKSEGERTHETI, EMEGALUNTHE, HUPSOTHETI- these emphatically notice magnifying of visions, because the Kavod (Gr. DOKSA) is with these words described. Clearly, these ideas are especially emphasised by writing this statement twice in this Psalm, the v.6 writing this and this statement constituting the emphatic conclusion of this Psalm in v. 12.


58:1 Lemenazeah, concerning visions floating in the waters- Mikhtam, concerning Davidic style of bowls.

58:2 Do the ULAM water containers truthfully make nun-stretched descriptions for Zaddiq- do You discern in straightforward manner when seeing with the NAD bottles of waters?

58:3 Magnifying in the heart-formed vessel makes increases (AP, YLWT): so You will make nun-stretchings (PYL, N) by the clear light (AR, ZH) in the molten vessel (MS); so you make stretchings reaching to very extremities (TPLSWN) with your device (JDJKM).

58:4 Whenever the erring makes vision-changes (zura) from containers (MRHM), they will make mistakes (TYW) from such ND belly formed containers, erroneous divinations (DBRJ KZB).

58:5 The bright light from the waters is for demut similitudes making (KDMWT), the bright light is of divinations (NHS); there is magical similitude (KMW PTN) from the magical vessel of earthenware.

58:6 Its ear is such that it does not hear the voice of those reciting the incantations (MLHSJM), those who practise magical art of waters (HBR-JM) for comprehending similitudes (MH, KM).

58:8 The molten vessels will produce visual similitudes from methodical production from waters (KMW MJM JTHLKW) in the water-vessel: such vessel produces methodically the vision (HZ)- it is similitude (KMW) that such vessels are describing (JTMLLW).

58:9 The similitude that the molten vessel makes (KMW, TMS) of mixed waters (S-BLWL) it makes methodically a miracle vision (NP, PL) from the light-flame of mixture (AST BL) that is like sun for visions (SMS, HZ).

58:10 By means of so many appearances from water (B-TWR-JM) your pots/vessels (SR) bring forward understanding (hif. HBJN)- even a thorn (ATD) is there revealed in stretching in these fiery vessels such what it is in life.

58:1 COMMENTARY This introduction consists of words that usually commence the Mikhtam Psalms- so are written also in the introductions of Psalms 57 and 59. The TSHT also here notices visions that are seemingly “floating” on waters. The Greek translation of also this introduction writes the STELOGRAPHIAN for the difficult word MIKHTAM, thus specifying that the Psalm concerns GRAPHEIN, visual production.

58:2 COMMENTARY This statement very emphatically notices the central topic of this Psalm, the study of truthful and erroneous descriptions when visions are seen in divinations. The AMNM vocalised emunam is clear consideration of the truth of such descriptions (see BDB 53; this is clear even if current vocalisation umnam more emphasises “verily, truly, indeed”- but here is directly uttered a question of the truth and truthfulness of the visual appearances from the vessels). Such notices of truth of visual appearances are in this Psalm centrally considering the “how much similar”- the KDMWT (according to the similitude) mentioned in v.5 and here often written KMW words. (Surely every observer of visual appearances notices such questions of truthfulness of the magnified or diminished appearances, and thus are considered some ideas from empiristic experiments and their truth). The Greek very emphatically writes here the EI ALETHOS...LALEITE; The Greek writing here continues with considering of right discerning, EUTHEIA KRINETE. This 58:2 very importantly refers to the Psalm 56:1 writing also here the HAMNM ALM ZDQ, the word ALM clearly here noticing the ULAM water containers similarly to the ALM/ULAM in the 56:1 written. This ULAM word specifies clearly that here the ULAM water containers, water bowls and water porches, are thus described (see BDB 17-19).

58:3 COMMENTARY This statement is very clear description of making increases and magnifications: the words AP and YWLT notice such, and the 2.pl forms of the words PLS and PYL end with the letter nun. Even if such ending nun is often in the Grammars notices “nun energeticum”, here the notice of nun-stretching is very clear especially because such letter nun here concludes the word PLS that generally means “reaching far” or “reaching to extremities” (see Jastrow for PLS) and so many other words here write of increases and magnifications. Also the TDBRWN of v.2 concludes with such letter nun. The Hebrew text here notices the MS molten vessels- and such writing is continued further in the v.8 writings the MAS and the v. 9 noticing the KMW SBLWL TMS. The topic MS is in the Psalm 58 one very important topic described. The Greek writes here EN KARDIA ANOMIAS ERGADZESTHE for the YWLT of the Hebrew text- for comprehending this it is central to notice that the Greek ANOMIA not only denotes unlawful and immoral acts but also notices more generally something extraordinary and surpassing the normal order of the worldly affairs. Such extraordinary occurrences could be, especially, visions of some special character, also magnified visions, and devices producing such extraordinary visions. The ADIKIA is more concerned with moral and normative evaluations, of DIKE and DIKAIOS etc, and it is also here written. The BARZ HMS thus specially notices such ZH clear light, AR- such notice of ZH light now echoes the usual introduction of many Psalms, the Lemenazeah- and that the word NZH concludes the Mikhtam Psalm 16.

58:4 COMMENTARY This text clearly writes of making errors, and thus importantly continues the central topic of this Mikhtam Psalm 58, the topic concerning truthful and erroneous visions and divinations, emphatically written in the v. 2 HAMNM ALM ZDQ TDBRWN (the emuna, see BDB 53), the ALM so emphatically continuing the Mikhtam Psalm 56:1 “jonat-elem-rehoqim” that notices work of the ULAM water ponds. This notice of v.2 is concerned if (and how) such ULAM water containers make truthful descriptions- the Greek here emphatically writes the EI ALETHOS...LALEITE. Here written words DBRJ KZB clearly write of lack of truthfulness, describing erroneous divinations. Echoing the v.2 LALEITE also this text is translated to Greek with that word, writing APO GASTROS ELALESAN PSEUDE. Here is also very important to notice that the mention of belly formed containers in the Hebrew text makes also more specific reference to ND containers, writing the MBTN DBRJ that notices the ND. This is one more reference to the Mikhtam Psalm 56, especially there the 56:9 so emphatically writes of the ND/NAD containers for “sea of tears”. It is also notable in this Psalm 58 that the 58:2 that mentions the ULAM water containers also writes TSPTW BNJ ADM where the NAD is found after the PTW echoing the here studied MBTN DBRJ that notices ND and BTN. Clearly the commencing of this Psalm 58:2-4 thus emphatically writes of belly formed ND/NAD containers; and such notice constitutes very clear reference to the Psalm 56:9 describing ND and NAD containers. The Greek writing of this 58:4 notices the AP-ALLOTRIO “making changes and alterations” and the erroneous working from the belly formed container EPLANETHESAN APO GASTROS (of PLANAO). These Greek words also echo the PL-words of Hebrew Bible, the PLS and PYL here written. Greek readers will surely compare here described erroneous working from the belly containers with the sure and steadfastly occurring motions of the heavenly stars.

58:5 COMMENTARY This text 58:5 is famous for its noticing magical arts, magical vessels and divination- these descriptions are here written in completely unmistakable manner. Most of the current translations are likewise very famous for doing so much to forget the very clear and unmistakable references to magical arts of this text. The NHS is the very central word for NHS divination (and it denotes also “snake” in the Biblical Hebrew, also the snake of Gen 2). The word PT denotes some fragments but the here written word PTN denotes also snake, serpent and protector (BDB 837). (For considerations of fishes also in religious contexts the notice of 1 Sam 5:5 is very central, writing MPTN DGWN- the DG/DGH denoting fish and fish-gods or goddesses). The HRS denotes earthenware, earthen vessels, magic arts, someone skilled in magic arts, and also graver and artificer (see BDB 360-361). The full force of this magical text 58:5 cannot surely ever be completely approached by the modern Readers and scholars- but here written Translation is my very best attempt to make something of the unmistakably magical writing of this text known to modern Readers. (Likewise it is important to emphasise to Readers that much of empirical experiments to the phenomena of nature were in the literature of those times written in more or less genres of magic and magical arts.) Very importantly, every Reader might find easily unmistakable motivations to this Translation merely by reading the modern lexica considering word NHS, PTN and HRS. This text notices HM light (see esp. BDB 326-328)- the HMT-LMW KDMWT HMT NHS; so is light of NHS divination described and noticed its producing DMWT (demut) similitudes. This notice of visual similitudes demut is the very central discussion of this Psalm- the Greek writes for the demut the KATA TEN OMOIOSIN that is specific word of Greek for similitudes and similarity. This 58:5 notices that the NHS bright light is such that does produce visual similitudes. Such notices of truthfully produced visions are emphatically continued, the v. 10 noticing KMW HJ- KMW HRWN that compares the observable constitution of some thing in nature with its visual appearances in the fiery lamp vessel. The v.12 emphatically concludes these mentions noticing AK PRJ- AK JS; thus is mentioned that the visual magnifying growing visions occur in the same manner that the things exist in the nature (the JS is somewhat rare word of OT writings and specifies this text somehow more thinking in abstract terms of being and existence).

58:6 COMMENTARY The 58:5 is unmistakably clear text of magic and practises of magic, and this 58:6 is also unmistakably clear text of magic and practises of magic. The LHS notices “whispering, charming” and “serpent-charming” and “”whisper of prayer”, and the BDB explicit interprets its writing here in 58:4 with words “voice of whisperers i.e. serpent-charmers” (BDB 538). Writing of the NHS and PTN serpents in the 58:5 makes such comprehension very clear. Thus are recitations of incantations for magical practises also noticed. It is also very important to notice that the word HBR has very well substantiated context in magical practises: the HBR notices “unit, join” and “magical spells and charms” (BDB 287ff.). Importantly, this word HBR also denotes company and companion- something often occurring also for Readers of the Qumran texts (and later texts) (see ibid.). The 58:5-6 is clear, emphatic and unmistakable text of magic and magical practises and they are preferably so translated, not covering their context of magic.

58:8 COMMENTARY The MAS here continues notices of molten vessels in this Psalm, thus continuing the descriptions of MS in v.3 where the MS is written with PL word PYL and PLS words. This v.8 importantly notices that such visual similitudes appearing from waters (KMW MJM) are such similitudes that really are seen (HZW KMW). Here the Greek notices OS HUDOR DIAPOREUOMENON ENTENEI. The ENTEINO emphatically notices magnifying and stretching, and this text notices such occurring from the work of waters. The DIAPOREUOMENON also contains notice to the APOR or generally APORIA, some incomprehensible occurrence, this especially noticing the v.2 writing of the ANOMIA extraordinary and very special occurrences.

58:9 COMMENTARY This 58:9 continues further the notices of MS molten vessels and their working for divination visions. The BL and BLWL notice for the attentive Reader that there was a mixture contained (see also BDB 117)- the writing of fire-light and sun here describe some vessels being lamps, and such vessels did contain a mixture. There was some oil floating for the purpose of light-flame, and the other contents mainly consisted of water or some mixture of water (that allowed there oil floating and effectively nourishing the light flame). Attentive Reader will now further notice that the v.2-3 described ND and NAD vessels, or larger containers of “sea of tears” (so in Psalm 56:9). Especially, the Joshua 9 mentions also the NAD bottles or wine-containers, describing these with BL word- 9:4 writing of NADWT JJN BLJM, the 9:13 mentioning NADWT HJJN but further continuing the BLW MRB HDRK MAD. Even if often translated in both texts to note “worn” wine containers of leather, the more common use of BL also here is applicable and specifies such NAD wine-containers containing some “mixture” of wine. This writing of NAD/ND containers and the BL is obviously applicable also here for this BL and BLWL- some “mixture” is thus described.

58:10 COMMENTARY This text notices how the container vessels make something known, make something more comprehensible (SUNIENAI in Greek). Thus is here written of the SR vessels or pot containers and noticed JBJNW...JSYRNW- the Hebrew text thus notices making more comprehensible and known with the notice of SYR, the SYR also noticing devices of comprehending and research (also notable in Qumranic texts). So are the pots and bowls making something known when the bowls are working in their specific doing of research. The BTRM here notices B-TWR-JM or some rows occurring from waters; bowls could produce a multitude of visual appearances, and it occurs especially in descriptions of the Temple and its buildings, it denotes the row of jewels on High Priest’s breastplate, and notoriously enough, it denotes also the “pomegranates” in pillars of Temple, also noticing knops round the molten sea in the Temple (1 Kings 7:24). Here reading the B-TWR-JM does exactly notice TWR connected to the JM water container- thus is the mention of TWR in 1 Kings 7:24 especially interesting. Also this TWR word makes this 58:10 substantially connected to the devices and practises in the Temple. The word ATD notices a “thorn”- something obviously very tiny and only with difficulties observable (cf. the ATM written in v.5 here)- and its appearance in the bowls. This v.10 writes of such thorn KMW HJ KMW HRWN, the KMW-KMW continuing emphatically the notices of production of truthful similitudes from vessels. Here this writing notices the HRH burning etc. (often written of anger); so this KMW-KMW writing notices that such thorns (even if being tiny and minimal) appear in such fiery lamp vessels in similitudes of their normal constitution.


59:2-3 God! Produce the nun-stretched shadow vision (ZL) from the originating source (AB); from waters You make visions (QWH) that are visions-from water (notice here the QWH and twice written MM, MM) –from there You make multiplying (SG). Produce such nun-stretched shadow visions from these producing vessels (AWN)- make magnifyings (MA) from their producing of prophesies (NSA), such demut similitudes from waters (DM-JM), of Jesus/Joshua of nun- style.

59:4b-5 With God- no deceiving, no defects- the mixture (BL) for seeing in the water-source (YJN, YWN) will make a clear nun-stretched vision (RZ, NN) – it produces the nun-stretching (KN, NN) of revelation, for observing and seeing.

59:6 You are H’ God of Zebaot, god of Israel- make wine-cup seeing (HQJZH) in front (LP) in the crystal vessel (QD-QDH) that contains this water-mixture! God, be merciful, working with the magnifying vessel (KL, BGD). Sela.

59:7 (after the Sela) Might they reflect (SB) up to the limits (YRB) in their lights, in such method of Caleb- so might they reflect around (SBB) the revelation.

59:8 See! They make visually prophesy in the mouth of open vessel, by their stretched visual signs they make magnifying- but who might comprehend?

59:9-10 You, God, make work with the water-containers, such TL water-seeing from YGL bowls water containers of power (YZ)- I will observe (SMR) with Your help- because You are God making magnifyings (MSGB).

59:11-12 God, the HSD might be in the crystal vessel (QD) of waters- God, show me visions with help of Your angel! God, make magnified vision in pureness, such visual appearance be there (SKN), such heaping show me in purity in your glass vessel (HL)- and make stretched-vision from waters, such magical nun-stretching!

59:15 (after the second Sela), translation and commentary similar to 59:7.

59:16 They make visually prophesy for vessel seeing from vessels (A-KL), they are such LUN lighting vessels (WJLJNW) making stretching (SBY).

59:2-3 COMMENTARY These words are very easily comprehended as one statement that is concerning the HZJLNJ, the working of ZL or production of Zel shadowy visions- in the currently usual division of verses the HZJLNJ commences v.2 and v.3, but clearly here is one semantic context thus defined. Also the DM is thus specified demut, visions of similitudes. This statement of ZL shadow vision working is later echoed especially in the v.17 MNWS BJWM ZR-LJ- here mention of ZR noticed also letter Lamed, this echoing emphatically the ZL written in v.2-3, and notoriously here is NS word mentioned, emphasising working of miracles. This v.2-3 especially mentions the TSGBNJ writing of the SG or SGJ, the very usual word of Biblical texts and later denoting multitude, plenitude and magnifying. In this Psalm 59 such SG/SGJ words are very usual, written before the BJWM ZR in v.17 and also written in the v.10 and v.18. Here the Greek Bible translates this TSGBNJ with LUTROSAI; thus are also rituals of purifying done with waters noticed. Such echoes the notorious emphasis of the v.2 writing of MM twice, clear even if the usual reading is the MN with hitpael of QWM- the construction of MMTQWMM clearly notices twice the MM (noticing here especially majim, waters and waters of some container) and the QWH observing, even the famous Miqwa water ponds are named from the QWH root and this clearly emphasises here noticing waters MM and seeing. Such is, of course, echoing the ZL shadow vision production and seeing so emphatically mentioned here in v.2-3. Importantly, this prayer for the shadow vision production and water vessel seeing is concluded with mention of HWSJYNJ. This very clearly notices Joshua (JHWSY and Greek name: Jesus), because Num 13:8 notices of tribe of Ephraim HWSY BN NWN and the Num 13:16 notices the Moses called LHWSY BN-NWN JHWSY (thus is the Jod noticed, Moses calling Hoshea Ben-nun with name Joshua). Every attentive Reader here notices this mention of HWSJYNJ thus emphatically referring to Joshua ben-nun, the leader of the spies sent to the Land in Num 13- and further noticing the mentions of name Caleb (another of the spies sent to the Land) in v.7 and v.15. The attentive Reader is thus alerted to consider the episode of sending spies to the Land in Num 13 and the details of the text of that episode in the Hebrew Bible (and later Midrashim commenting this important episode).

59:4b-5 COMMENTARY This text notices twice the ending nun, writing of this in the RWZWN WJKWNNW. Thus the RZ clear seeing is emphatically noticed- the RZ especially in the Greek text of Bible written often OKSUS that denotes keen seeing and clear observation. This statement very notoriously writes of the BL YWN or mixtures in the source of waters (and source of seeing, YJN) and there appearing YWR visual revelation. The WJKWNNW is of HKJN noticing producing generally, and especially in the context of the Mikhtam Psalms thus is echoed the Ps 57:8 NKWN LBJ ALHJM NKWN LBJ and there also written KL HARZ KBWDK RST HKJNW of Ps 57:6-7; these statements of Ps 57 notice the production of Kavod vision with HKJN word and its being truthfully produced NKWN these emphasising the Ps 57 writing of truthful producing of Kavod visual appearances- and also the currently commented text 59:4-5 noticing such occurring without deceiving and without defects. Such vision producing without defect very understandably produces clear visions, RZ visions.

59:6 COMMENTARY This text concludes with the Sela, and the second Sela is found concluding the v.14 in the current division of verses. The writing of Sela emphasises the importance of this 59:6. This statement writes the HQJZH that has very special importance indeed. The attentive Reader notices directly from the Masora Magna (here so noticed) that three similar writings can be found in the Hebrew Bible for the HQJZH. Such similar writings are found in the Habakkuk 2:19 and Psalm 44:24. The writing of HQJZH in the Hab 2:19 directly calls the whole writing of the famous (although extensively difficult) Habakkuk commentary of Qumran with its obvious emphasis of writing of QZ words. Comprehension of this QZ word is very central for comprehending of the whole Psalm 59. Attentive Reader noticing this QZ word is surely now considering further the mentions of Caleb: very often the Hebrew Bible writes of Caleb HQNZJ, so in the Num 32:12, Joshua 14:6, 14, Judges 3:9 and 1Chron 4:14. Mention of the name Caleb in this Psalm 59 is very emphatic in v.7 and v.15, so that the attentive Reader surely here notices that Hebrew Bible so calls Caleb HQNZJ so often. This further emphasises the context of this Psalm 59 writing and commenting some details of the history of the Spies sent to the Land (Num 13). The attentive Readers will furthermore consider the prophesy of Amos 8:1-2 mentioning the KLWB QJZ. Such KLWB QJZ is in the Amos 8:1-2 especially something the prophet Amos is observing; and the words BA hQJZ specifies that there some water-reflections are occurring. Currently such KLWB QJZ is often comprehended to denote some basket containing products of summer; but further considerations of the QZ word specifies this more. The QZ generally in OT Hebrew describes some end and conclusion, but the QZH and QZZ denote activities of cutting and hewing (also of vessels, so BDB 891-3), also here noticing context of some “hewn vessel”. Here is especially written the HQJZH LPQD KL that emphasises the KL vessels and QZ; and the QD or QDH notices generally kindling of fire, the Greek Bible of Isa 54:12 knowing its translation in form crystal, LITHOS KRUSTALLOU. Obviously, crystal vessels were hewn vessels (and vessels of glass material were blown vessels). The translation Pasi Pohjala 2008 of Amos 8:1-2 thus writes “thus showed to me God, and I observed in bowl of hewn material (QZ, hewn, thus crystal) and he said: what are you seeing Amos, you visionary-of-the-molten and said bowl-of-hewn-material; and God described that so water-reflects there (BA) that hewn crystal bowl (QZ)”. More comprehension for such QZ hewn vessel seeing can be found noticing the very famous Gen 9:24 WJJQZ NH MJJNW WJDY. This statement notices Noah doing QZ doing with wine so that he could know. Often this is comprehended later to notice the famous divination sober drunkenness divination. These notices very clearly specify the comprehension of this HQJZH noticing wine cup seeing here. Following the Masora, the importance of Hab 2:19 is emphasised there writing the
HWJ AMR LYZ HQJZH YWRJ LABN; and the Readers of Habakkuk notice for these ABN and YZ those mentioned in the famously difficult 2:11 ABN MQJR TZYQ WKPJS MYZ JYNNH- and the Greek Bible writes famously the KANTHAROS (wine-cup) for such KPJS; this context emphatically specifies that HQJZH is some procedures doing with the wine-cup (KANTHAROS), clearly the HQJZH denoting wine cup seeing- echoing the QZ of Noah. These notices very much emphasise that this Psalm 59:6 writes of wine cup seeing writing the HQJZH. (The current Author is also writing more extensive commentary to his Translation Pasi Pohjala 2008 for the Book of Habakkuk, making there also this study of QZ; also there are the emphasis of Qumran Habakkuk Commentary writing of QZ noticed and it is noticed that so writing the Qumranic Commentary does often describe practises of wine cup seeing.) For the Greek Bible it is notorious that 6b is written PROSKHES TOU EPISKEPSASTHAI PANTA. So is echoed the famous statement of attentive observing, PROSEKHEIN TON NOUN etc. and the EPISKEPSASTHAI notices also attentive seeing and observing.

59:7 COMMENTARY The Sela are written to conclude v.6 and v. 13-14, and thereafter in v.7 AND v.15 are written these statements of KLB. This clearly emphasises the importance of this statement of v.7 in this Psalm 59. This text is writing of KLB that usually is comprehended to notice “dog” but attentive Readers notice such KLB writing the name Caleb. The v.3 concludes mentioning Joshua the chief of the Spies sent to the Land; and the HQJZH of the v.6 echo that Caleb is often known in the Hebrew Bible Caleb HQNZJ, thus in the Num 32:12, Joshua 14:6, 14, Judges 3:9 and 1 Chron 4:15. Also the v. 14 writes the KLH twice, vocalised KALEH...KALEH that further alerts the Reader to notice the very name Caleb. Reference to Caleb is thus unmistakable here. This reference does notoriously help understanding of this statement. This statement very clearly writes words SBB YJR and SB YRB. The Greek writes here EPISTREPSOUSIN and KUKLOSOUSIN, thus are notices in the Greek some returning and recurring events- also some reflections when context of writing of optical visions is notices; and the KUKLOSOUSIN also notices some circular movement. The context of different letters of S is noticed in this Psalm, the 59:13 writing WMALW WMKHS JSPRW where the different letters S are written in the notices of full vessels and seeing. Even such detail of this Psalm is notable for this emphatic v.7 and 15 writing with different S letters the SBB and SB. The histories of Caleb are thus further notable, especially the Prov 26:10-12 writes of KLB and SB; this text is among scholars famous for its comprehension of the KLB. The Tanakh writes 26:10a “a master can produce anything” and the 26:12a Tanakh translates “if you see a man who thinks himself wise”: this context thus notices some clever and wise individuals. The KLB is written in 26:11a KKLB SB- the very context notices the reading of name Caleb, certainly having been somewhat clever and wise. The 26:12 writes of HKM BYJNJW TQWH, a Hakham wise whose eyes have QWH seeing; and the 26:10 writes of RB MHWLL KL, noticing specially clever doing. Meaning of the QA of 26:11 is noticed in lexica uncertain, although currently negatively comprehended, even if the CONTEXT specifies such QA with the 26:12 writing TQWH where QWH seeing is noticed. The KKLB SB especially exactly echoes this Ps 59:7 and 15 writing JSWBW KKLB. Especially, the Prov 26:1 commences this text writing emphatically of QZ, writing that KSLG BQJZ WKMTR BQJZ. These notices of QJZ with mention of KLB constitute unmistakable reference to the very Caleb, known so often in Caleb HQNZJ in Hebrew Bible. Obviously, the KMTR clearly echoes the special spying activity TWR of the Spies sent to the Land (even if the MTR is with the Teth written). The Prov 26:7 further writes of MQZH RGLJM that emphatically notices QZ and spying- so is the RGL often generally comprehended in the Hebrew Bible. Therefore it is very solidly motivated to read the KLB in Ps 59:7 and 15 to notice Caleb one of the spies sent to the Land, and these texts writing of visual observations. The Greek text here commences EPISTREPSOUSIN EIS ESPERAN. The EPISTREPSOUSIN here clearly echoes the other EPI words, notoriously the v.6 writing of EPISKEPSASTHAI visual observations, the EPISTREPSOUSIN more noticing “reflecting”. The EIS ESPERAN read EIS ES PERAN notices the PERAN or the very uttermost limits, thus notifying the Reader to consider of EIS-PERAN or magnifying and stretching towards limits (the Greek word ESPERA for evening has very notorious etymological roots that have been much studied). The commentary to the Ps 59:7 and 15 can be concluded with some more general notices concerning the name Caleb here written. Mentions of names Caleb, QZ and Joshua/Jesus here very emphatically notice that this Psalm 59 writes some statements of Midrashic developments and commentaries to the history of the Spies sent to the Land (Num 13 etc). The episode of the spies sent to the Land (Num 13) was one very important and well known episode of Old Testament, and therefore understandably, there were written and circulating Midrashic writings and statements commenting the history of the Spies sent to the Land. Well known to the Scholars, this is one important context of developing of histories of Jesus- Jesus/Joshua was the leader of the Spies sent to the Land. Whole Book of Joshua/Jesus is a book in the current Old Testament. It is important to notice that many Jesus/Joshua-histories can have been midrashically composed for commenting details of the history of Spies sent to the Land. This is one important context of origination of histories ascribed to individual named Jesus, and the history of Spies being well known Biblical history, could provide much material for developing histories of “Jesus” in different places around Palestine, and for local talking in Palestine concerning contemporary locally living individuals with name “Jesus” and their special words and doings. This Psalm 59 is one important and well known text that writes commenting some details of the history of Spies sent to the Land. The Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and Psalm 16 contain many references to history of Spies sent to the Land, and the writer of Luke-Acts has written from Psalm 16 a scriptural proof to the resurrection of Jesus that is important old attestation of writing of Mikhtam Psalms to histories of Jesus in the ideas of the writer of Luke-Acts. (Thus comprehends the author of Luke-Acts the IDEIN DIAFTHORAN of Ps 16, reading from DIAFTHEIRO, destruction; but noticing the context of writing of History of the Spies notices the IDEIN or EIDEN (Aorist of ORAO, to see) and DIA-FTHORAN noticing the very doing of the spies, the TWR (Hebrew word) often written in Numeri 13 to denote the spying activity of the Spies- also here is T-R word exactly written with ORAO (EIDEN). The author of Luke-Acts is well known to be very Hellenistic style writer and emphasises nuances of GREEK texts). The Mikhtam Psalms especially specify the writings concerning the rare KTM words in Old Testament, and especially thus specifying the famous “Kittim” so often mentioned in the Qumran scrolls.

59:8 and 59:16 COMMENTARY The HNH JBJYWN commencing this v.8 emphatically echoes the HMH JNWYWN commencing the v.16. The HNH is the “Hinne” calling for attention and attentive observing. The JBJYWN also here concludes with the letter nun, this echoing the v. 5 writing of the production of clear and not defective visions BLJ YWN JRWZWN WJKNNW where the nun is also emphasised. The HBJY generally notices to bring, and being the hiphil form of the NBY the word very importantly notices “spring, bubble up” and “pour forth” and other expressions describing some sources, especially water sources (see BDB 615-6). Here this NBY derivation emphasises producing from waters, especially producing visions from waters (or from wine cup containing wine). Actually the concluding nun here emphasises the YWN noticing water-sources; and thus is echoed here v.5 BLJ YWN describing production of clear and faultless visions. It is thus very important to notice that the YWN is also emphasised in the 59:16 JNWYWN and that this 59:16 concludes with WJLJNW. This is one mention of the famous LUN, “lighting”, so famously mentioned in the Gen 28:10-11 concerning Jacob travelling toward Haran WJPGY BMQWM WJLN SM KJ BA HSMS. Commentaries to this famous text are numerous; the LUN lighting is here clearly mentioned with Jacob’s famous vision of the heavenly ladder. The BSPTWTJHM notices SPH language and parole and the OT visual sign and continues to the SMY hearing. The SPH noticing edges and limits (notably the v. 16 here writes of the JSBYW WJLJNW that notices for SP and SBY words meanings of fullness) further echoes here also the SP noticing basins (see BDB 706)- furthermore, in the Temple were known the SMRJ HSP and they are in the 2 Chron 34 and 1 Kings 22 etc. mentioned. For the v.16 is notable that letters LA, AM, LAKL are here written, so that Aleph thus is written with letters K, L and M; and after the LUN is the word AN written. This textual detail is here of importance, because in the v.6 before the Sela was the word BGD found (in discussion of the QZ wine cup visioning). Such mentions of order of letters K, L, M and N- and the BGD- clearly here emphasise the idea of “more” and alert the Readers to consider the numbers (and also growth or magnifying).

59:9-10 COMMENTARY This text writes clearly the words TL, YGL and KL. The KL notices vessels and utensils generally, the TL notices the famous water vessel divination (TL, MATLA, NATLA) and the YGL notices round bowls (see also the BDB 722). This is unmistakable and exceedingly clear statement of practise of TL water vessel divination in YGL round-vessels. The TSHQ here written very importantly recalls the usual word AL TSHT commencing the Mikhtam Psalms 57:1, 58:1 and 59:1- this word notices the SHh or floating; the magnified visions seen in bowls and cups of glass filled with water (or wine) can be surely said to be seemingly floating on the waters (or on the wine). This statement in the Hebrew text is importantly concluded with the mention of MSGBJ that notices the divine doing of magnifyings (SGJ), so often in this Psalm 59 so mentioned in concluding v.18, in the introduction v.2. The Greek text here translates this word ANTILEMPTOR that is directly notable in this context. The ending of –TOR of this Greek word notices the very activity of spying of the Spies sent to the Land, the Hebrew word TWR for spying so often written in the history of Spies sent to the Land, Num 13. The Greek word ANTILEMPTOR generally notices helper and protector; and the ANTILEPTIKOS specifically notices “able to apprehend, able to be aware” (see L-S 158), so that the Greek here emphasises also comprehending; the Greek text of v.11 mentions that God shows to me, THEOS DEIKSEI MOI. The conclusion in v.17 does also write this ANTILEMPTOR after writing of AGALLIASOMAI that notices the GL/GLL revelations of LIAN muchness (Greek word, although clear for speakers).

59:11-12 COMMENTARY The MGNNW concludes this statement of 11-12, thus is MG magical doing noticed, this specifying the NN or the nun-stretching. The text notices here a prayer that God might show with help of his angel, BSRR; this BSRR echoes the Psalm 56:3 writing of SAPW SWRRJ KL HJWM and the 56:5 writing the MH JYSH BSR LJ, this noticing how the divine angel helps for producing reflection vision (YSH) of the what-ness- and the 56:3 notices help of angel in the vessel of lights (help of angels is very usually mentioned and described in texts of lecanomancy). The QD word also here echoes the writing of v.6 of QD or crystal material- there the HQJZH LPQD is written so that mention of such QD crystal vessel notices specifically the QZ wine cup seeing. Here is also the HL written emphasising notices of vessels of some glass or glass style material. The v.12 mentioning the THR notices generally purity of seeing- and more specifically it notices the T-R observation of the Spies sent to the Land (Num 13). The Greek text here emphatically writes that THEOS DEIKSEI MOI, that God shows visions.


60:1 LEMENAZEAH. Concerning detailed attestations of magnification. Mikhtam Psalm concerning Davidic style bows, for learning.
60:2 When he made visual sign, in style of Aram/Syria- from waters; and when he made visual sign (AT), in style of Aram/Syria- making strengthening; and when he made reflected sign (SB) of Joab style; these he truthfully produced (WJK of NKH or NKWN). Visual sign (AT) of Edomite style, in place of similitude (A-DM)- in the cavity of salty waters that was doubled, and ten-fold, and even very much multiplied.
60:3 God, the glass vessel ZN in its stillness makes nun stretching and such detailed growths (RZ, PR) you stretch. So is Your place of making visions (A-PNT) , You have so made the reflections (SB and BB that often denotes water reflections) from the light lamp vessel (LNW, the LUN).
60:4 The vision of doubled, from light contained for visions (AR, ZM, ZPJ) for completeness- so are magnifying from divine (SBR)- you have shown such stretched.
60:5 You have shown magnifying for comparisons (KQSH read of NQS comparing); you have given us to drink wine that makes magnifying of increases (joter, YLH).
60:6 You have given to your seers the NES miracle, so that they make display of NES miracles (LHTNWSS) of visions (PNJ), thus for comparing what is stretched (NQS, NTH). Sela.
60:7 In the water-seeing (MAAJAN) in glass bowls (HL) of your friend Davidic style bowls (JDJDK, see v.1 LDWD and also v. 8 AMDD) you bring the Jesus/Joshua style doing: from waters there occur your nun-stretching- so You make nun-stretching divinations.
60:8 God has spoken in his holy place, it is place of making increases (YLH); it is place of making divisions (HLQ) – Schechem- and the bowl of Sukkoth is for making measurings.
60:9 for my learning occurs revelation of magnifying of Gilad style; and for my learning occurs Menasse style miracle producing; and magnifying of the increases of the Ephraim style, of the strengthening; and the strengthening of the seers of Judah, from their carved bowls.
60:10 Moabite bowl is source of multiplicity (AB, MWA), it is for seeing extensions (HZ, RH). Edomite bowl, it is place of making similitudes (A-DM) those sent from fire in multitude; upon Philistean miraculously doubling pot (PL, ST) there appear magnifying for magnifying-visions (joter, RY).
60:11 It is waters that bring to me revelation (YJR) of strengthened magnified zura visual forms (MZWR), it is the waters that in their stillness make nun-stretching, such magnifying from this place of similitudes (A-DM).
60:12 The glass vessel is the place of visual sign (AT, HL). God! In the stillness of the glass vessel (ZN) you gave the nun-stretchings (ZN, NH, TNW); but such does not occur without God bringing such in his strengthening power.
60:13 Might thus the LUN light lamp prophetically produce (HBH LNW) strengthening of zurot forms, the zura-magnifying strength (MZR strength and such zura form production with strength, or magnifying of forms) and thus the empty/hollow vessel (SWA) thus might produce of Jesus/Joshua style; it is place of similitude (A-DM).
60:14 It is with divine help that glass vessel makes reflections: it is God who brings the stretched visual zura signs.

60:1 COMMENTARY This is a truly notorious introduction to this Psalm 60. Also here is the MKTM, the MIKHTAM for the Greek text written EIS STELOGRAPHIAN that notices GRAFEIN, intentional production of some written or drawn signs and the STELE noticing some devices of stone that were important for such practise of production of well defined visual signs. It is surely very important that this MIKHTAM is always in the Greek text so written STELOGRAPHIA, thus in Psalms 56-60 and in the Psalm 16:1. The YDWT notices muchness and multitude, and magnifying, and also noticing “attestation” and evidence. The YL SWSN YDWT (SHOSAN EDUT) calls for attentive reading. The Greek text writes TOIS ALLOIOTHESOMENOIS ETI of ALLOIOO, make alterations and changes; and such is clearly comprehensible in the context of producing of visions: magnified (and diminished visions) are obviously altered visions, even if their proportional extensions hopefully are faithful to the vision of the original item. Important comparison for this writing of SHOSAN is especially found in Ps 45 (LXX Ps 44). The Ps 45:1 commences YL SSNJM LBNJ QRH MSKJL...vocalised usually similarly – SHOSANIM. Very importantly, the Greek text translates this SHOSANIM similarly, writing HUPER TON ALLOIOTHESOMENON. Clearly this SHOSANIM was thus read from the SNH root denoting differences. (However, often these SHOSANIM in modern translations and studies are noticed to be “lilies”, also clearly possible). Further reading of this Psalm 45 notices some comparison also to the STELOGRAPHIA, because LXX Ps 44:2 writes of GRAMMATEOS OKSUGRAFOU. The 45:6 mentions HZJK SNWNJM noticing also the nun root (Greek: EKONEMENA), and the 45:8 notices SMN SSWN noticing “oil” (Greek: ELAION AGALLIASEOS). Such OKSUS clearly notices somehow skilled scribe; and this is generally important attestation of OKSUS words in the Greek Bible (for more, see PP 2006 “Similarities of the Redaction of the Gospel According to Matthew with Texts of Philo Alexandrinus” where the uses of OKSUS words in writings of Philo and Greek Bible are thoroughly and in detail studied to elucidate the text of Matt 6:22-24).

60:2 COMMENTARY This v.2 is specially noticing of AT visual signs, mentioning AT ARM. The WJK is usually read from the NKH- but from this Hebrew root there is formed also the NKWN that notices “truthful”, that is, that the visual signs are produced in accordance with the worldly objects seen. Noticing such NKWN truthness of visual signs is clearly important, because this Psalm notices making of comparisons NQS also writing thus in v. 5-6. It is specially notable that the word AT only seldom occurs in these Mikhtam Psalms 56-60, even if the AT word is usual word generally in the Hebrew Bible. Here is written AT ADWM noticing demut similitude. Similarly, the 56:1 is written OTO, emphasising this vocalisation. The Psalm 59:6 notices AT and deity “WATH H” and 59:9 “WATH H” and also 59:5 “WLA HSATJ H”, these specified in the 59:1 WJSMRW AT “they watched the OT”. The Greek translation here in 60:2 and 59:1 writes the OPOTE and Aor. and this clearly supports the vocalisation OT and comprehension of visual signs OT. The AT words are often in Mikhtam Psalms connected to words noticing observations, the 59:5-6 mentioning WRAH WATH H (RAH denoting seeing), the 59:8-9 mentioning MJ SMY WATH H (here it is important to read according to the semantic context, ignoring the later devised verses). The rare occurrences of AT words in the Mikhtam Psalms are thus often connected to mentions of observing and seeing, so that comprehension of AT usually denoting OT visual signs is well founded in the Mikhtam Psalms. The text in Greek here writes of EIS DIDAKHEN OPOTE ENEPURISEN, this noticing the EN and PUR, and more specifically finding learning with help of contained fire flame (EN, PUR). Such is further echoed in the following word MESOPOTAMIAN noticing MESOS and POTAMOS, in waters. The Hebrew text continues noticing the BGJA MLH or in the bowl of salt waters; the Greek here writes the notorious words
This mention finds even echoes in the descriptions of Wilderness wandering of Israelites. The FARAGKS is the famous word for cavities, caves and bowls, and the EPATAKSEN noticing some stirring of the waters of the bowl notices one ritual of lecanomancy often described in Hellenistic texts (see esp. Hopfner). The Greek words notoriously echo descriptions in this Psalm, the DODEKA referring to the v. 6 EDOKAS SEMEIOSIN, God’s giving of signs, and the KHILIADAS echoing the GALAAD (v. 9), KOILADA and AGALLIAOMAI (v.9), thus emphasising here production of multitudes from cavities and bowl containers.

60:3 COMMENTARY This 60:3 mentions the very famous LUN, fire flame of very mysterious character. Especially is notable for LUN the mention of Jacob’s lighting and thereafter his seeing the vision of heavenly ladder in the Gen 28. In this Psalm this LUN is small but very important detail of writing, the 60:13 also writing this LUN. This 60:3 especially mentions that TSWBB LNW that emphatically connects the LUN fire light and BB word usually noticing water reflections, and also the SWB word that in contexts of optical descriptions means “returning” in the meaning of “reflecting”. The 60:13 writes of HBH LNW where the JHB notices prophetic producing, thus noticing how this LUN fire flame makes prophetic producing. The 60:13 further mentions SWA empty-vessels or hollow vessels that clearly are central for such prophetic production from light flame LUN. The Greek translation, however, writes in these contexts words of T-L: the KATHEILES HEMAS is here written and the 60:13 mentions EK THLIPSEOS. For readers of the Hellenistic times who also comprehended Aramaic, such mentions of T-L words did notice the TIL cup divination, MATLA cup divination of NATLA cups. Such mentions are very important for the Greek and Aramaic Targumic readings of the Books of the Twelve Prophets (many of these Books in the Targumic translation are beginning with notice of MATLA divination). Here such notice of T-L is minor detail although for fluent readers clear reference to the whole TIL and MATLA practise of cup divination.

60:4 COMMENTARY This 60:4 very clearly writes of visions shown from light-lamp (LNW...HRAJTH), and especially writes of contained light mentioning the AR, ZPH and ZM- such contained light contributes thus to visions ZPH. (Attentive Readers will surely therefore think of the notion of Zimzum, containing of light, usual in many midrashic writings). Importantly, such ZM containing of light and visions is here applied in discussion of the miraculous LUN fire-light. (Famous mention of the LUN is, of course, in Gen 28 describing Jacob’s lighting and his seeing the vision of heavenly ladders and the angels ascending and descending on the ladder). The Greek text here writes three SUN words that is very special to this text in this Psalm, writing the SUNESEISAS, SUNETARAKSAS and SUNTRIMMATA. In this Psalm this writing of SUN constitutes very clear reference to the mention of SURIA (Syria) in the v. 2. Notoriously, the v. 2 mentions ENEPURISEN that is usually comprehended to describe the total destructive burning down of certain area; but for attentive Readers this notice of EN and PUR in the Greek writing very much echoes the idea of containing of the light AR, ZPH and ZM. Also the Greek notices finding learning from such context, writing in the 1-2 EIS DIDAKHEN OPOTE ENEPURISEN; this Greek mention notices finding learning when there was fire-flame in the container (DIDAKHE, EN, PUR) (also here the attentive Reader will consider the semantic context instead of dividing the words according to the later devised verses). The reference to the Syria in this specific writing notices emphatically the AT visual signs, because v. 2 writes twice the AT ARM.

60:5 COMMENTARY The v.4 clearly writes of divine showing, writing the hif. of RAH, and the Greek here mentions the EDEIKSAS of DEIKNUMI. In the Greek writing there is here the list of aorist mentions EDEIKSAS...EPOTISAS OINON...EDOKAS SEMEIOSIN. Emphatically thus here the Greek text writes that the wine OINOS is connected to the showing DEIKNUMI and giving of SEMEIOSIN signs. The Hebrew writes here YMK QSH HSQJTNW; this notices the wine drinking and especially making comparisons NQS- textual detail is that QSH HSQ are written other orders. The Greek writing for the HSQJTNW the EPOTISAS notices also the EP’ O TI ISAS or that something (O TI) is more-than those or same measure, this detail emphasising the making of comparisons and the general idea of this Psalm, v.1 noticing the alterations TOIS ALLOIOTHESOIMENOIS ETI.

60:6 COMMENTARY The writing of the NES miracles is here very emphatic, NS LHTNWSS, this LHTNWSS MPNJ is clearly semantically continuing the NES discussion and noticing making a display of such miracle signs NES. The NQS notices here “comparing” and making comparisons, this continues the mention of the introduction ALLOIOTHESOMENOIS ETI, that this Psalm is concerning what is altered. Thus is idea of making comparison of the NQS clearly central. The NQS PNJM specially emphasises making comparisons of visions. Here the Greek clearly writes of SEMEIOSIN for such miracle sign making, and APO PROSOPOU. The Greek text writing the SE, SEE and MEIOSIN notices also clearly relative extensions and comparisons.

60:7 COMMENTARY The letter NUN and the written N-N is here now very central, in writings of LMYN (maajan, water bowls) and JHLZWN concluding with nun, and with the YNN denoting divination. Here is written of the Jeshua style occurrence. Actually the Greek text also notices here the name Jesus, IESOUS, because writing so much of SOU, and clearly mentioning –TOI SOU SOSON where the letters of the name IESOUS are founds except one. Also writes the DEKSIA SOU here much echoing the name IESOUS, these very clearly attesting that the Greek translator wished the Readers to think of the name Jesus or IESOUS, and thus composing these sentences with SOU words and adjacent letters that the Greek name IESOUS here is actually found in v. 7. This in the Hebrew level notices the Joshua, of the root that here is written HWSJYH (and the Greek translating this word literally SOSON, although crying out the reference to the very name IESOUS by selecting the SOU words and the adjacent letters thus; for modern Readers this requires more attentive reading, but ancient readers reading manuscript of lectio continua style could here much more straightforwardly make notices of mentions of name IESOUS here.) (for more, e.g. the Zechariah 3 describes the practises of bowl divinations by the High Priest Jesus).

60:8 COMMENTARY The mention of God having spoken is here very emphatic and recalls the v. 3 mentioning ALHJM ZNHTNW. This text notices some places where the divine speech might be heard or found, the BQDSW and often mentioned A- (noticing place) emphasise this, places of finding divine utterances. The mention of Sukkoth is here notorious. The YMQ is generally comprehended noticing “valley” of Sukkot; but YMQ also notices valley like containers or bowls- this is very clearly emphasised writing concerning the Sukkoth the AMDD, because thus is referred to DWD denoting Davidic style bowls, so also in the introduction to this Psalm, the 60:1 writing of MKTM LDWD. Generally is well known that the “Sukka” (tent) was the special place of illumination, and therefore in this text the “Sukka” and BQDSW (in his holy place) are intrinsically connected; comprehension of Sukkoth denoting geographical place here is not plausible. This text notices places of hearing divine speech, and such are the Holy Place, Sukka, and Schechem. The YMQ of Sukkoth is not usual description; in the tent Sukka there might have been a light bowl, but its construction is, of course, generally mysterious. The Greek writes here for the AYLZH the word AGALLIASOMAI (cf. GLL revelation and LIAN muchness). This text connects this AGALLIASOMAI to measuring DIAMETRESO; this is clear because in this Psalm the AGALLIASOMAI refers to GALAAD, KOILADA, and KHILIADAS that notice some womb-style containing place and extraordinary multitude.

60:9 COMMENTARY This 60:9 writes emphatically the LJ-LJ (continuing the style of this Psalm writing such MJ-MJ, etc.) and this LJ-LJ directly refers to the introduction of this Psalm, the v.1 writing MKTM LDWD LLMD where the writing of Lamed is also very emphatic and noticing finding learning from the Davidic style bowls. Thus are these writings of LJ-LJ also here translated, so that they notice finding learning in bowls and bowl containers. This is in the Greek emphasised, this following the SKENON DIAMETRESO where the SKENE noticing visions and display and the DIAMETRESO emphasising the measuring. Furthermore, in the Greek writing the GALAAD directly refers to the KOILADA (belly or womb like container) and the special multitude KHILIADAS mentioned in the v. 2 (notably, the v. 2 itself does connect the FARAGKS cavity and this special multitude KHILIADAS).

60:10 COMMENTARY This is very clear list of bowl vessels (SR) of different origins and their special powers, of Edomite, Philistean and Moabite bowls. The statement of Hebrew texts clearly emphasises the YL, thrice written in this 60:10, the YL and YLH generally noticing rising and ascending, and concerning visions specially noticing magnifying. The Philistean bowl is specially so described, NYLJ YLJ, noticing the Nifal of this YLH. The Greek translation here writes for the SR bowl the specific word LEBES. The Greek especially here notices here stretching and extending for the YLH, writing EKTEINO, so that EPI TEN IDOUMAIAN EKTENO. The YLH is thus very explicit noticed denoting spatial extending of measures, the EKTEINO in the Greek translation. Such emphasises reading here the Rewah Haza, seeing the extensions, in the Hebrew text. Furthermore, the Greek writes here of ALLOFULOI noticing the ALLOS for “other”; but in the special context of this Psalm 60 this ALLOFULOI refers directly to the introduction of ALLOIOTHESOMENOIS ETI, EIS STELOGRAPHIAN. The ALLOS notices thus occurrence of alteration (ALLOIOO of the introduction) “further” or “more” (the ETI), so that vision of STELOGRAFIA is thus made. (The ALLO-FULOI even echoes for Greek readers the FIALE bowls, in this context very relevantly, because the LEBES for Hebr word SR is here written). Thus the Greek here emphasises visions, especially altered visions of magnification.

60:11 COMMENTARY This 60:11 writes emphatically the MJ-MJ, this much continuing the style of the Psalm 60 mentioning such LJ-LJ (v. 9), the NS-HTNSWS (v.6), SKWT and SKM (v.8), YLJ-NYLJ (v.10) and SWA-SWY (v.13). This MJ-MJ is mentioned in the context of bowls, this v.11 mentioning even the Edom that echoes the v.10 listing SR bowls and their powers. Thus should the MJ-MJ clearly be comprehended in this semantic context to denote “waters” (contained in a bowl or a lamp). The mentions of stretching and extensions are here continued from the v.10, the YD-ADWM noticed in the Greek translation EOS TES IDOUMAIAS; such EOS clearly continues notices of spatial stretching for Edom, because 60:10 writes the EPI TEN IDOUMAIAN EKTENO, of EKTEINO. The Greek text here writes also of AP-AGO and OD-EGEOMAI that for the attentive Readers clearly refer to the v. 2 writing of FARAGKS, or FARAGGA. Such cavity, or bowl container thus clearly “leads” the visions to further seeing.

60:12 COMMENTARY This commences that HLA ATH and concludes BZBAWTJNW; thus is the AT denoting visual signs here twice mentioned. The structure of this sentence HLA ATH...WLA TZA clearly connects thus the AT and JZA producing, more specially noticing the production of the AT visual signs (cf. the usual MZA noticing some “finding”, often visually). The Greek here writes of DUNAMEIS, this echoing the v. 14 writing of DUNAMIS for HJL; and this v.12 commences with the HLA also.

60:13 COMMENTARY The mention of the ADM here clearly continues in defective writing the mentions of Edom, in the 10-11 written ADWM that is very clear in this context. The topic of Edom was found to emphasise very much the making of stretchings, EPI TEN IDOUMAIAN EKTENO and EOS TES IDOUMAIAS. This importantly notices the word MZR here written that also notices such strengthening producing of visions, echoing the v.11 YJR MZWR. These establish the reference to v.10-11 and the whole context of stretchings and magnifyings there noticed. The Greek writes here EK THLIPSEOS, and in v. 11 EIS POLIS PERIOKHES for the MZR words. Importantly is the PERIOKHE describing the notorious strength with PERI word, noticing how such place is contained (PERI) (literally, surrounded by strong fortifications and walls). The “containing” is thus important for such special “power” for the Greek readers. The LNW in the Hebrew text continues the LNW mentions of the v. 3-4; these clearly here notice the special LUN fire flame. Here are especially written the SWY and SWA that emphasise the connection of empty-vessels/ hollow vessels and Jesus/Joshua. The Greek here writes DOS BOETHEIAN that clearly connects to v. 6 also writing of the DIDOMI, mentioning EDOKAS SEMEIOSIN. This use of DIDOMI in this v.13 thus emphasises also here production of SEMEIA visual signs.

60:14 COMMENTARY The Greek here mentions making of specially miraculous deeds, EN DE TO THEO POIESOMEN DUNAMIN. The word ZR of zura visual forms is very emphatic in the whole Psalm 60, the ZR actually concludes the whole Psalm writing in the Hebrew text ZRJNW. This emphasises the occurrences of the ZR, MZR and MZWR words in this Psalm 60, the v. 11 writing YJR MZWR, the v. 13 noticing MZR. Thus are emphasised the zura visual forms and production of zura forms in “strengthened” manner, that is, the magnifying of visual forms. The BWS here recalls the TSWBB LNW in the v. 3, mentioning the LUN fire flame producing of visions. The Greek writes the EKSOUDENOSEI for this BWS; and attentive Reader of the Greek text easily finds EKS OUD’ EN OSEI or notice that with this miracle making DUNAMIS power what is “one” can appear as “six”, noticing special magnifying.