Thursday, 13 December 2012
Pasi K Pohjala December 09, 2012 A Study of Biblical Navigation in Seafare and Landroutes- Their Use of Compass and Magnet Study of Old Testament Book of Malachi; Series Verre et Bible The current article considers ancient methods of finding direction for voyages both in seafare and in landroutes. Current Readers of course think of directing travelling with help of maps both land and sea; the even more advanced modern methods of navigating with help of satellites is of course truly recent development. For ancient people methods of navigating and other reliable methods of directing voyages on landroutes were immensely important for realisation of communication between areas, for culture, religion and commerce- well known is how the developed methods of effective communicating was fundamental for reality of ancient states and central governance. Considerations of Hebrew SB words provide many important insights to ancient developed methods of travelling and directing voyages. In the Old Testament the history of Israel leaving from Egypt and travelling towards the Promised Land is in Jewish religion one of the most fundamentally important Biblical histories. Much of scholarly literature has been attempting to reconstruct plausibly the probable route of the people towards the Promised Land; and some scholars have debated even the historical character of such wandering. The current study avoids so difficult questions and notices rather some interesting details of how that travelling is in practical terms described. We notice that the SAB word of Hebrew notices usually to draw water (BDB 980); and many of such meanings have been already by the current Author Pasi K Pohjala studied in studying Biblical descriptions of ancient methods of irrigating and ancient quite advanced technologies of watering and irrigating- these descriptions of watering and irrigating in Biblical high technological cultures were centrally important in Pasi K. Pohjala s recent study of the Book of Joel. However, it is now of central interest that Hebrew SAB words in some contexts noticed magnets (BDB 980). In Jewish religion the TESUBA is very central idea, noticing especially moral returning towards God and divine commandments. Magnets are of course for travellers both in landroutes and in high seas immensely important because of their magical ability of indicating reliably the direction towards north. For the Readers it is needless to say that such possible knowledge of capabilities of magnets in ancient world was immensely important and therefore was a sort of secretive knowledge that was not so loud and clearly propagated to general knowledge. It is well known that in ancient Chinese culture magnets and navigating with help of compass was known, this is in current scholarly consensus well accepted knowledge. But generally scholars find first attested uses of compasses in Mediterranean navigating only in the times of Crusades and thereafter. We should well remember that ancient Arabic seafare already in pre-Islamic times practised continuous and extensive seafares across long distances, even with Chinese. Thus we proceed to notice some interesting and important details in description of travelling in the HEBREW Bible, that certainly also describes very old practises. Especially importantly we notice that use of magnets as compasses is easiest facilitated by placing appropriate magnetic indicator to float in a WATER BOWL. The current Author Pasi K Pohjala has in numerous Biblical studies published in the series Verre et Bible emphatically shown how usual practises of bowl divination, the lecanomancy, were in ancient Israel and usually noticed in the Old Testament. In water bowls, magnified visions were seen, and this has been centrally discussed and studied by Pasi K. Pohjala in previous Verre et Bible studies and translations. In the current study now we continue also noticing that bowl divination could also be performed in order to read the direction towards north in the water bowl acting as compass. In bowl divination, direction towards north is seen and also magnified visions are observed. This includes interesting notices also concerning traditions of deities, also in Hebrew Bible and translations. We consider how Israelite travelling towards the Promised Lands is described in the Deuteronomy 2, finding that “Thus, after you had remained at Kadesh all that long time, we marched back into the wilderness by the way of the Sea of Reeds, as the Lord had spoken to me, and skirted the hill country of Seir a long time (WNSB AT HR SYJR JMJM RBJM) The Lord said to me: You have been skirting this hill country long enough; now turn north (RB LKM SB AT HHR HZH PNW LKM ZPNH)” (the Tanakh translation of Deut 1:46-2:2). Here the Hebrew text writes notoriously of the SB word describing some concrete travelling and proceeding and then notices importantly turning towards north. The modern Tanakh translation well notices the currently usual main tendencies in translating this text to modern English speaking Readers. But some older and quite usual English Bible translations do interestingly here allude to idea of use of compass as aide of finding the way, formulating translation that they have compassed this mountain long enough; turn northwards. However, now we especially notice that in this very important Old Testament description of travelling the SB word is thus interestingly connected with “turning to north”. Importantly this alerts to considering that SAB word also can denote magnets; used in finding route of voyage the magnets of compass have the notorious ability to find direction towards North. It is well worth noticing that the BDB Dictionary does render some SBB words in Hebrew Bible with rendering encompass (BDB 685-686), thus alerting attentive Readers that such journeying was probably directed with using magnets and compass. In this description by Hebrew Bible the travelling of people is noticed with SB words, with WNSB AT HR and SB AT HHR HZH. This probably notices that their travelling in those hill countries was probably quite well planned and guided by use of compass to direct their travelling- so emphatically the Hebrew Bible here writes of their SB travelling in that hill country, noticing so specifically turning towards north. Here the Greek Septuagint translation writes EKUKLOSAMEN TO OROS TO SEIR HEMERAS POLLAS KAI EIPEN KURIOS PROS ME IKANOUSTHO HUMIN KUKLOUN TO OROS TOUTO, EPISTRAFETE OUN EPI BORRAN. Greek Readers find now in this Septuagint translation interestingly the HEMERAS POLLAS that unmistakably suggests to Greek Readers clear reference to the famous Hermes, the famous travelling messenger and his methods of travelling and finding the way. One important mention of KUKLOO in Hermeticum is in the Sacred Discourse of Hermes (III.3). Some mentions of Hebrew Bible clearly connect SB verbs with words denoting north and northern directions. Famous description of Israelite SB marching is the episode of Joshua 6 that describes marching around Jericho and the subsequent Israelite invasion to Jericho and their occupation of Jericho. Thus is told Let all your troops march around the city and complete one circuit of the city. Do this six days with seven priests carrying seven ram´s horns preceding the Ark. On the seventh day, march around the city seven times, with the priests blowing the horns. (Joshua 6:3-4, the Tanakh translation) WSBTM AT HYJR KL ANSJ HMLHMH HQJP HYJR PYM AHT KH TYSH SST JMJM WSBYH KHNJM JSAW SBYH SWPRWT HJBLJM LPNJ HARWN WBJWM HSBJYJ TSBW AT HYJR SBY PYMJM WHKHNJM JTQYW BSWPRWT And he (Joshua) instructed the people, Go forward, march around the city, with the vanguard marching in front of the Ark of the Lord (Joshua 6:7, the Tanakh translation) WJAMR AL HYM YBRW WSBW AT HYJR WHHLWZ JYBR LPNJ HARWN H. This episode of Jericho notices Israelite arranging of a march of larger people, or whole Israelite army. Every one recognises the enormous military dangers of such proceeding that usually is here thought. That sounding of the horns would have revealed their location to the defenders quite exactly and thus given easy opportunities for arranging ambushes and launching huge number of missiles and projectile upon thus advancing troops. We remember that city Jericho was in those ancient times flourishing and well equipped and certainly technologically militarily well advanced, equipped with then known defensive devises and well equipped defending troops. The Israelite occupation of Jericho has been historically studied with archaeological remains; and also historicity of this episode is in research much discussed. Importantly, here is advancing of troops described with the SBB word (WSBTM AT HYJR, TSBW AT HYJR). Such SB is movement of those troops with regard to the city Jericho and the arranging of troops includes the Ark. The Joshua 6:7 specifies how the HHLWZH goes in front of the Ark; and the Tanakh comprehends them as vanguards. Importantly, the LWZ notices in Biblical Hebrew to bend, turn or twist (J 696); and we notice that MLJSH notices generally some water pots, such as even used as cooking vessels (J 790). These officials of Israelite troops HHLWZ who were marching in front of thus advancing troops were officials connected with water-pots and “twisting and turning”; and they were thus directing this SBB Israelite marching around the city Jericho. In the current discussion of finding directions for voyages, we notice how these HHLWZH officials advancing in front of troops were apparently using some device water pot with “twisting and turning”; apparently they were using some form of ancient compass to facilitate this SBB advancing of the Israelite troops in this situation. (Readers certainly remember also the Halachic important HALIZAH ritual or “removing the shoe” concerning marriage). Traditions of Arabic notice the very usual verb JALA that notices different spatial movements such as roaming, wandering and roving, wandering about and moving around (176); and this Arabic JALA is in written Arabic clearly related with this HHLWZH of Hebrew and Aramaic. but in Arabic traditions the word JALABA also deserves now special notion: the JALABA in modern parlance notices to bring to the spot, to bring- and notoriously also to attract (J 153). This noun also denotes the famous rose water (JULAB). Importantly, Arabic noun HILB notices different iron devices of boats, anchors, grapnels and boat hooks (1268) so that also magnetised piece of iron used as compass needle can in some traditions have been denoted HILB The episode of marching notoriously describes how priests were operating the SWPRWT HJWBLJM, shofars of ram horns. Use of magnetic material in compass to help bring travellers to certain direction is founded on the notorious fact that the magnetic needle remarkably is always attracted towards north. Comparing the role of officials HHLWZH in Israelite SBB marching in Jericho areas thus is much enhanced noticing also current Arabic traditions of JALA wandering and more determined travelling JALABA: thee officials were apparently using some kind of compass to direct their travel. However, hereby is nothing said concerning the constitution of the Ark. This episode of march in the surroundings of Jericho thus clearly describes Old Testament tradition of use of a device of compass to direct marching. The Psalm 6 also interestingly writes HLZ together with SB verb. thus we find written in Ps 6:5 that SWBH H HLZH NPSJ HWSJYNJ LMYN HSDK Interestingly here is written of SWBH and Tetragrammaton, and the HLZH. Tanakh now renders: Lord, turn! Rescure me! Deliver as befits Your faithfulness. We find interesting traditions also in the Greek Septuagint translation where is rendered that EPISTREPSON KURIE RUSAI TEN PSUKHEN MOU SOOSON ME ENEKEN TOU ELEOUS SOU Greek translation here writes of the EPI-STREPO and renders with RUO now discussed HLZH, with the RUSAI form. We shall now especially remember that Septuagint translation was often read in congregations where many members were prolific speakers of Greek and Semitic languages, at least some Aramaic. This Aorist form RUSAI of the Greek RUO for such bilingual Semitic speakers denotes divine saving, especially in that He brings to R-S safe haven. Notably begins the Septuagint rendering with HUPER TEES OGODES thus rendering the BNGJNWT YL HSMNJT (Sheminit). Ancient readers found clear allusion to directing the way, AGO and ODOS, so that device compass that leads the way thus may be alluded to. For these ancient speakers this SWBH H HLZH in Psalm 6:5 and its Greek Septuagint rendering EPISTREPSON KURIE RUSAI TEN PSUKHEN MOU specifically notices how God rescues soul by bringing the soul to R-S safe haven, like compass aiding finding securely the right way to safe haven. Safe havens denoted R-S are immensely important- later in the current study is more discussed the important ancient fact that word Jerus-salem was a NOUN denoting generally safe havens, the word Jerus-salem was NOT a proper name denoting one specific city such as most of current Readers presume. Indeed, large number of still currently existing main Mediterranean harbours are monuments of this important fact: Tarsus in Turkey, Pireas the harbour of Athens in current times and in historic times, Marseille, Barcelona; and every Reader now remembers the world famous Pharos leading the way to harbour of enormously important Mediterranean Alexandria. This is importantly noticed also in the following Psalm 7 writing of the HLZ, the 7:5 noticing WAHLZH ZWRRJ RJQM where is also the HLZH word with Z-R word written. Importantly, here is clearly written of the Reqemite empire noticing the RJQM. Interestingly, Psalm 7:8 notices the SB writing that WYDT LAMJM TSWBBK WYLJH LMRWM SWBH. In the Old Testament, HLZH and SB have important connection. We read interesting details of description of larger military campaign of kings of Israel, Judah and Edom in 2 Kings 3. There write the 2 Kings 3:8-9 that WAMR AJ ZH DRK NYLH WJAMR DRK MDBR ADWM. WJLK MLK JSRAL WMLK JHWDH WMLK ADWM WJSBW DRK SBYT JMJM Here is noticed questioning the route for proceeding of their troops AJ ZH DRK NYLH, and their proceeding along this route is noticed WJSBW DRK. Questioning for the route and this SB proceeding here apparently notice how SB compass was directing their proceeding. Ancient histories of travelling of troops and armies are in the Old Testament usual episodes where description of methods and arrangements of ancient travelling are written; this is apparently part of ancient Israelite and Judahite historiography. Interesting description for current study is also in 2 Samuel 24 written. This chapter describes first how David´s commander Joab with his nearest staff went around to estimate number of male population. Their journey across these lands was truly extensive, lasting more than nine months, and they went around in Judah and in Israel. These staff were SRJ HHL designated officers; but we notice here really important detail alluding to HLZH ascribed to these officers that WYL SRJ HHL WJZA JWAB WSRJ HHL LPNJ HMLK LPQD HYM. Even if these officers are here named SRJ HHL, here mentioned SRJ HHL WJZA that is exactly the HLWZA so important in 2 Samuel 24:4. Apparently these officers SRJ HHL were also trained in navigating and directing the routes, thus reasonably SRJ HHLWJZA who knew of methods of finding routes. Concerning their travelling in northern regions, in areas of Tyr and Sidon is notably written in 2 Samuel 24:7 WJBAW DNH JYN WSBJB AL ZJDWN WJBAW MBZR ZWR We notice that in these northern regions their travelling is noticed WSBJB; and notably the Tanakh translation renders “and around to Sidon” but emphasises in comments that “meaning of Heb uncertain”. In these northern regions of Sidon and Tyre these commanders may rather have SBB travelled with compass. Notably thus commander Joab with these officers conducted in Judah and in Israel truly large travel, and their special ability to travel reliably to various locations is actually here indicated in SRJ HHL WJZA that becomes in lectio continua HHLWJZA or the specific HLWZA. The book of Neviim concludes the Hebrew Bible with prophesy of Malachi 3:23 importantly promising sending of prophet ELIJAH HNH ANKJ SLH LKM AT ALJH (Elijah) HNBJA LPNJ BWA JWM H HGDWL WHNWRA WHSJB Now we see importantly that here prophesy of Malachi promises sending of prophet ELIJAH and noticed his doing WHSJB. We also notice that Malachi 3:1 writes HNNJ SLH MLAKJ WPNH DRK LPNJ WPTAM JBWA AL HJKLW Here God promises his sending his angel who shall prepare the way before God; and this angel suddenly comes to the Temple. These formulas in Malachi 3:1 and 3:23 are apparently connected in writings of HNH ANKJ SLH…LPNJ and HNNJ SLH…LPNJ. Now God promises sending the angel before him to prepare the way; and promise of Malachi 3:23 promises sending of prophet Elijah who shall do HSJB. This doing HSJB is apparently understandable when noticed that apparently so is described use of compass for finding direction for voyages, reading direction towards north in bowl visions. Current SAB discussion thus makes quite easily understandable this doing of divine angel and prophet Elijah, preparing way by reading direction towards north in compass style bowl visioning. Now this tradition of Malachi 3:1 is very central tradition of New Testament Gospels describing work of John the Baptist. Importantly is written in Luke 7:27 how Jesus with quoting this Malachi 3:1 described the activity of John the Baptist and similarly writes Matthew 11:10; these texts quote Greek Septuagint translation of Malachi 3:1 in same words that is of much importance- often in quotations they make small but ideologically hugely important modifications, the words are IDOU EGO APOSTELLOO TON AGGELON MOU PRO PROSOOPOU SOU OS KATASKEUASEI TEN ODON SOU EMPROSTHEN SOU Here we encounter truly important questions concerning Greek Septuagint translation and the manner how Gospel tradition quotes Greek Bible translation from those traditions known to their groups, Septuagint tradition namely here writes that IDOU EGO EKSAPOSTELLOO TON AGGELON MOU KAI EPIBLEPSETAI ODON PRO PROSOOPOU SOU KAI EKSAIFNES EEKSEI EIS TON NAON EAUTOU This is in the MSS well supported (Rahlfs) and likewise is the Greek quotation in Matthew and Luke also well supported in Gospel MSS, especially we do not find in Gospel MSS variants really comparable with the apparently slightly different Greek translation of Malachi 3:1 in Septuagint tradition. Rather the Gospel tradition now has actually read the words IDOU EGO APOSTELLOO TON AGGELON MOU PRO PROSOOPOU SOU in Greek Septuagint translation of Exodus 23:20 that is now verbatim followed. And the latter part of this statement in Gospels is quoted from Greek translation of Malachi 3:1 writing of KAI EPIBLEPSETAI ODON PRO PROSOPOU SOU whereas Gospels write OS KATASKEUASEI TEN ODON SOU EMPROSTHEN SOU- this is apparently paraphrased from Malachi 3:1 and not from Exodus 23:20. These are normal and quite usual questions in study of New Testament Gospels and their manner of quoting of some Greek Bible translations. Several special studies have examined closely quotations in New Testament Gospels. Importantly, also Gospel tradition thus has read together Malachi 3 and Exodus 23:20, traditions of divine leading of their way. After these somewhat more technical details of Gospel research we now proceed to more considering some very important details of the current study. Jesus of Nazareth is in Gospels presented as having described activity of John the Baptist thus in words OS KATASKEUASEI TEN ODON SOU EMPROSTHEN SOU Often this Greek KATASKEUAZO is rendered with its usual neutral meaning denoting some style of preparing and making advance preparations. John thereby is regarded as the forerunner who thus somehow prepared the way of Jesus, e.g. by preaching sp that preaching by Jesus could find some more audience. But Greek translation of Malachi 3:1 writes EPIBLEPSETAI ODON PRO PROSOPOU SOU, and such EPIBLEPO quite concretely describes some activity of concrete seeing. Considering this tradition, John would have concretely EPIBLEPO seen and observed the way that was in front of Jesus. Notoriously the Gospels here rather write of the KATASKEUADZO; this word is not found in Exodus 23:20 and its context, so that such KATASKEUADZO clearly notices important detail. How are these activities of KATASKEUAZO and EPIBLEPO concerning “way” comparable? We now think of use of compass: through glass bowl a road indeed can be observed and seen, and especially the proper direction can be detected with observing the bowl that acts as compass, a magnetic needle floating on the water. Thus is apparently the EPIBLEPO quite appropriate, and KATASKEUAZO can denote concrete seeing through the bowl, KATA SKEUE. Importantly this is now well supported in attentive reading of Malachi 3, the 3:1 and concluding 3:23 being apparently comparable, and the 3:23 importantly emphasises that prophet Elijah is to SWB. This is now clearly seen as indicating Elijah having used bowl divination to make compass reading to see proper direction to travel. The current study so emphatically finds attested SB and SAB use of magnets and compass in Biblical tradition to indicate finding proper direction. We find thus importantly attested that Malachi 3:1 and its important New Testament quoting in Gospel tradition describe activity of John the Baptist as the forerunner of Jesus of Nazareth was- to indicate direction of the road to travel. In the developments of Christian dogma, status of Jesus the son was all-important and thus his overwhelming knowledge and insight were emphasised; presenting John the Baptist as clever specialist of directing travelling of Jesus and his followers and advising good road for travel would have been apparently much less plausible – thus such details drowned in forgetfulness in developments of Christian dogma of the Son. Also here we are profoundly wondering how life of Jesus of Nazareth was developed into the high KURIOS Christology and metaphysical philosophical speculations of the Son, ideological although ahistorical bulwark of Christian state religion. Indeed the narrations of Roman state Christian religion and exalted high KURIOS Christology operates in completely profoundly different illusory level than the original life of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the old reliable New Testament traditions. This aims not to deny the achievements of those usually Platonising speculations of Christian Fathers; but rather remind readers of their philosophical character. Also specialist of Alexandrian allegorical interpretative methods especially so magnificent in Biblical interpretations of Philo of Alexandria, the current Author Pasi K. Pohjala wishes here to alert Readers to consider specially the historical realities of Jesus of Nazareth and first followers. Apparently thus New Testament Gospels in quoting Malachi 3:1 to describe activity of John the Baptist emphasise that John was particular specialist of reliably finding the travelling way with using compass. Readers should here also seriously consider that the famous JINN were famously clear travellers both across seas and in land; Arabic Quranic traditions and interpretations and folklore of JINN are numerous. But role of John helping the travelling of Jesus of Nazareth and his followers with compass was in later discussions forgotten when the exalted special role of JESUS and KURIOS Christology were developed and accepted in the dogma. But references to Malachi 3:1 make here quite clear that concrete seeing of the road was thus indicated, especially in the 3:23 emphasised SWB activity of prophet Elijah- the SAB noticing magnets and compasses. Activity of JOHN thus helping directing travels of Jesus and his followers have thus important comparison in the famous JINNIM; also New Testament Johannine literature does more emphasise such details. Especially Second Letter of John writes much of travelling and voyages stating PERIPATOUNTES EN ALETHEIA; INA PERIPATOOME KATA TAS ENTOLAS AUTOU and writes of PLANAO, and notably writes of PROAGOON. We thus conclude that Jesus of Nazareth is presented in Gospels having described activity of forerunner John the Baptist in quoting Malachi 3:1 in statement that praises John’s clever use of compass for directing the way; and in this finds echoes to famous JINN. Seafarers found important the arrival and staying in quiet anchorage of safe havens and harbours. We find numerous important Quranic traditions of harbour and safe havens for seafarers. Sura HUD describes also history of Noah and his floating rescue and arrival to safe haven. However, the episode of Hebrew Bible telling histories of Noah and Ark are of such detail more silent; thus the Quranic tradition of histories of Noah now deserves some more attention. Sura HUD 11:41 writes: And he (Nuh/Noah) said: “Embark therein: in the Name of Allah will be its (moving) course and its (resting) anchorage. Surely, my Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (interpretation: M. M. Khan) The Quranic word MURSAHA here writes of such anchorage of that Ark of Noah. Also in modern Arabic language verb RASA notices to be steady, stable and firm (393) and the derived noun MARSAN (pl. MARASIN) notices anchorage. And several cities are called MERSA combined with some specifying names or nouns; and the peaceful greeting SALAM is in Arabic and Islamic culture truly usual. We notice thus such important traditions of anchorages, safe havens and even cities. Also is of interest how the Sura HUD describes Noah coming to land from the Ark after coming to this anchorage, the Sura HUD notices in 11:48 that: It was said: “O Nuh (Noah)! Come down (from the ship) with peace from Us and blessings on you and on the people who are with you (interpretation: M. M. Khan – Muhammad T. Al-Hilali) Thus are Noah and his companions arriving to land greeted with the SALAM greeting, wishing him and his companions Peace. We thus notice that in this Sura HUD is noticed how Noah ´s ark arrives at safe anchorage MURSAHA and upon landing Noah and his companions are greeted with the SALAM wish for peace upon them. Reading here the MURSAHA and SALAM together we now importantly notice similarity with the name JERUS-SALEM, the JERUSALEM. Readers now readily also refer to numerous famous Mediterranean harbours, such as Pireas, ancient Greek harbour of Athens whose naval empire was especially high esteemed, the harbour Pireas being still in our times one of busiest Mediterranean harbours. Important ancient hub is also Tarsus of Turkey, important area with harbour connecting there to many landroutes. Readers remember also in Western Mediterranean still important harbours Marseille and Barcelona (especially here is echoed R-S and C-L-N thus similarly to Jerus-salem). Jerus-salem is noun for safe havens, both along landroutes and safe havens as safe anchorages; the Jerus-salem is not proper noun designating one specific geographic place or city as currently is often considered. We thus understand that special emphasising of holiness and status one city Jerusalem located in current Israel thus is unnecessary and without historical motivation; rather we encounter in Bible episodes and histories concerning numerous safe anchorages and harbours and numerous safe havens for travelling along landroutes. Much motivations of emphasising holy status of one city Jerusalem, that located in current Israel, can be traced back to developments of Christianity as Roman state religion: this Christianity was presented as fulfilment of Old Testament prophesies so that the Old Testament God had to be properly recognised. Emphasising the increasingly powerful status of Roman imperial administration and Bishop of Rome with Christian histories were enhanced by references to somewhat similar very centralised Old Testament religious cult in the supposed ONE holy city, Jerusalem. Emphasising the churchly power of Bishop of Rome and attempts to centralise churchly power to Rome were also legitimised by attempts to refer to imagined history of centralised cult of the Old Testament God in the ONE Holy city Jerusalem. We become liberated from these misrepresentations in recognising that Jerus-salem is noun designating generally numerous safe harbours and safe havens in sea and land travel! We consider now also concisely the prominent Old Testament episode of Ark of Noah, merely those details that are in the current discussion clearly important. We notice that Genesis 8:4 states WTNH HTBH BHDS HSBJYJ BSBYH YSR JWM LHDS YL HRJ ARRT (Ararat) This mysterious statement of landing of the Ark of Noah is rendered in Tanakh in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat (Tanakh translation of Gen 8:4) Numerous speculations and archaeological expeditions have been conducted to plausibly identify this mysterious mountainous area where the Ark may have set ashore. However, important indication is the name Ararat. Quite typical feature of Semitic languages is vacillation of letters T and S; this feature quite often is noticed in comparisons of Hebrew and Aramaic expressions. Especially, this mythological description of voyage of the Ark of Noah certainly reflects very ancient traditions; and important comparisons have been made with Gilgamesh. Now we notice in this expression of Hebrew Bible this name ARARAT designating the place where Ark landed- noticing simply the S/T vacillation we recognise ARARAS- notably, this is similar to here discussed Quranic notice in Sura HUD 11:41 that the Ark rested on MURSAHA anchorage – these are formed of the R-S or RAS roots. We emphasise now strongly that this result of finding ARARAS word in the usually attested ARARAT word in Hebrew Bible Genesis 8:4 is done with the very usual and standard followed method of recognising vacillation of S and T letters in Hebrew and Aramaic versions of words. We thus can conclude great similarity of designating the coming to rest of Ark of Noah in Genesis 8:4 where ARARAT is written, with Quranic notice in SURA HUD 11:41 where is noticed Ark coming to MURSAHA anchorage. And these both emphasise recognising Jerus-salem being designation of safe havens, anchorages and harbours. We simply notice here ARARAT and ARARAS and MURSAHA anchorage; and so are the traditions of Hebrew Bible and Quran notoriously comparable. Some considerations of writings of name Ararat in Hebrew Bible and ancient translations increasingly emphasise these understandings. Jeremiah 51:27 notices Appoint nations against her, Assemble kingdoms against her- Ararat, Minni and Ashkenaz (Tanakh) Greek Septuagint translation here attests ancient considerations concerning such vacillation of letters S and T, writing that PARAGGEILATE EP AUTEN BASILEIAIS ARARAT PAR EMOU KAI TOIS ASKANAZAIOIS (Septuagint; the ancient vacillating spelling of names, usually seen also in ancient Greek Bible translations, is attested also in Cod Alexandrinus writing ARARETH, the ARARAT following the usually well recognised L). In this ancient Greek statement is the plural dative written in BASILEIAIS and TOIS ASKANAZAIOIS and the S ending now alerts Readers to consider also such for the ARARAT word; this clearly attests notices of speculating of ARARAS, thus similarly with here already discussed. Notably here prophesy of Jeremiah 51 (the Chapter 28 in Septuagint) does notice Jerusalem in discussing sea, the LXX Jer 28: 35-36 noticing IEROUSALEM DIA TOUTO LEGEI KURIOS IDOU EGO KRINO… KAI EREMOSO TEN THALASSAN AUTES KAI KSERANO Here is noticed Jerusalem and THALASSA sea. The KSERANO notices concerning KSERA dry land and EREMOS notices dry wilderness and generally notices withdrawal; we find here in this statement of LXX Jeremias 28:35-36 notice of Jerusalem, and reference to coming to dry land (KSERANO) and withdrawal EREMOO to dry areas, echoing also coming to harbour from sailing.
Pasi K Pohjala December 12, 2012. Study of Ancient Navigation, Use of Compass described in Bible Verre et Bible. NAVIGATION WITH SIGNALS Old Testament clearly attests ancient developed knowledge of navigating with compass, magnetic needle indicating there direction towards north. Placed in water bowl, such magnetic needle operates quite in manner of current compass. Bowl divination thus included also reading direction towards north by observing floating magnetic needle in bowl. We notice that for ancient Arabic and Mediterranean seafare use of compass was certainly especially effective when geography of important regions is more considered. Glimpse on map alerts easily that the direction of Red Sea is along quite straight direction from northeast to southeast: thus use of compass in ancient Arabic seafare in Red Sea was certainly recognised to be especially effective. And Mediterranean coastal line from shores of Gaza and ancient naval hubs of Sinai towards shores of ancient Ugarit and southern Turkey is quite directed along southwest towards northeast. Sailing in such seas between havens located in such coasts was remarkably effectively aided by use of compass. We remember that from times ancient, Egyptian rulers practised also extensive Mediterranean seafare, often with Phoenician sailors and captains. Sailors truly were living difficult life: sailing along coastal line with coast in sight could be comprehended preferable because in high sea an ancient ship is quite diminutive and quite lost among wind and waves. However, sailing near coastal line with coast visible included the truly horrible danger of shipwreck in underwater rocks that are so numerous nearer to coastal line- especially navigating with ancient ships amidst furore of winds and storms was never so precise that currently engine driven ships precisely guided with gps satellite technology do achieve. Use of compass thus could liberate ancient sailors from sailing dangerously near to coastal line where numerous underwater rocks hampered voyages. And use of compass in sailing in the Red Sea and along Levantine coastal line was specially effective for their being thus straight directed. For comprehending better Old Testament it is notoriously important to recognise that usually ships are called MERKAVOT in Arabic seafare. Indeed, the Arabic word MERKAVA is one of the most usual Arabic words denoting ships. This is straightforward noticed, and for comprehension of Hebrew Bible this Arabic MERKAVA tradition is notoriously apt and important. It is noteworthy that in Rabbinic Judaism MERKAVA mysticism is one important feature of mystical speculation; and ancient Jewish literature of MERKAVA mysticism is quite large. We remember of course, that large Rabbinical Jewish populations flourished in ancient Arabic speaking areas, also in times of Islam, and most of them quite well knew much Arabic language, so that then usual word MERKAVA designating ships in ancient Arabic seafare was to them known. Currently, however, reading of RKB (rakaba) verb and MERKABA noun in reading Hebrew Bible and Aramaic translations and interpretations is concentrating noticing events of dry land. Readers recognise currently usual tenets of verb RAKABA that so is noticed mounting and riding a horse, chariot or war chariot; and noun MERKABA designates chariots. Readers straightforwardly find this current consensus represented in important lexica. But also is famous episode concerning the Sea in Old Testament the episode of Exodus where Israel travelled amidst the Sea of Reeds (Exodus 14-15). Readers well remember the usual comprehension of this central Old Testament event: folk Israel were liberated from Egypt and came to the shore of Sea of Reeds, pursued by troops of Pharaoh. Miraculously, then God opened the route to Israel amidst the Sea- Israel was walking across the sea as if on dry ground; but waves came back and drowned Pharaoh´s troos pursuing Israelites. These are the main tenets of episode of rescue of Israel across Sea of Reeds. This is famous Old Testament episode concerning sea, the Sea of Reeds. The Exodus 15 the famous Song of the Sea that Israelites sang after being thus miraculously divinely rescued. Here writes Exodus 15:4-5 that The Lord, the Warrior- Lord is His name! Pharaoh´s chariots (MERKAVOT) and his army He has cast into the sea; And the pick of his officers are drowned in the Sea of Reeds. The deeps covered them; They went down into the depths like a stone. (Tanakh translation) Pharaoh´s chariots, MERKAVOT, drowned in the Sea of Reeds according to this currently usual reading. Of course, chariots MERKAVOT are designed for land battles, and this currently quite usual reading notices situation where such chariots drown in seas. However, recognising Arabic usual tenet that MERKABA noun designates ships, dramatically changes reading of this episode. MERKAVOT SHIPS of course are appropriate vehicles of transportation across a sea. We read in Hebrew Bible this description that H AJS MLHMH H SMW MRKBT PRYH WHJLW JRH BJM WMBHR SLSJW TBYW BJM SWP In the Hebrew Bible these words in the song of the Sea are truly notorious: here are MERKAVOT noticed and verb TBY is written, this especially referring to Biblical seafare, because the Ark of Noah in Hebrew Bible is called the TEBA. We find thus straightforwardly here interesting description that God carried Pharaoh´s MERKAVOT warships with their troops on sea, and Pharaoh´s troops thus sailed (TBYW, cf. TEBA the name of Ark of Noah) on the Sea of Reeds!! Readers with reading Hebrew knowledge are strongly encouraged to take in front of them this text written in Hebrew, preferably unvocalised consonantal writing, and nothing else than that, and some time seriously contemplate the meaning of those consonants that convey to us these so important ancient traditions. Considering usual Arabic word MERKAVA that usually designates different ships thus brings to Readers ability to quite naturally comprehend this tradition of Sea of Reeds- there are described sailing of Pharaoh´s warships and troops across the Sea of Reeds in MERKAVA warships. Importantly, large Rabbinically oriented ancient Jewish communities were living in Arabic speaking areas, and for them this interpretation was, of course, evident. Greek Septuagint translation of these descriptions of the Song of the Sea are also notorious and important. Greek translation of Exodus 15:1 reads TOTE EESEN MOUSES KAI OI HUIOI ISRAEL TEN OODEEN TAUTEN TO THEO (dat) KAI EIPAN LEGONTES AISOOMEN TO KURIO (dat) ENDOKSOOS GAR DEDOKSASTAI HIPPON KAI ANABATEEN ERRIPSEN EIS THALASSAN Here this Greek Septuagint tradition translates the Hebrew ASJRH LH KJ GAH GAH (gao gaa) SWS WRKBW RMH BJM Already we noticed here 15:4 writing of MERKAVOT PHARAOH in Hebrew Bible in the statement that MRKBT PRYH WHJLW JRH BJM and we noticed that ancient speakers with knowledge of sailing practises of Eastern regions, or old Arabic seafare, here in 15:4 recognised promptly description that God brought upon sea ships and troops of Pharaoh, the MERKABA in old Arabic seafare practises noticing ships. It is only logical and fully understandable to every reader to say that ships and troops sailing on ships were coming upon seas; and speakers may well ascribe this to powerful acts of God. Here in Exodus 15:1 the Hebrew Bible writes of RKB, thus of the MERKABA tradition. Importantly, Septuagint here translates HIPPON KAI ANABATEEN ERRIPSEN EIS THALASSAN. This Greek translation becomes importantly understandable more considering Greek seafare traditions: important type of PHOENICIAN SHIPS were in old Greek parlance called HIPPOS, mostly motivated for the specific decorations on the stem of those ships, looking like horse heads. Recognising thus HIPPOS designating important famous class of Phoenician ships, it is indeed appropriate to state that such HIPPOS ships are set on sea (RIPTO, aor ERRIPSEN). Of course the noun HIPPOS usually denotes the domestic animals horses; but THIS context of the famous Song of the Sea specifically writes of issues concerning sea. Thus IN THIS context of this Greek Septuagint translation it is indeed appropriate to comprehend the HIPPOS as denoting ships, motivated by the usual designation of famous type of Phoenician ships as HIPPOI. It is really logical thus to say in Greek that HIPPON KAI ANABATEN ERRIPSEN EIS THALASSAN; thus is described how ships and those people on board were brought floating upon sea. Here is written of ANA-BAINO form ANABATES that quite generally denotes those on board a ship; but in the ancient CONTEXT of Hellenistic world Readers undoubtedly recognised here ANABATEN referring specifically to NABATEANS. This Septuagint translation thus praises God for having brought on sea boats of Pharaoh and those on board, specifically designated as NABATEANS. We remember that Egyptians much employed people with good naval experience in their ships- and this poem of Sea of Reeds now notices Pharaoh´s HIPPOS boats and NABATEANS on board, probably as navigating specialists; and ANABATEN including practically everyone on board. We also remember that usually OT Hebrew writes NHG to denote to drive, conduct and to do charioteering (BDB 624); thus understandably here Hebrew Bible begins this ancient poetry with ASJRA LH (to God) KJ GAH GAH (gao gaa). Thus is God praised being leader of Egyptian naval forces- that God brought ships and those on board upon sea. However, after the complete defeat of Actium, praises of Egyptian naval forces were obviously considerably rare and such prejudice still in our times hampers to hear this praise of Egyptian naval power and God leading the Egyptian powerful navy. Here also the 15:7 writes in Hebrew Bible that WBRB GAWNK THRS QMJK This is in the Tanakh rendered In Your great triumph You break Your opponents It is certainly difficult to fully appreciate this powerful ancient poetry and its profound wisdom. However, we notice the following. Here is usually read vocalisation BEROB, “with much, by much” but we also may wonder if vocalisation RAB could be appropriate- the Consonantal Script is hallowed but vocalisation merely follows tradition and is often in interpretations speculated and changed. Reading vocalisation RAB in this poetry of ancient Song of the Sea considering matters of seafare and naval battles is of course specially appropriate- in traditions of Arabic seafare one noun designating captain of ship is namely: RAB. Already is noticed that Jerus-salem is a noun designating many safe havens, the Quranic tradition of Sura HUD 11:41 emphasising MURSAHA as the safe anchorage of the Ark of Noah and this noun still currently designating safe havens and harbours. The currently agreed lexical rendering of HRS of course describes destruction and breaking; but in this ancient Poem Song of the Sea certainly this THRS describes how God brings to safe harbour. We thus discover that this statement notices how: God with his skilled Captain with much knowledge (GAON) brings his own folk safely to harbour This poem Song of the Sea begins ASJRA LH KJ GAH GAH noticing how God leads or drives forward such forces (NHG). ELIJAH; Malachi 2:16 Malachi 2:16 writes in Hebrew Bible that KJ SNA SLH AMR JHWH Also we find written in Malachi 3:1 that HNNJ SLH MLAKJ WPNH DRK LPNJ WPTAM JBWA AL HJKLW HADWN Now we consider the SLH here described, this notices some style of “sending”. Attentive reading of these statements notices written HNNJSLH and NASLH where is written specifically of NSL and NSLH. Notoriously, this word has specific meaning of bringing to harbour. We read in Quran Sura Al-Muminun in the 23:29 in Quranic description of histories of Noah and his sailing that RABBI! ANZLINI MUNZALAN MUBARAKAN WANTA KHAIRUN ALMUNZILIN “My Lord! Cause me to land at a blessed landing place, for You are the best of those who bring to land” (interpretation by M.M.Khan and Muhammad Al-Hilali) The verb NAZALA has many various meanings, and meanings designating landing of ship, embarking and disembarking are important (1122). Malachi 3:1 so emphatically describes travelling and travel arrangements, so also New Testament traditions where Jesus of Nazareth by quoting Malachi 3:1 is noticed having described activity of forerunner John the Baptist. Comparison with 3:23 already emphasised that John´s activity SWB describes his clever finding the way and directing travel to proper destination. In these statements of 2:16 and 3:1 now we recognise the NSLH that apparently is comparable with this Quranic tradition of NAZALA bringing to harbour, bringing to landing place MUNZALA. ABRAHAM Old Testament religion much begins with narratives of histories of Abraham, or Ibrahim. Interpretations of the name Abraham are numerous in Midrashic literature, and very often noticed interpretation finds in the name Abraham reference to father of mercy, AB- RHM. Important Old Testament episode was of course the change of name of ABRAM to ABRAHAM; and many interpreters write quite much discussion of such change of name as indicating more fundamental truths. Also Philo of Alexandria wrote comprehensively of Abraham especially in treaties De Migratione and De Abrahamo, and current Author Pasi K Pohjala has been during years devoting much consideration to various details in these magnificent although quite difficult interpretations, even in philosophical meaning quite elaborate and difficult. We consider now some details in the Old Testament episodes of Abraham. Everyone remembers that Abraham is famous traveller. Old Testament episodes commence with the LEKH LEKH that usually are comprehended indicating divine commandment to Abraham to commence his journey. The Genesis writes then lengthy and elaborate histories of travels of Abraham. The current study in Verre et Bible series is studying Book of Malachi and ancient methods of travelling, navigating. Thus we certainly shall notice histories of Abraham also in the current study somewhat elaborate. Abraham is often in interpretations presented being well learned in much of ancient Chaldean science, especially astronomy, and many interpretations notice his specialist observations having aided his finding routes for travelling. Also in this study we shortly consider questions that what did Abraham observe, and how did Abraham direct his routes in his travels. We thus consider some questions of ancient lighthouses, and methods of directing routes with observing light from lighthouses. Histories of Abraham begin in Genesis 12, notably after the episode of building the huge tower in Genesis 11. Many interpreters bypass connection of these episodes: namely, in Arabic language usual word for tower is the BURJ. For Semitic and especially Arabic speakers thus are obviously connected the episodes of Genesis 11 describing building the huge tower (Arabic BURJ) and there described scattering of that people around in their ancient world, and Genesis 12 describing then how ABRAHAM began his journeying in LEKH LEKH episode- important connection is exactly found in the name ABRAHAM where also echo to BURJ is heard. Then we notice of course, that the RHM or RAHAM in the name Abraham usually is rendered to denote mercy and merciful character. But travelling terminology of Arabic language knows important meaning of RAHMAN- this word denotes travel directories and some style of ancient travel aides or maps. Recognising these Arabic traditions of BURJ towers and RAHMAN travel aides and planners we recognise that the name Abraham presents this patriarch as specialist of system of towers that were aiding travellers to find their proper routes. Apparently thus are noticed ancient lighthouses whose light greatly could direct travellers towards that city or town. We especially remember that Arabic noun Minaret denotes also LIGHTHOUSES; and this Arabic noun Minaret also denotes the minaret towers of mosques. In Islamic culture the Minarets are very usual feature built with mosques; and in dark times currently Minarets are notably beautifully enlightened so that Minaret towers of Mosques in night times are also beautifully enlightened lighthouses whose light in ancient times could really well help ancient travellers to find their direction. Importantly, the word Minaret is of same Semitic root as the Hebrew word MENORAH, the famous lampstand of the Temple, so important also in the current times that the MENORAH is the symbol in state emblem of current Zionist Israel. Profoundly regrettably although so descriptively to the current Israel Palestinian conflict, numerous Palestinian families settled there since old times and worshipping in the Mosques and Minarets, have been unjustly driven to exile and Zionist state emblem Menorah become prominent in those regions. Abraham is important Biblical traveller who could successfully travel lengthy journeys towards the Promised Land and in that Promised Land; and often is his success connected with his special knowledge of Chaldean astronomy so that he could direct his journeys with looking at the stars. Certainly Abraham indeed was great traveller who successfully travelled apparently in quite distances; and his name including BURJ RAHMAN notices his special knowledge of directing travel with help of lighthouses that guide the way of travellers. We read in Quran the SURA 85 BURUJ- The Big Stars, this Sura beginning By the heaven holding the Big Stars (interpretation of M.M.Khan- Muhammad al-Hilali) Moreover, 85:3 notices WASAHID WAMASHUD, or By the Witnessing day and by the Witnessed Day; this notices visions and observations. The SAHADA widely notices meanings of witnessing, observing, seeing (570ff). We notice that here is written of Big Stars BURUJ; and thus it is especially noteworthy that SURA BURUJ 85:5-6 writes ALNAR DAT ALWAQUD ID HUM ALAIHA QU’UD Of Fire fed with fuel When they sat by it (fire) (interpretation M.M.Khan-Muhammad al-Hilali) Truly notably this SURA BURUJ writes of “big Stars” and writes of a fire fed with fuel. Importantly, the BURJ notices “towers” and here written NAR root also forms the MINARET. The QA’ADA does denote to sit and be sitting (912) BUT Arabic QADA word (930) quite differently notices to lead, conduct, guide and to steer, in modern times noticing steering cars, vehicles and even airplanes. Comprehended with this QADA, the SURA BURUJ 85:5-6 notices FIRE FED WITH FUEL; WHEN THEIR MOVEMENT WERE GUIDED BY THAT (fire) We find thus in SURA BURUJ notable description how there was big fire in such tower, fire fed with fuel and that this fire was steering travel of those who observed this fire. Also this huge light could be denoted a BIG STAR. The name of this SURA BURUJ now apparently echoes the name of Abraham; and in tradition Abraham was especially famous traveller who was specialist of Chaldean science of observing stars. We comprehend that Abraham was indeed specialist of observing stars of heavens (cf. e.g. Sura An Najm); but also very importantly, this traveller Abraham was specialist of observing the BIG FIRE-LIGHTS IN TOWERS that guided paths of travellers, or MINARET LIGHTS. Considering ancient circumstances makes of course clear that light from towers (Minarets) of cities indeed much steered the travel of travellers; and light from lighthouses or Minarets of coastal line also importantly guided seafarers. We should now remember that Jewish faith and Islam strictly emphasise that God is One (In Quran e.g. so emphasised in Sura Tauhid, SURA 112), writing that God is AHAD. This oneness of God notices His oneness numerically and qualitatively, His absolute oneness. Moreover, in the current discussion it is also important to regard that verb HUDA notices steering and guiding travellers and movements. New Testament Readers remember the famous episode of birth of Jesus of Nazareth and the visit of the magicians coming to greet this newborn, told in the Matthew 2. This episode of Matthew 2 is notorious in numerous details; and for the current discussion now is notable mention that the “star of Bethlehem” guided the travel of magicians in their coming to greet newborn Jesus. Really numerous speculations have been presented in scholarly discussions for this Star of Bethlehem. Numerous studies have been discussing special heavenly events, proposed having formed the specially bright star in heavens; even many academically learned scholars have been calculating of times of such special heavenly event. In the current discussion we recognise that he Star of Bethlehem apparently was the signal fire that was burning in upper echelons of that house or in tower of that place where Jesus was born. The famous episode of Gospel of Luke 2 so famously describes that Jesus was born in midst of times of large travelling, and Jesus was born in the hut beside a house or inn made for travellers. It is understandable that such special house or inn for travellers also burned some really visible signal fire to guide travellers- this is understandable regarding ancient Near Eastern travelling practises and arrangements. There may have been even a some edifice that properly may be called a tower for such signal fire adjacent to that travellers’ inn. Such larger signal fire could then be called even a “star”, the word in Matthew 2 written. Thus is clearly comprehensible the notorious statement of Matthew 2:9 that KAI IDOU O ASTER ON EIDON EN TE ANATOLE (dat) PROEEGEN AUTOUS EOOS ELTHOON ESTATHE EPANO (dat) OU EEN TO PAIDION This Greek text of Gospel of Matthew is easily understandable with considering such ancient arrangements of guiding travellers. This Star was leading (PRO-AGO) the travel of these magicians; it is truly notable that the word PRO-AGO here is written. Comprehending that such travellers’ inn was keeping such guiding fire either on upper echelons or in tower style edifice, it is then appropriate to say that this Big Star indeed and very really stopped upon the place where Jesus was born. Description of Gospel of Matthew 2 of the Star of Bethlehem thus is understandable with considering ancient system of guiding travellers with signal fires towards cities and special edifices of travellers’ inns.