Thursday, 4 July 2013

iron and magnets in Bible

We now begin noticing much ancient knowledge of magnet stones. The important ancient encyclopaedic collection of much of then known information of nature by PLINY in NH is also interesting in noticing magnets. In the NH 34.147-148 Pliny writes interesting details concerning magnets, stating that “The common folk call the lodestone “quick iron” and wounds made with magnetic iron are worse than ordinary wounds, this mineral occurs in Cantabria also, not as a massive rock but in scattered pebbles called bullae, but its influence on iron is the same”. Also Pliny here notices that “who would hesitate to deal first with the magnet? For iron, the tamer of all substances, is drawn by the magnet. So the magnet is given another name, sideritis, while some call it Heraclion.” From these remarks in the encyclopaedic NH we now find much information of THEN prevalent discussions concerning magnet, and then used nomenclature. Importantly, HERACLION, or HERACLEAN STONE, or SIDERITIS, or QUICK IRON, or MAGNET were names known to Pliny as being THEN designating the material that modern is named as magnet. Already in the testimony of Plato in the dialogue ION we noticed that Plato presented the name HERACLEAN STONE as designating magnets. Thus we emphasise to the Readers that in the ancient world to seafarers were well known in West the mythical PILLARS OF HERACLES; usually in modern renderings the PILLARS OF HERACLES are comprehended to designate the Gibraltar, that was for ancient seafaring well known in the southern edge of the Iberia. This is to be remembered when reading of mentions of Heracles in old Greek literature, cultic practises concerning PILLARS OF HERACLES; magnetic stones could detect reliably the direction towards north and thus also reliably inform of the direction of the West or the location of edge of Gibraltar strait in far distant Western Mediterranean. The HERACLEAN stone or lodestone was important for ancients, and thus we considering cultural developments of Hellenistic Egypt with interest notice that then the ancient Egyptian deity KHONSU of the Theban triad was often identified with HERACLES; importantly the name KHONSU means “NAVIGATOR” or “HE WHO CROSSES THE SKY IN THE BOAT” and identifying this Egyptian KHONSU with HERACLES thus emphasises Hellenistic Egyptian understanding of role of HERACLES in NAVIGATING. (Readers of Bible may compare with KOHEN priests of Biblical religion). This is well understandable noticing that magnets were widely known for ancients as HERACLEAN STONES, Hellenistic Egyptian ancient identifying deity KHONSU “the Navigator” with HERACLES emphasises ancient technology of using in navigating magnets, that then were widely called as HERACLEAN STONES. Thus considering KHONSU the Navigator, we once more refer to some important finds in the Egyptian museum. Some very precious cups and bowls belonging to UNDJEBAUENDJED the general of Pharaoh PSUSENNES I (1045-994BC) are kept in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Very precious SILVER cups belonging to Undjebauendjed are there preserved, and important detail in these is the beautiful ROSETTE decorating the bottom of these beautiful silver cups; the ROSETTE of course is appropriate to notice cardinal points of compass. (Importantly, colour of silver cups, even the electron silver and gold alloy, can be quite similar with ancient known magnets coming from MAGNES of Asia, that were of white colour). Thus we importantly notice that inscriptions in some of these cups notice that this general UNDJEBAUENDJED was prophet of KHONSU; and in Theban triad the KHONSU was the famous “NAVIGATOR”. We thus motivated can comprehend that very probably this general UNDJEBAUENDJED, PROPHET OF KHONSU, was actually doing navigating by these silver bowls, using these bowls as compass bowls and placing there some magnetite pieces and so determining direction of north, and thus reading in the bowl’s rosette decoration exactly the directions. (It is actually quite interesting to compare this role of ancient Egyptian general UNDJEBAUENDJED with that Plato in dialogue ION 541D presents as ancient clever STRATEGOI generals Phanosthenes of Andros and Heracleides of Clazomenae. The specific task of conducting and directing the troops is indicated in the AGO verb included in the title STRATEGOS of general, and noticing that Heracleides been clever ancient STRATEGOS recalls also his clever knowledge of directing the travel of the troops; and in Hellenistic Egypt of those times the deity HERACLES was identified with Egyptian deity KHONSU “The Navigator”. We are reminded thus that the ancient Egyptian general UNDJEBAUENDJED in his full title is also known as Prophet of KHONSU so that knowledge of clever navigating was important in this role. Ancient compasses DIABETES and BOSLA (Arabic), the Passover – Compass festival DIABATERIA; and much evidence by Philo of Alexandria Then we find ancient compass, usually designated with Greek word DIABETES. Importantly, in the Arabic language the word BOSLA designates compass device- and this Arabic word BOSLA is, notably, echoed in the Italian word BUSSOLA for compasses; this emphasises the huge role of ancient Arabic seafarers in the Mediterranean seafaring. The Mediterranean sea has of course during history been much contested, especially defeat in battle of Lepanto (1571) much restricted, almost excluded Arabic and Muslim seafaring in the Mediterranean for much time. But Italian word BUSSOLA for compasses is one continuous reminder of the continuous enormous importance of Arabic seafaring in Mediterranean during centennia. And thinking of Abrahamic histories, it is worth noticing that Arabic word IBRA notices needles; possibly also some magnetic compass needles. But now we discuss that the ancient Mediterranean navigators used DIABETES COMPASS (Liddell-Scott 390), thus is the “compass” one important currently widely recognised lexical meaning of the Greek word DIABETES. (Alas, Modern Readers rather of course recognise with the word diabetes currently designated serious disease diabetes mellitus). The word DIABASIS notices passage, crossing over and means and places of crossing over and ALSO the Jewish PASSOVER FESTIVAL (L-S 390); also the Greek word DIABATERIA notices Jewish Passover. This is important- usually modern Readers regard those events in descriptions of “exodus” that is derived from Greek language EKS-ODOS and notices “departing from” a place, thus “departing from Egypt”. But there is in Jewish PASSOVER Festival much that makes that festival the COMPASS FESTIVAL, OR NAVIGATING FESTIVAL, festival of clever travelling. We should remember that the cultural language of the Mediterranean world after Alexander was mostly the Greek language, much of culture even in times of Roman empire was Greek speaking educated culture in Eastern Mediterranean- thus considerations of Greek parlance do have specially much importance; this we remind noticing the horrific cultural catastrophe of modern state of Greece that from yesterday (June 11, 2013) closed down their national Television broadcasting because of extremely deep budget cuts in the state budget- the Greek society is in these days in brink of collapse because of extremely serious austerity savings programs dictated by Troika of IMF, EU and ECB that currently mostly dictate governance of Greece. We Europeans are in really much scions of Greek and Hellenistic culture and now are profoundly horrified following the continuous and ever deepening economic crisis of current Greece. We should much help Greece! The Greek word DIABETES designates compass. Ancient comprehension of DIABETES and DIABAINO is well recorded e.g. in writings of Philo of Alexandria. We read in the Migratione Abrahami interesting notices concerning DIABAINO; in Philonic literature the De Migratione is treatise especially devoted to describing travelling, the LEKH LEKH of Abraham whose quotation begins the whole treatise De Migratione. The whole treatise is remarkable allegory interpreting travel of Abraham describing Soul’s progress, and the allegorical treatise is written in very Platonic terms. But even in treatise that is profoundly allegorical there are the more realistic descriptions or at least words and sayings from realistic world; thus it is important to consider DIABAINO descriptions in Philo’s De Migratione. We thus find in Migr 217 that We are reminded that merchants and traders for the sake of trifling profits cross the seas (DIABAINEIN TA PELAGEE) and compass the wide world (KAI TEEN OIKOUMENEEN EN KUKLOO PERIIENAI APASAN), letting stand in their way no summer heat nor winter cold (translation of Whitaker, rev. by Colson, in LCL); the Greek reads LEGOUSI GOUN OOS ESTIN ATOPON EMPOROUS MEN KAI KAPEELOUS GLISKHROON ENEKA KERDOON DIABAINEIN TA PELAGEE KAI TEEN OIKOUMENEEN EN KUKLO (dat) PERIIENAI APASAN I prefer to translate slightly differently this description merchants and traders for the sake of trifling profits NAVIGATE (DIABAINEIN) across the seas and thus go around the inhabited world in their circular voyages (trl. Pasi K Pohjala 2013) We thus notice that here Philo clearly notices that merchants travel across the seas, specifically, that they NAVIGATE these voyages across the seas- here the DIABAINEIN clearly describes sea voyages directed by NAVIGATING WITH COMPASS. Importantly, the DIABAINEIN is not merely DIA voyaging across the sea, but it recognises the developed skilful method of such voyage, that the voyage is done NAVIGATING across the sea, WITH THE HELP OF COMPASS. In this writing Philo is commenting the Biblical statement of Gen 12:6 noticing travelling from Haran, to the place of Schechem DIODEUSAI TEEN GEEN EOOS TOU TOPOU SUKHEM EPI TEEN DRUN TEEN HUPSELEN. Thus Philo starts here interpreting the word DIODEUSAI (TI DE ESTI TO DIODEUSAI, SKEPSOOMETHA). More allegorising, Philo then writes in Migr 219 of DIODEUSON MENTOI PSUKHE. And sea travelling is in this context also noticed in Migr 218 where is written that TOU DE KALLISTOU KAI PERIMAKHETOU KAI MONOO TOO GENEI TOON ANTHROOPOON OIKEIOTATOU KHARIN, SOFIAS, MEE OUKHI THALATTAN MEN APASAN PERAIOUSTHAI, PANTA DE GEES MUKHON EPERKHESTHAI, FILOPEUSTOUNTAS EI POU TI KALON ESTIN IDEIN EE AOUSAI Here Philo writes of travelling across every sea, writing the PERAIOUSTHAI. But truly interesting is to notice with this notice of sea voyages across seas, statement of MUKHON because this word notoriously resembles MAGNET- already for Plato the MAGNETIS LITHOS was well known in meaning “magnet stone”. The word MUKHOS clearly much resembles MAGN or MAGNETIS. The treatise De Migratione is very delicate and consists of remarkable details and interpretations, and thus Philo here writing the Greek MUKHON word apparently refers to MAGN or MAGNETIS, Magnets. Stated concise, Philo here in Migr 218 notices that men voyage across seas and do this with scrupulous examination of MAGNET. And Philo here in 217 writes of DIABAINEIN TA PELAGEE, also this noticing voyage across seas, and the DIABINEIN specifies that such voyage is with navigating with COMPASS (DIABETES). Acts of Apostles 19, and distribution of standardised magnets in cult of Artemis of Ephesus to seacaptains, in profession of silversmiths of Ephesus We now consider some interesting details of Acts of Apostles recording teaching of Paul in Ephesus and there occurred tumult initialised by silversmith Demetrios who called people to defend then cult of Artemis of Ephesus. In those times the Ephesus was very important centre in the Asia Minor, in modern Turkey, and the temple of Artemis in Ephesus was world renowned in the ancient Mediterranean world, and deity Artemis is old deity and centrally important in Hellenistic pantheon. Importantly, the Ephesus of those ancient times was located in area of very active mining of the ancient Lydian region; also mining of iron ores was in those days important in that region, and Ephesus was very important harbour of that region. We shall see that this tumult concerning teaching activity of Paul in Ephesus has much interesting connections to ancient use of LODESTONES, or MAGNETS, by ancient mariners. We read in Acts 19:23ff that EGENETO DE KATA TON KAIRON EKEINON TARAKHOS OUK OLIGOS PERI TEES HODOU. DEMETRIOS GAR TIS ONOMATI, ARGUROKOPOS, POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS PAREIKHETO TOIS TEKHNITAIS OUK OLIGEEN ERGASIAN…EIPEN ANDRES EPISTASTHE OTI EK TAUTEES TEES ERGASIAS HE EUPORIA HEMIN ESTIN KAI THEOREITE KAI AKOUETE OU MONON EFESOU ALLA SKHEDON PASEES TEES ASIAS Thus is in the New Testament book of Acts 19:23ff described the important encounter and tumult of public in Ephesus, after mission of Paul. This Demetrios was silversmith ARGUROKOPOS. The KOPOS thus appearing in the professional title of smiths of various specialities in those Hellenistic times also calls much comparison with the designation of Copts of Egypt; of course Smith’s profession was widely in those times practised. We now notice that here is described DEMETRIOS GAR TIS ONOMATI, ARGUROKOPOS, POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS We shall show that this production POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS well can be argued to have been production of magnetic LODESTONES that were inscribed with Artemis’ signs and thus specifically guaranteed to be genuine (and thus really operative) LODESTONES, popular and important for ancient mariners. Of course, the modern comprehension is that silversmith Demetrios was producing small miniature silver models of then widely famous Temple of Artemis of Ephesus. But it is important to notice that some MSS here write more specified that POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ISOOS OOS KIBOORIA MIKRA (or KIBOOTIA MIKRA), thus witnessed in few MSS 1739, 1837, 915 and importantly such specification known also by Chrysostomus and in Armenian tradition (see the Novum), especially Armenian MSS knowing of such tradition seems of particular importance concerning history of Ephesus, because Armenian regions are geographically near located to western coast of Asia Minor and ancient Ephesus, and the Armenian Churchly traditions and Manuscripts we much outside of the sphere of old Byzantian Churchly editors whose activity is in much quite responsible for the harmonisation tendencies. But preserved geographically quite near to the famous ancient centrum Ephesus, such Armenian tradition probably is much reliable simply because of in the ancient world, some details of ancient prosperous culture of Ephesus certainly were well known in areas quite near, such as in Armenian regions; and also in some Greek MSS that tradition of KIBOOTIA/KIBOORIA is supported! With much interest thus should be here noticed that ancient Armenian traditions support comprehension that the Acts 19:24ff POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS was in some regions of Ancient Asia Minor or in their neighbouring areas comprehended as ISOOS OOS KIBOORIA/KIBOOTIA MIKRA. THIS TRADITION OF KIBOOTIA DESCRIBES THAT SUCH NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS WERE LIKE SMALL BOATS; KIBOTOS IS IN BIBLICAL TRADITION WELL KNOWN TERM AND DENOTES BOATS, OR AT LEAST CUP/BOWL FORM OBJECTS. IMPORTANTLY, GREEK WORDS HERE NOTICE POSSIBLE SLIGHT IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE, BECAUSE NAUS DENOTES SHIPS AND NAOS DENOTES TEMPLES AND SHRINES. WELL MOTIVATED, WE THUS HERE FIND MENTION OF MAKING SILVER SHIPS OF ARTEMIS, SPECIFIED BEING SIMILAR TO SMALL KIBOOTOS BOATS, thus specified in Armenian tradition that has survived outside of the realm of the harmonising Byzantian editing, but geographically very near to ancient Ephesus and thus claiming much reliability. WHAT, THEN, MAY HAVE BEEN SUCH SMALL SILVER SHIPS OF ARTEMIS, QUITE SIMILAR TO SMALL KIBOTOS BOATS? THUS WE REMIND READERS SOME IMPORTANT NUMISMATIC EVIDENCE: SOME ANCIENT COINS FROM LEUKAS DEPICT ARTEMIS ON SHIP, AND IMPORTANTLY, ARTEMIS IS DEPICTED ON SHIP IN MAGNETS FROM THESSALY (this important numismatic evidence is preserved also in the British Museum, and in scholarly discussions widely known, even the standard Pauly-WISSOWA mentioning of this important numismatic evidence in art. “Artemis” (1350), so that scholars since generations CERTAINLY do have knowledge of existence of such coins where Artemis is depicted on ship, thus even depicted on MAGNETS FROM THESSALY.) Thus we summarise this important CONCLUSION: APPARENTLY DEMETRIOS SILVERSMITH WAS ACTIVE IN PRODUCTION OF SILVER COINS OR MAGNETS WHERE WAS DEPICTED GODDESS ARTEMIS ON SHIP. THIS IS WELL MOTIVATED BY EVIDENCE: SOME GREEK AND ARMENIAN MANUSCRIPT TRADITIONS SPECIFY THAT THESE NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS (ACTS 19:24) WERE LIKE SMALL BOATS (OOS KIBOOTIA MIKRA) AND IN NUMISMATIC EVIDENCE ARE KNOWN COINS OF LEUKOS AND MAGNETS OF THESSALY WHERE GODDESS ARTEMIS IS DEPICTED ON SHIP (The British Museum). ANCIENT EPHESUS WAS IMPORTANT NAVAL CENTRUM IN ANCIENT PROSPEROUS ASIA MINOR, AND ARTEMIS OF EPHESUS WAS THEN WORLD WIDE RESPECTED; APPARENTLY THUS ANCIENT SEACAPTAINS COULD PURCHASE GOOD QUALITY MAGNETS (LODESTONES) AS PART OF CULT OF ARTEMIS OF EPHESUS, THESE MAGNETS STANDARDISED GUARANTEED BY IMAGE OF ARTEMIS ON SHIP ENGRAVED ON SUCH STANDARDISED ANCIENT MAGNETS (LODESTONES). SILVERSMITHS BEING ACTIVE IN ANCIENT PRODUCTION OF STANDARDISED MAGNETS (LODESTONES) IS ESPECIALLY MOTIVATED NOTICING THAT MAGNETS OF SOME REGIONS, WERE OF WHITE OR WHITE-BLUISH COLOUR (e.g. MAGNETS FROM MAGNESIA IN ASIA) AND THUS COULD BE WELL INCLUDED IN ACTIVITIES OF SILVERSMITHS, IN THEIR APPEARANCE MUCH RESEMBLING SILVER. IN GREEK TERMINOLOGY, VERB ARTAOO USUALLY NOTICES THE ATTRACTION BY MAGNETS, THUS KNOWN ALSO BY PLATO IN DIALOGUE ION, THIS EMPHASISING CONNECTION OF GODDESS ARTEMIS WITH MAGNETS THAT “ARTAOO” ATTRACT IRON (CONCLUSION, by Pasi K Pohjala 2013 in this Verre et Bible 16). The cult of Artemis indeed did have important connections with sea and seafaring, and thus it is well understandable that to seafarers were in cult of Artemis delivered standardised magnets (especially magnets from Magnesia in Asia) standardised and guaranteed with depiction of goddess Artemis on ship depicted on the magnet. Ephesus was important naval centrum in Hellenistic world, also of times of New Testament, and in whole Mediterranean world cult of Artemis of Ephesus was widely reputed and marvelled. The region of Ephesus, Lydia and regions of northern Anatolia were also very important and prosperous iron mining centra in those times. This was Big Business of those times; and cult of goddess Artemis was in Ephesus then centrally important and widely reputed in whole Mediterranean. Ancient writers much recognise this important cult, thus e.g. Strabo 14.1.20-23; Pausanias 2.25 and 4.31; Xenophon E 1. The Temple of Artemis of Ephesus was even regarded one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world! Also regarding realities of business, it is well understandable that such commercial and naval centrum Ephesus did in religious cult represent important knowledge of ancient navigating; and thus it is understandable that in cult of Artemis of Ephesus were also distributed standardised magnets (lodestones), essentially important for ancient seafarers. We thus notice some important details in Greek cult of Artemis and comprehension of Artemis. Importantly, the standard discussion of the original Pauly-Wissowa very clearly presents also many aspects of Artemis cult that are specially relevant for seafaring. “Sie ist es, die den Seefahrern glucklichen Ausfahrt (EKBATERIA) verleiht, den Lauf der Schiffe beflugelt (NEEOSSOS…EUPORIA) und ihnen unversehrte Heimkehr gewahrt (EUNOSTOS); sie ist es, die den Sturm tosen lasst oder den gunstigen Wind zuruckhalt (z.B. fur die Flotte in Aulis); Schiffe benennt man haufig zur gunstigen Vorbedeutung mit Beinamen derA“ (Pauly-Wissowa art. Artemis, 1350). Here is described the belief that goddess Artemis secured happy departure of seafarers, quickly transported the ships, and guaranteed their safe return; also Artemis governed winds and storms and could still winds. Often ships also bore the name Artemis, thus in hope of promoting voyages. Thus in Greek culture were known Artemis LIMNAIA and Artemis LIMNATIS, and also Artemis POTAMIA; and often Artemis is named also PARALIA (at the seashore). For promoting more knowledge of these important aspects of cult of Artemis, we now little more extensively quote from Pauly-Wissowa “Die Vermischung der binnenlandischen Naturgottin mit dem ionischen Letoidenkultus hatte die Aufnahme mancher neuen Zuge in das Gesamtbild der Gottin zur Folge. Galten schon fruher Quellen und Bache als ihr wohlgefallig, so dehnt sich nun ihre Macht auch uber das Meer aus, wozu sich auch die alten binnenlandischen Beziehungen zu Poseidon trefflich fugten. Nun hat sie auch am Meeresstrande zahlreiche Heiligtumer (A. AITOOLEE in Naupaktos, DIKTUNNA bei Las, SAROONIA in Trojen, der Leto und ihrer Kinder in Delios vgl auch die Epiklesis PARALIA). Sie ist es, die den Seefahrern glucklichen Ausfahrt (EKBATERIA) verleiht, den Lauf der Schiffe beflugelt (NEOSSOS..EUPORIA) und ihnen unversehrte Heimkehr gewahrt (EUNOSTOS); sie ist es, die den Sturm tosen lasst oder den gunstigen Wind zuruckhalt (z.B. fur die Flotte in Aulis); Schiffe benennt man haufig zur gunstigen Vorbedeutung mit Beinamen der A. Ein Schiffsvorderteil halt A. auf Munzen von LEUKAS (British Museum) und Smyrna; sie sitzt auf einem solchen auf Munzen der thessalischen Magneten (British Museum). Die Hafen schirmt sie als EPISKOPOS, sie ist LIMENITIS, LIMENOSKOPOS oder LIMENESSIN EPISKOPOS. Ihr zu Ehren, die von dem Bruder den Namen DELFINIA entlehnt, feiert man in Athen das Seeausfahrtfest der DELPHINEN“ (Pauly-Wissowa art. Artemis, 1350). Readers may wish to translate this in completeness, but now we notice the main details. When cult of Artemis was combined with cult of Leto, many changes occurred. Earlier were often springs and streams considered sacred to Artemis; but then becomes the power of Artemis extended even to sea- already earlier she was comprehended being connected with the great sea god Poseidon! Thus she was venerated in numerous temples on the coastal regions (A. AITOOLEE of Naupaktos, DIKTUNNA at Las, SAROONIA at Troy and often she was also called PARALIA). Goddess Artemis was also believed to secure happy departure of seafarers, she quickly transported the ships, and guaranteed their safe return; also Artemis governed winds and storms and could still winds. Often ships also bore the name Artemis, thus in hope of promoting voyages. Thus in Greek culture were known Artemis LIMNAIA and Artemis LIMNATIS, and also Artemis POTAMIA; and often Artemis is named also PARALIA (at the seashore). Goddess Artemis is depicted at fore-end of ship in coins from Leukas and Smyrna, and Artemis is depicted at fore-end of ship in Thessalian Magnets (British Museum). And Artemis protects harbours in role of EPISKOPOS, or LIMENITIS, or LIMENOSKOPOS. She is also called DELFINIA, and this is commemorated in Athenian navigating festival! Now we depart from considerations of cult of Artemis, in the important Pauly-Wissowa. Some considerations of developments in EGYPT also are important for better comprehension of cult of Artemis. During the religious syncretism of Hellenistic Egypt of Ptolemaic times, and thereafter, the goddess ARTEMIS was usually identified with goddess BASTET. She was usually depicted as cat headed or lion headed goddess, and she represented sunlight in its positive and growing powers. It is important to notice that BASTET usually is depicted holding in her hands devices like sistrum, or some “basket”. The goddess BASTET became in Egypt very important national goddess in the time of reign of Twenty-Second Dynasty when Libyan Pharaohs ruled Egypt and the BUBASTIS was the capital, the capital of 18eenth nome of Lower Egypt, in place strategically important for controlling routes to Mediterranean and to eastern Egyptian coast; e.g. important trade route led from BUBASTIS to Clysma that is situated in the areas where currently the Suez Channel starts in the coast of the Red Sea. Importantly, these trade routes were thus ONE important connection between Mediterranean coast and Red Sea and thus conducted some of the important trade between Mediterranean and Orient. It is thus quite worth recognising that in developments of Homeric times the Greek goddess Artemis more was comprehended with powers over sea and winds and protecting sea voyages; but it is here especially notable that the compass device is in (later) Arabic traditions known BOSLA that quite resembles the name of the important Egyptian BASTET deity. Other connection is that Arabic word ward notices roses and rosettes, this much reminding of the name ARTEMIS goddess, protector of seafaring. Comparing some historical developments, these times after 950BC are in Palestine later times of their early Iron Age, times of Judges and developments towards monarchy begun by YEMENITE-ARAB KING SAUL THE FIRST MONARCH OF ISRAEL (Bible records that king Saul was of tribe of Benjamin, that is, king Saul was YEMENITE-ARAB (e.g. 1 Samuel 9 and 10:20ff). The monarchy in Israel was begun by the YEMENITE-ARAB king Saul, so the Bible tells. Ancient names of monarchs often referred to the deity of their realm, in Israel often thus names including –JAH or –JAHU. This is of course important information of main tenets of religion of certain ancient realm in the time of reign of certain monarch. But the name of Saul rather sounds including reference

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