Thursday, 4 July 2013
STUDO OF IRON IN bIBLE, BY PASI K POHJALA , JULY 2013, PART OF BOOK VERRE ET BIBLE 16 BY PASI K POHJALA.
DEAR READERS, NOW IS HERE PUBLISHED IN THIS BLOS IN TITLE "STUDY OF IRON IN BIBLE" TODAY JULY 04, 2013, THE NEW BOOK VERRE ET BIBLE 16, WRITTEN BY PASI K POHJALA. THE BOOK IS OF 48 PAGES AND THE BOOK IS ACADEMIC STUDY OF METALWORKING IN BIBLE, IRON, EARLY ISRAELITE IRON AGE, AND MUCH MORE...LEARNING THAT IN EARLIY ISRAELITE IRON AGE MANY ARABIC METALSMITHS WERE THERE SETTLED AND ACTIVE, AND TRADE ROUTE TO MEDITERRANEAN COAST WAS STRATEGICALLY IMPORTANT!! Famous site in Palestine is the Beersheba, thus usually pronounced (and motivating the currently usual rendering of seven-spring); but pronouncing the name in form Bursheba easily emphasises reference to Burj-Sheba, the Fortress of SHEBA. Beersheba is very importantly located in Palestine, along important ancient trade route leading to Mediterranean coast. Amidst the current study we are finding many references in Biblical descriptions of ancient Palestine concerning forts and settlements of SHEBA in Palestine, apparently in order to secure the reaching to Mediterranean coast of Oriental trade routes of empire of SHEBA. Apparently Beersheba is one important such fort. Ancient iron working in Beersheba region is famous and attested in archaeology; numerous archaeological excavations have been in Beersheba done. In recent archaeological research, e.g. Singer-Avitz (1999) has emphasised that Beersheba indeed had important role of South Arabia trade, the Beersheba was along that trade route a gateway community; and he discusses much of the relevant archaeological evidence there found. Importantly, I. Finkelstein recently discusses the role of Beersheba located along such very important ancient trade route. Comparing some historical developments, these times after 950BC are in Palestine later times of their early Iron Age, times of Judges and developments towards monarchy begun by YEMENITE-ARAB KING SAUL THE FIRST MONARCH OF ISRAEL (Bible records that king Saul was of tribe of Benjamin, that is, king Saul was YEMENITE-ARAB (e.g. 1 Samuel 9 and 10:20ff). The monarchy in Israel was begun by the YEMENITE-ARAB king Saul, so the Bible tells. Ancient names of monarchs often referred to the deity of their realm, in Israel often thus names including –JAH or –JAHU. This is of course important information of main tenets of religion of certain ancient realm in the time of reign of certain monarch. But the name of Saul rather sounds including reference to deity –EL or –ELH; Readers thus may seriously contemplate what such reference might mean with regard to that king Saul was from YEMENITE ARABS there living in Palestine; Islam is religion of worship of Allah. After king Saul, the king David was anointed, recorded in 1 Samuel 16; importantly, David was son of Jesse of Bethlehem; 1 Sam 17:12 tells that David was the son of a certain Ephrathithe of Bethlehem in Judah whose name was Jesse (Tanakh) (and see also Judges 19 concerning Bethlehem). The areas of tribes of Benjamin and Judah are basically besides and thus ethnically much connected; e.g. Judges 3:15ff records victory by Benjaminite EHUD who made sword and gained victory- this history is of YEMENITE ARAB (Benjaminite) metalsmith EHUD. Important detail of manuscripts is also the name of JESSE, in consonantal text of Hebrew Bible written Jod, Sin and Jod. But during the progress of traditions, we should consider quite similar Hebrew name JSJ written with Jod, Samekh and Jod, and this name is in Manuscript traditions easily confounded with Jod, Mem, Jod or JMJ; and name BENJAMIN is written usually BNJMN, some times BNJMJN. Continuing such “Bibilical logic” we write son of JMJ with BNJMJ- and this is notoriously similar with Hebrew writing of name BNJMN or Benjamin. Shortly stated, currently we talk of king David son of JESSE of Bethlehem. But behind this name JESSE may well be original Hebrew consonants name JMJ (e.g. JEMMI, or “JEMNI”) written early with consonant Mem: thus early traditions can have known of David BEN-JEMMI or David BEN-JEMN, David of Yemenite group. But these consonants JMJ of this name could easily be early confounded with consonants JSJ written with Samekh letter and thus easily confounded with name JESSE. In early Manuscripts letters S Samekh and M Mem often thus are quite similarly written. And later editing may have concealed these remarkable questions by writing the JSJ name not with Samekh that is easily with Mem confounded, but with letter Sin that cannot be confounded with Mem; e.g. in the proceedings of Rabbinical tradition and much emphasising the ideal King David, there understandably can have been many reasons to conceal YEMENITE origins of such popular king David by writing such small editorial trick of change of S letter Sin to S letter Samekh. Such early editing process can well be great attempt to conceal that also the more popular king David was of ethnical YEMENITE origin, BEN-JEMENI. Prophet Samuel was born in Ramathain Zuphin (1 Sam 1:1) that well can include reference to one Palestinian fort of SHEBA and their clever seers. First king Saul was of YEMENITE origin, Benyemeni, and also his successor the popular and ideal king David, son of “JESSE” may well have been originally known as YEMENI, JMJ and BNJMJ. The third king of Israel is Solomon, son of David and his wife Bathsheba (e.g. 2 Samuel 12 and I Kings 1). Importantly, the name of Bathsheba means “daughter of SHEBA” and this emphasises that her origins are of “SHEBA”. And the 1 Kings 10 tells of the notorious history that QUEEN OF SHEBA visited king Solomon. This chapter in whole Bible is one especially descriptive of pomp, glory and overwhelming prosperity. We thus understand that actually we here are reading of events of the glorious and mystical kingdom of SHEBA. The kingdom of SHEBA is ancient glorious kingdom in Southern Arabia, that is, of the areas of YEMEN. Let us well remember that also regions of Mecca and Medina are “approximately there”, especially in ancient geography. But YEMENITES, or “those from Southern Arabia” are importantly represented among the “tribes” of Israel, or the “ethnic groups” of Israel: many important towns were of YEMENITES, or “Benjaminites”. Saul the first king of Israel was of YEMENITE ethnos, Benjaminite. And the ideal king David was son of “JESSE” that probably conceals that he actually was also BENJAMINITE, thus also king David probably was of YEMENI ethnos. King David was succeeded in the throne by king Solomon, the son of David with his wife BATHSHEBA, or Daughter of SHEBA. And 1 Kings 10 tells of visit of Queen of SHEBA to this king Solomon. Apparently we recognise here histories how the realm of ancient Arabic kingdom of SHEBA was establishing also near to Mediterranean coast stronghold in Judah-Israel, especially for securing trade routes to Mediterranean coast. Thus are quite understandable histories of YEMENITE settlement there and first Israelite king been Yemenite king Saul, probably also king David was of Yemeni ethnos. King Solomon was son of BATSHEBA “Daughter of SHEBA” and then Queen of SHEBA visited king Solomon. And already much earlier the famous and important fort of Beersheba, or Bursheba/Burj-Sheba (Fortress of SHEBA) was at strategic site, along the important Oriental trade route leading to Mediterranean coast. With these notices we have arrived to comprehending that early Israelite monarchy of Saul, David and Solomon was apparently local monarchy of important area belonging to realm of empire of ancient SHEBA, the Israelite forts of SHEBA aiming at fortifying continuously their Oriental trade routes to Mediterranean coastal line.
by Pasi K Pohjala July 2013, part of book Verre et Bible 16. The Judges 1:9 notices the LOHEM metal working activity of JEHUDA people in BAHNANJ, probably thus in FEYNAN regions east of Jordan, near to the rich mines, and also notices their LOHEM metalworking in NEGEB area. Apparently the LOHEM activity is in the descriptions of Book of Judges presented distinctively specific activity of metalworking and activities of smiths (even if often read merely as L with pl.3 suffix “to them”, or as possessive “their”). Thus we importantly notice description in Judges 1:19 of horrifying weaponry of Canaanite troops that RKB BRZL LHM- apparently the LHM here expresses that these iron chariots of Canaanite troops were produces of SMITHS practises LOHEM. Interestingly, we thus here encounter very ancient term of FORGED IRON, BARZEL LOHEM. Usually is of course the BARZEL here comprehended as denoting IRON, BUT this text of Judges 1:19 is here apparently very specific in stating BARZEL LOHEM, that we may now render to modern readers understandable FORGED AND HAMMERED IRON. Importantly, this description of iron chariots directly shows that this culture necessarily at those times must have known sources of iron more amply than the tiny and scattered pebbles of meteorites; and thus we understand their having then used MINED IRON ORES, e.g. the iron ore from the nearby ample and ancient FEYNAN mines. Indeed, in the histories of Sisera the Judges 4:13 notices that his troops had NINE HUNDRED iron chariots that represents in those times really enormous number of iron strengthened chariots (here is mentioned place Haras-Goyim, and it is thus important to remember that HRZ words in Hebrew Bible usually refer to various iron objects, and notice their sharp qualities, and also notice trenches and thus some old IRON MINES). The terminology of LHM LOHEM is written also in the 2:16 noticing LHM WJZR LHM Meod. The JAZAR is the usual Biblical word noticing form-giving, forming and producing and apparently thus is noticed LOHEM metalworking JAZAR form-giving. In the Book of Judges 17 we read interesting ancient history of Mica and the shrine he had established; but we remember that reading the Hebrew Bible the vocalisation of consonantal text is more matter of different traditions and is not regarded holy, but more reflecting prevailing and accepted traditions of reading and vocalising the Hebrew consonantal text. Hebrew Bible writes in Judges 17 two versions of that name, 17:1-4 writing of Michaihu (MJKJHW) and thereafter Mica (MJKH), so that especially the history concerning the shrine here writes of the man Mica. Reading Hebrew Bible, this is one important detail because the name Michaihu writes the –JAHU reference to deity JAH or JAHU, but the name MJKH Mica is rather a normal personal name. In the later Hellenistic times writing the Septuagint translation, the renderings of Biblical names were one very remarkable and notorious doing and show generally important differencies and sometimes reveal very important information concerning geography, society and culture. Also reading Greek Septuagint translation of this Judges 17, it is notable that Codex Alexandrinus renders this name with MIKHA in whole Chapter 17, and the Codex Vaticanus more emphasises the –JAHU ideology rendering in whole chapter the name MIKHAIAS that is in Hebrew text based only on 17:1 and 4, although the other texts of Chapter 17 read in Hebrew Bible of MIKHA. Septuagint tradition renders MJKH Micha name with E letter actually in numerous places (and in numerous Manuscripts), e.g. in beginning of the prophetic Book of Micha writing MEIKHAIAS, and in Greek traditions of rendering name Micha in 1 Chron 9:40f, 23:20, 24:24-25 and in rendering the 1 Kings 22 is version MEIKHA known; and 2 Sam 9 is notorious description of Ziba (or Siba) and also there is Micha mentioned. Importantly, in Hebrew Bible the description of the SHRINE established by this MIKHA reads the name MIKHA and thus considers the religious situation more widely (than the writing of MIKHA-JAHU would suggest religious culture of JAHU or Jahwism). We thus read here in Judges 17 of Micah and the shrine he had founded; but now we rather notice that these consonants in Hebrew Bible likewise can be vocalised MECA or MECCAH- and this recognition is here in Judges 17 of special interest because here is usually understood histories of Micah and the shrine he had helped to establish. But likewise we may read those consonants denoting word MECCAH. Thus we easily here in Judges 17 recognise notorious description of religious shrine following MECCAH cult built in mountains of Ephraim; reasonable comparison is the current situation of mosques and Meccah. This reading of name Micah thus reveals here in Judges 17 truly interesting tradition of divine shrine, and notices of this shrine located in Israel, and its being shrine of cult of Mecca. The current study is noticing Yemenite Arabic settlements in Palestine and Yemenite Arabic metalworker EHUD delivering Israel (Judges 3) and descriptions of Judges 6-8 notice large coalition led by Medina (apparenty representing empire of SABA; and people of Amaleq and Eastern QEDAR people also participated in this obviously important campaign towards the Mediterranean) and reaching to securing the strategically important Mediterranean harbour Gaza; and the local ISHMAELITES (whose political formation was called ISRAEL) led by Gideon, achieving some victory over those forces. Book of Judges thus notably tells of life of Arabic peoples in Palestine in the early Iron Age of Palestine and that MEDINAH (SABA) led coalition whose campaign aimed at establishing stronghold at important harbour GAZA. And in the Book of Judges the Chapter 17 is important history describing religious life in those ancient times of Palestine, especially, the Judges 17 describes somewhat institutionalised practising of religiosity, building the shrine and running the activities of that shrine, and appointing some religious personnel to the shrine. These are ancient descriptions of institutionalised forms of practises of religiosity, with the institution of shrine, and upkeep of the religious activity of that shrine, and appointing special religious personnel to that shrine. This is very institutionalised form of religiosity, and it is notoriously important that apparently this institutionalised religiosity is here in Judges 17 connected with MECCA! (Readers may wish to compare these descriptions of religiosity of shrine, cult and specific personnel, with the descriptions in Judges 6-8 where are noticed the divine visions to ISHMAELITE GIDEON, described not in context of institutionalised cult, but rather in practises of divinations by this ISHMAELITE GIDEON). The Book of Judges proceeding its historiography chronologically, we here learn of religious developments in Palestine of those ancient times of Palestinian Early Iron Age, the histories of Judges 17 describing early establishing of shrines and religious institutions there following the MECCA religious cult! We shall emphasise that the Book of Judges describes events in very ancient Palestine, of Early Iron Age in Palestine, so that these developments are really ancient. Thus we follow developments of this very ancient establishing of religious shrine. Descriptions of Judges 17:7 notice young Levite starting from BETHLEHEM of JEHUDA, especially importantly we here recognise his coming from the BETHLEHEM, the special site of metallurgy of practise of smiths’ activities, also here is specially important to notice that LOHEM notices also practise of art of SMITHS. He started journeying from Bethlehem, and 17:8 tells WJLK HAJS MHYJR MBJT LHM JHWDH LGWR BASR JMZA WJBA HR-APRJM (Ephrayim) YD BJT MJKH LYSWT DRKW Here is notable that this house is described in Hebrew Bible in words YD BJT MJKH. This constructus of Hebrew text is in numerous various meanings in Hebrew Bible written. This Hebrew BJT MJKH can motivated be rendered “house of Mecca” that state the title of that house, that this was religious house or institution where cult of religion of Mecca was followed, similar rendering is clear also for BJT MJKH in 17:12. (Usually these Hebrew words are rendered “house of Micah” that more emphasise status of Micah in establishing that house or institution and keeping the activities perpetually running). The following statements notice important dialogue, and saying by representant of that house are noticed in Hebrew Bible writing WJAMR LW MJKH, thus noticed in 17:9-10. This Biblical history of Judges 17 is in current Biblical renderings comprehended describing appointing of this young Levite to this shrine. Apparently we thus understand these words WJAMR LW MJKH describing statements of a Levite who already was active in that shrine of Mecca cult. Levites were also thus active in those ancient Early Iron age times. In this description is important to read detailed this WJAMR LW MJKH compared with introductory WJAMR ALJW LWJ ANKJ where specifically is the designation Levite noticed. Interestingly the second statement by there already settled person is written WJAMR LW MJKH SBH and here we learn that there already settled Levite was at that shrine participating in religious cult following religion of Mecca of empire of SABA (in Judges 6-8 we learnt of large military campaign in ancient Palestine towards the important harbour Gaza, and this campaign was led by Medina of empire of SABA). Here is thus described important event in ancient early iron age history in shrine of Palestine and religion of Mecca was there followed (and 17:10 specifies “Mecca of Saba”, thus Mecca of empire of SABA. The Chapter 17 in Book of Judges records many events of the Micah, or the man of culture of Mecca. We can remind in Hebrew Bible from many place names are derived nouns designating individuals belonging to that area and culture, and thus are comprehensible also references to this man of Mecca in Ch. 17. Here tells the 17:5 that WHAJS MJKH LW BJT ALHJM Apparently this HAJS “that man” designates the individual, thus is here noticed “that man of Mecca; he was Levite of Shrine of God”. This is the usual constructus in Hebrew Bible, specifying HAJS MJKH LW “that man of Mecca, Levite” with noticing that he was active in (or was appointed in) House of God BJT ALHJM. Also in such activities were Levites in those ancient times active. Here is quite worth noticing his doing WJYS APWD WTRPJM; he made himself or he procured Ephod and Teraphim. This is description of Early Iron age activities, so that the meaning of Ephod and Teraphim in THOSE TIMES may never be clearly known specifically. Interesting notice of ancient history is here described situation of practise of law: in those times there was no king in Israel (and thus the law was not promulgated by royal decrees and rulings) but AJS HJSR BYJNJW JYSH Apparently HJSR in this description notices then practised SHARIA law; this is description of very ancient Early Iron age culture in Palestine, so that current and historic Islamic SHARIA law practise is here not at all completely comparable- but HJSR here certainly refers to SOME kind of ANCIENT practising of SOME kind of SHARIA law in that society. This is importantly presented here after describing religious culture of that time. The Judges 17:1-5 is notoriously descriptive history of public events of that shrine following cult of Mecca. Here is noticed negotiations between this representant (or priest) of that shrine, and the people, concerning public building projects and improvements for that shrine. The 17:1 presents that Ephraimite, and specifies that he was known with name “he-of-Mecca”, apparently that ancient title of priest or representant of that House of Mecca (in this text 17:1-15 notable is the –HW suffix to notice sg.3, thus in MJKJHW, WTTNHW, WJYSHW). Thus is noticed his statement to the local folk (WJAMR LAMW, the UMMA noticing people, folk) concerning eleven hundred shekels of silver; and the following words are apparently formulating his recognising receiving that silver (17:2), and the BARUKH approval then uttered by the folk. Then notices 17:3 that he presented or counted that silver to folk; and then folk uttered wow consecrating that silver to god; later editing here has certainly specified here written divine name according to those later religious principles prevailing in the society where this text has been copied by the scribes during centennia and millennia. This dialogue then continues noticing that those silver have been dedicated for purpose of making PESEL and MASEKA. This is ancient description from early iron age, so that specific meaning of PESEL and MASEKA in that time and in that shrine remain unclear; but they were produced with working silver (WTTNHW LZWRP WJYSHW PSL WMSKH). This Judges 17:1-5 is thus interesting description of public proclamations by folk and that representant of “house of Mecca” concerning making larger works with larger amount of silver. Judges 18 then continues with interesting and vivid description of ancient life of those regions, and in that House of Mecca. The chapter 18 describes campaigns of some people of Dan, and their visiting that ancient House of Mecca. The Judg 18:2 notices sending of five spies of Dan people to reconnoitre those regions, they started from Zorah and Eshtaol to their mission. They proceeded in their journey, and streamed around in the hill country of Ephraim; and there they arrived at that House of Mecca (18:2). Now it is worth specially noticing that currently is known archaeological site Tell Sera some 10km SW of the ancient site of Lachish, that site Tell Sera is recognised as having been populated during Later Bronze age, so that these descriptions of Book of Judges also therefore appear relevant; the region of Tell Sera can reasonably be the site mentioned in Judg 18:2 because that region actually is near to the hill country of Ephraim AND also thus near to the ancient site Lachish. This plausible identification of site of Zorah is now of much interest, because that site is some fifteen km northwest of the especially important place Beersheba (BURJ-SABA, “Fortress of SABA”) and in the area from Beersheba towards the important ancient harbour sites ASHDOD and ASHKELON and GAZA. (In that region also is known in Patriarchal histories the site Gerar). Now we may apprehend that apparently these people of DAN were people of distant settlement of ancient MEDINA people. Already in discussing the Judges 6-8 we have noticed the ancient vigorous campaigns from MEDINA towards the Mediterranean coastal regions of Palestine, apparently to establish secured trade routes to Mediterranean coast. Importantly, in these times of Palestinian early iron age, the governance in Palestine by Egypt was in decline and weakening, so that certainly then the traders from eastern regions, especially from MEDINA (of SABAn empire) were making vigorous attempts to secure their presence in that strategically important Palestinian coastal region, in regions of the roads leading towards important Palestinian ancient Mediterranean harbours in GAZA, ASHKELON and ASHDOD. In this era of vigorous expansion of MEDINA (of SABAn empire) trade network, it is now interesting to find in book of Judges 18 notices of some campaigns of DAN people in those regions. The Judges 18 now very interestingly describes ancient events of armed campaigns in those regions, and establishing settlements in that area. Judges 18:2 now describes that these spies of DAN people sent from Zorah then in their mission reached to the hill country of Ephraim and there came to that House of Mecca. And 18:3 notices that they sojourned at that House of Mecca; there they also recognised the voice of that young Levite who was appointed being priest in that House of Mecca, and 18:4 noticed their dialogue and that the young Levite told them of his recent history, especially his appointment in that shrine of House of Mecca. Interesting event is told also in 18:6 that this young Levite via divination told to these spies that they could continue their journey proceeding with success. Among every other functions, such House of Mecca may in ancient times have been place where numerous travellers from different regions visited, and thus there appointed religious personnel much knew of descriptions of recent events in different corners of the area (tumults, attacks, revolts, latest travel news, etc) and thus well understandably that young Levite officiating at that House of Mecca could foresee that at that time, those spies could reasonably continue their mission in probably peaceful circumstances. The spies continued their mission of reconnoitre and returned back to Zorah and Eshtaol and described to the people those regions, in very positive terms (18:8-10). The people of Dan then decided to send a militarily strong force of six hundred armed men to establish new settlement, and they proceeded to Kiriat-Jearim in Judah; also this detail helps to locate these events in this region (18:11). Apparently here is preserved interesting description of making attempt of establishing settlement with military campaign; the 18:30 describes their establishing settlement of Town of Dan, or Mahane-Dan. Interestingly, before that establishing of the Mahane-Dan settlement, that larger military mission of Dan people visited that shrine House of Mecca and paid homage in that cult, interesting details of these ancient religious rituals accompanying military campaigns and establishing of new settlement are described in much detail in Judges 18:11-29. We learn here interesting details of these ancient early Iron Age religious rituals of that House of Mecca. Judges 18:14 describes how this force arrived at that House of Mecca. Then those five men of earlier spying mission came forward and told to the troops that that place is special place, place where there was EPHOD, TERAFIM, PESEL and MASEKA. Thus these spies told to that large military troop that the house was special house, specially holy house or shrine, there being those important cultic EPHOD, TERAFIM, PESEL and MASEKA; now we do not discuss in any detail what kind of cultic objects such in those ancient times may have been, important in only that those were identifiable important cultic objects that specified that edifice as SHRINE. First, the five men of earlier spying mission went to that House of Mecca and greeted there the officiating Levite, and other troops then waited outside (18:15-16). Thereafter those five men of the earlier spying mission entered to the shrine, and paid homage (LQHW) to those EPHOD, TERAFIM, PESEL and MASEKA cultic objects. Here we notice that the LQH Laqah is here describing how they “received” religiously those cultic objects, that they approved those cultic objects and LEARNED of these. The LAQAH is in Old Testament in numerous meanings written, and the word also often notices intellectual receiving, and noun LQH in Hebrew Bible also notices LEARNING, TEACHING and INSTRUCTION (see BDB 542-544); in this context of rituals at House of Mecca this meaning is apparent, even if often modern renderings prefer to describe that these forces of Dan seized those objects and thus plundered that “House of Micah”, although such rendering is clearly erroneous! The Judges 18:17-18 thus describes interestingly details how those men of Dan attended the religious rituals at that shrine House of Mecca, they were instructed (LQHW) with EPHOD, TERAFIM, PESEL and MASEKA. And thereafter the Judges 18:19 notices that these men then formally recognised the role of that Levite there officiating also as THEIR Kohen priest that they recognised. The formula here is the same formula that earlier has been describing appointing this Levite officiating in the priestly role at that House of Mecca. (Importantly, now we write here the word “priest” and “priestly” denoting the role of an individual specifically appointed for religious office in practise of institutionalised religiosity at religious institution, WITHOUT suggesting any connotation to the doings priests of “Jerusalem temple” or any later form of Christian cultic activities; instead of word “priest” maybe better designation could here be “RELIGIOUS SPECIALIST” that may sound more neutral description; here are described indeed very early times of Early Iron age of Palestine. Actually much of our writings now are written in so generalised meaning describing religiosity and institutionalised forms of religiosity, that Readers may compare with language and terminology of cultural anthropology. We simply are finding here interesting descriptions of early forms of religious rituals of institutionalised religiosity, at that House of MECCA). And here the 18:20 describes then how that Levite conducted the appropriate religious ceremony with the EPHOD, TERAFIM, PESEL and MASEKA cultic objects, and that in the ceremony participated the numerous force of Dan people there attending at that shrine House of MECCA. And then the 18:22-26 describe thereafter arranged public celebration of religious procession where also attended people living in the neighbourhood of that shrine House of MECCA. This ritual at House of Mecca thus comprehended important stages. First, the leaders of forces arrived at House of Mecca, greeted there officiating Religious Specialist (that Levite). Thereafter they went to the shrine House of Mecca and LEARNED and BECAME INSTRUCTED by these important cultic objects EPHOD, TERAFIM, PESEL and MASEKA. Then, (some of) these cultic objects were brought amidst there attending people and the role of that Religious Specialist was formally recognised by the leaders. Then the Religious Specialist conducted in attendance of all of those troops the important religious ceremony, and all of them became INSTRUCTED (LQHW) (or “initiated” in the cult). Thereafter the new status of these newly INSTRUCTED or INITIATED men of Dan was publicly recognised in larger religious ceremony where attended also many people living in neighbourhood of that House of Mecca. These are well known stages in describing so numerous religious rituals of initiation in various cultures: here is described that men of these forces of Dan became properly initiated in the cult at that House of MECCA, with the cultic objects EPHOD, TERAFIM, PESEL and MASEKA. These are very early times of Early Iron Age of Palestine, and these are notoriously detailed descriptions of VERY DEVELOPED PRACTISE OF INSTITUTIONALISED FORM OF RELIGIOSITY: there are mentioned special religious place that shrine, the Religious Specialist, the cultic object EPHOD, TERAFIM, PESEL and MASEKA, and also well developed RELIGIOUS CEREMONY and public RELIGIOUS PROCESSION. Famous site in Palestine is the Beersheba, thus usually pronounced (and motivating the currently usual rendering of seven-spring); but pronouncing the name in form Bursheba easily emphasises reference to Burj-Sheba, the Fortress of SHEBA. Beersheba is very importantly located in Palestine, along important ancient trade route leading to Mediterranean coast. Amidst the current study we are finding many
study by Pasi K Pohjala July 2013, of Verre et Bible 16 campaign, the 6:16 emphasising AHJH YMK WHKJT AT MDJN KAJS AHD Also here the AHD appears, and in the context of Book of Judges we should remember the leader EHUD of Judges 3, and also here in Judges 6 described leader EHUD of MEDINA; thus this prophesy assigns to Gideon apparently role of leadership denoted in term AHD. Here is in 6:8 in prophetic words also referred to that God had rescued Israelites from Egyptian slavery; in the life of Palestinian early Iron Age this is indeed quite apparent, because Egyptian strong domination of Palestine during Bronze Age quite ended in the early Iron Age of Palestine. With regard to these cultural and ethnographic notices, now is specially worth noticing Judges 6:11 describing the divine vision of GIDEON in words WJBA MLAK JHWH WJSB THT HALH ASR BYPRH ASR LJWAS ABJ HYZRJ Maybe we recognise in word HALH reference to ALLAH in these descriptions of culture and religion of these ISHMAELITES; and the YPR notices some special stone (see BDB 780; and the ALH traditionally is rendered “terebinth” in Biblical translations). Apparently important for this group of ISHMAELITES led by Gideon was the valley of JEZREEL; the 6:33 notices that the troops of MEDINA, Amaleq and Eastern QEDAR people, encamped in valley of JEZREEL. (Here we find one geographical definition of the regions of THIS particular group of ISHMAELITES, that the JEZREEL region was for them important; e.g. region of JEZREEL town in Negeb of Judah, that could be relevant considering this MEDINA campaign aiming at GAZA harbour. Palestinian political realities of those times are reflected e.g. in the Stela of Pharaoh Merenptah (of Nineteenth Dynasty, ruled 1212-1202 BCE) where are exulted Pharaoh’s victory over larger coalition including also some forces from Gezer, Canaan, Yenoam, Israel, and Syria; in Egyptian sources this is probably only occurrence of name Israel). We now study more histories of ISRAEL and ISMAEL, and we here still repeat to Readers that IN OLD TESTAMENT WHEREVER IS NOW THE NAME ISRAEL WRITTEN, THAT NAME IN EARLY WRITS CAN HAVE BEEN THE NAME ISMAEL, BECAUSE THE HEBREW MEM LETTER IS EASILY EDITED TO LETTER RES (appearing in name Israel). EARLY POLITICO-RELIGIOUS SITUATION CAN HAVE MOTIVATED SUCH ERASING OF MEMORIES OF ISMAEL AND ISMAELITES FROM PAGES OF HEBREW BIBLE (AND THIS ALSO REALISING PRACTICAL EXPULSION OF ISMAELITES FROM BIBLE-READING COMMUNITIES.) The probable early change of name ISMAEL to name ISRAEL has several very serious consequences. Generally, Judaism claims their special status being inheritors of the promise given to patriarch Abraham, by tracing their history to the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob-Israel. This is in also prominent in Jewish liturgy and especially in prayer Avot (Fathers). That claim of inheritance of status of inheriting promises to Abraham are founded upon the status of Isaac having been recognised as the inheritor of Abraham. But Bible well remembers that actually ISHMAEL was the first-born child of Abraham (Gen 16) and thus the rights of first-born actually belonged to ISHMAEL. But in Biblical history, ISHMAEL became sidelined from Jewish history, and ISHMAELITE groups became in practical situations sidelined. This process was in ancient times of course of much practical consequences, and realising that included several stages in Biblical INTERPRETATION. Firstly, INTERPRETERS established the comprehension that ISHMAEL’s mother HAGAR was merely “concubine” of Abraham and that HAGAR had been merely servant to Sarah; and thus INTERPRETERS by this INTERPRETATION of some words in Old Testament realised sidelining ISHMAEL from being of Abraham’s first-born child. Thus was ISHMAEL sidelined with some INTERPRETATIONS of Hebrew words, and that brought ISAAC to the prominent status of first-born child of Abraham- thus the INTERPRETERS could effectively make the claim that the inheritance rights of first-born belonged to ISAAC. Thus were the Biblical ISHMAEL and ethnic groups ISHMAELITES sidelined from possibilities of the rights of first-born. SECOND stage was general erasing of memories of ISHMAEL from Old Testament; the Genesis 16 was allowed however to tell the history of birth of ISHMAEL, although in such manner that Gen 16 established the inferior role of ISHMAEL as son of merely “concubine” HAGAR who reasonably was not regarded in questions of inheritance and rights of the first-born son of Abraham. Generally other memories of ISHMAEL were easily erased from Old Testament by simple editing trick: in Hebrew write name ISHMAEL was changed to name ISRAEL by simple editorial trick changing letter Mem to letter Res. Thus were generally memories of ISHMAEL erased from Old Testament histories, and thereafter everywhere in Old Testament is told histories of ISRAEL. However, in Book of Judges 6-8 is importantly preserved memories of the ancient situation of the group politically recognised as ISRAEL but the members of that group were recognised as ISHMAELITES, especially with regard to their ethnicity, ethnically specific practises and habits. And the THIRD stage of this editorial process considered ancient creating ISRAEL as description of ethnicity, not merely being term designating political group. Thus, the patriarch JACOB was emphasised having been given the name ISRAEL, in the specially important history of Genesis 32:23-33. Because Jacob was in this foundational episode given the new name ISRAEL, all descendants of Jacob could thereafter claim of belonging to ISRAEL; this Genesis 32 is very important episode of creating the term ISRAEL as description of ETHNOS, describing ETHNIC GROUP. However, also here we recognise that name ISHMAEL so notoriously easily is changed into the name ISRAEL. Thus, the episode Genesis 32 may in early times have described that Jacob was in this episode given the name ISHMAEL! And apparently this is completely logical in the situation described in the Genesis 32, because name ISHMAEL indeed WAS known in the family of Abraham, being the name of first-born child of Abraham (the name ISRAEL was according to Old Testament previously NOT known in the family of Abraham). For numerous years Jacob had been dwelling in the house of Laban the Syrian, and there became married and started his family. And Genesis 32 describes of events when Jacob was making return to his ancestral regions with his family and with his properties. In this situation it is actually fully logical and even to every contemporary reader clearly comprehensible that when entering to those ancestral regions, JACOB WAS RECOGNISED AS BELONGING TO THE FAMILY RULING THOSE PLACES, JACOB WAS RECOGNISED AS ISHMAELI. Apparently the description of Gen 32:23-33 thus describes some ancient ritual where Jacob was formally reminded of his FAMILY NAME ISHMAELI, in the situation when Jacob was returning to his ancestral regions. But later editing and interpreters presented this event Genesis 32:23-33 as ascribing the novel name “Israel” to Jacob, so that thereby would have been founded the new Israelite ethnicity, according to the claims of ancient editing and interpreting. But Jewish liturgy always reminds of the ancient situation in the centrally important recitation of SHEMA, ISRAEL, where Hebrew readers during every recitation are firmly reminded of the ancient realities: the word SHEMA compared with name ISRAEL reminds to Hebrew readers every time of the name ISMAEL- and thus during the recitation of the SHEMA, ISRAEL these enormously important questions become recognised and enlivened. Palestine is strategically important region of Mediterranean coastal line and thus connects eastern trade networks with Mediterranean sea routes. Bersheba is along main road towards Mediterranean coast, and in eleventh century BCE the early fortifications of Bersheba were built, in the early Iron Age. The name Bersheba is comprehensible noticing FORTRESS OF SABA, or BURJ-SABA, even if usually the name is etymologically comprehended noticing “seven wells”. Apparently the Arabic trades of SABA in those ancient times made considerable efforts to secure trade route connections to the Mediterranean coastal line and Mediterranean harbour network, and were in Palestine increasingly active during decline of Egyptian rule of Palestine. Well known are also the famous copper mines of Timna mines that were for Egyptians important source of copper; archaeological excavations of pottery have confirmed that already those times numerous people of NW Arabia were in Timna mines active, together with Egyptians. The Book of Judges describes much interestingly ancient metalworking. The HLM notices hammering, and we now proceed to consider apparently important mythological event in Book of Judges, the narrative of Judges 3 describes important help to these ancient Israelites by warrior and judge the Yemenite JEHUD. Here Judges 3:15ff describes how Eglon king of Moab seriously warred against Israelites, but Israelites cried to the Lord and He raised JEHUD to deliver them, narrated in Hebrew Bible WJZYQW BNJ JSRAL AL JHWH WJQM JHWH LHM MWSJY AT AHWD BN Gera BN HJMJNJ AJS ATR JD JMJNJ WJSLHW BNJ JSRAL BJDW MNHH LYGLWN (Eglon) MLK Moab WJYS LW AHWD HRB WLH SNJ PJWT GMD ARKH WJHGR AWTH MTHT LMDJW YL JRK JMJNJ (Judges 3:15-16) This is very archaic description. We notice here how JHWH raised to Israelites LHM MWSJY AT AHWD, and this Jehud made a sword (WJYS LW AHWD HRB). In this archaic mythological description from very old times of early iron age, we read myth of helper JEHUD who was Smith LOHEM and how he made (YSH) a sword. Importantly, this description presents this Jehud being Yemenite, so that this is archaic description of Arabic metal worker in Israel who delivered Israel with this then very high technology, producing sword. The descriptions of ethnicity of this EHUD are here important and interesting. Hebrew Bible writes his name and describes his character AHWD BN Gera BN HJMJNJ AJS ATR JD JMJNJ In this sentence BN HJMJNJ is clearly compared with here noticed group BNJ JSRAL, the “Israelites”, so that in this sentence the BN HJMJNJ emphatically notices his belonging to certain ethnic group; probably here was originally written of ISHMAELITES and thus noticed that there living ISHMAELITE population was then rescued by special metalworking knowledge and activity of this specialist EHUD from Yemeni. His name is here vocalised traditionally Ben Hajemini; but the consonantal text of Hebrew Bible being sacred, the vocalisations more express certain traditions of reading the consonants and usually in interpretations are questioned and much pondered. Similarly motivated we here can read the Hebrew BN HJMJNJ vocalised Ben Hajemeni, that exactly refers to YEMEN and ethnicity of this EHUD in the group of YEMENITE-ARABS then settled in Palestine. And thus specially worth is noticing that Septuagint here indeed reads HUION GEERA HUIOU TOU IEMENI (thus Codex Alexandrinus; importantly, Codex Vaticanus reads similarly except reading accusative HUION- importantly, also the Codex Vaticanus has preserved this tradition of Yemenite Jehud). In this study we soon consider more attestations of Yemenites in Septuagint. This statement presents this EHUD being BN HJMJNJ, Yemenite, and notices in Hebrew Bible also that AJS ATR JD JMJNW and this description now much more characterises this JEHUD; Septuagint renders this ANDRA AMFOTERODEKSION. Thus we find that this EHUD is described skilled YEMENITE artisan handiworker, the JAD here apparently refers to EHUD’s professional doing handiwork. Alas, in modern translations this is often rendered merely as noticing EHUD as “left-handed” man. This logically understandable description then here is completed with describing how this EHUD made himself a sword- in those times, doing metalwork of smiths was really the high-tech and thus overwhelmingly appreciated. Of course in many texts such rendering is reasonable, but in this statement JD JMJNW is apparent description of his practise of art of smiths of YEMENITE technology. This description in Book of Judges describes life of early Israelite Iron age, the early period that in research often is denoted Iron Age 1. There are then important questions concerning beginnings of iron working in Israel; usually is comprehended that such advanced technologies were learnt from Northern cultures, especially from scions of Hittite culture; often invention of iron and iron working is ascribed in research to Hittites. But this tradition of Judges 3 describing those early times clearly shows that historiography of Bible here describes in early pre-monarchic Israel active settled YEMENITE smith EHUD who made himself sword. And this EHUD is also characterised here being ATR; it is important to remember that in Hebrew Bible smiths and artisans usually are called HRS, and this much resembles this ATR especially noticing the usual S/T interchange of letters; and ATR can also denote place thus describing this EHUD as in Israel settled local metalsmith. Here we learn importantly of doings of YEMENITE metalsmith JEHUD Because this archaic iron age myth of deliverer Jehud specifically notices how this Jehud MADE FOR HIMSELF A SWORD (YSH), we are specially motivated to comprehend this LHM as LOHEM, presenting this mythological early iron age hero JEHUD as LOHEM SMITH. Apparently his metal working knowledge was Arabic technology because this Jehud was Yemenite. This is apparently very important very archaic early iron age Israelite myth of Yemenite SMITH JEHUD who produced for himself a sword and thereafter delivered Israel from oppression of this EGLON king of Moab. (We later more discuss traditions of ancient famous iron mining and iron working in AJLUN of Transjordania; and Judges 1:35 notices Amorites dwelling in AYALON at Mount Heres (also rendered as Mount of Iron, because Heres is one ancient designation also for iron objects, iron working, and iron generally); earlier in Abraham’s journeys ALWN the “terebinth” is mentioned in Gen 12:6)- already Late Bronze Age iron SMELTING was in these regions practised, attested in finds of Tel Yinam of Galilee; IF this name TEL YINAM continues some ancient tradition, the name notices interesting reference to YEMENITES and iron working; it is certainly important to remember mention of YENOAM in Egyptian Merenptah Stela (of Nineteenth Dynasty, of reign 1212-1202 BCE) in list of coalition the Pharaoh Merenptah had won- that coalition included also Gezer, Canaan, Israel, Yenoam, and Syria and others). In the Hebrew Bible, we find this AHWD name only here in Judges 3, thus describing this Jehud son of Gera; and once such name occurs in 1 Chron 7:10 in list of sons of Yediael (maybe we hear a tradition of Jeddah). And the name Ohan (thus the AHD consonants differently vocalised) is found in Gen 46:10 and Exodus 6:15 in lists of sons of Simeon- importantly, both lists mention Yemen (JMJN) and Ohad and others. Also Isaiah 44:12 is now of considerable interest, we find the Tanakh rendering this description of working of ironsmith in words JHD The craftsman in iron, with his tools, works it over charcoal And fashions it by hammering working with the strength of his arm For the current discussion of the myth of Ehud in Judges 3 here commented, it is notably important that this description of Isaiah 44:12 of ironsmith is in Hebrew Bible preceded with the Hebrew word JHD. Once more we remind to the Readers that division into verses is quite late invention introduced as a “help” to Readers (it is not at all considered holy), but it is famous for often destroying semantics of the Hebrew text (and those of ancient translations). In scholarly Bible study thus is always and everywhere the first procedure to forget the division into verses and to read the text in the manner the ancient Readers were encountering the text (indeed, they were often reading lectio continua; and even the handwritings of copyists were slightly different). Now we thus find in this Isaiah 44:12 notoriously clear statement of JHD or JEHUD, “craftsman in iron”, and his working methods! Usually modern Bible translations (thus also Tanakh) follow division into verses, and read this JHD in preceding 44:11 and comprehending this JHD meaning “together”; these are different vocalisations of this JHD word. But importantly, thus we here find in Isaiah 44:12 description of ironsmith JEHUD and his working methods. Terminology in Hebrew Bible here is clear, writing of HRS BRZL the ironsmith. We recognise that the term JEHUD may have been developing to professional title of originally Arabic metalsmiths in those regions. The Book of Judges writes numerous specially interesting notices concerning early metal working and ironworking of those ancient times of Early Iron age of Palestine. Already in 1:3 we learn of notorious developments of ancient metallurgy that WJMZAW AT ADNJ BZQ BBZQ WJLHMW BW The LHM or LOHEM denotes often the activities of smiths in metalworking and thus also here. Notoriously important reading this statement now is consideration of meaning of the BZQ, and Readers certainly in this word hear reference to the ZQQ activities of melting in furnaces, the specific technology of metalworking. Developments of furnaces was for proper iron working one very central technological development in moving from working copper and bronze to working iron, because the necessary temperature in iron smelting is far higher. One notoriously important question in developments of technologies of early iron age is provision of iron ores. Where did the earliest metal workers find the iron ore? Widely is recognised that the earliest source of iron was the meteorites; the meteorites notoriously are almost always very good alloy of iron usually with nickel or cobalt, so that meteorite iron produces especially good quality iron, almost like the quality of the modern steel, because the meteorite iron contains that alloy of iron metal that was only recently mastered in metalworking. But thus we here in Judges 1:3 notice the word BZQ or BEZEQ. This reflects of course very ancient traditions of early iron age. But it is remarkably important to notice that BEZEQ in relatively ancient Aramaic texts does notice pebbles, or cast or shoot of mass of fragments (see J 154), and Arabic FARAQA notices also scattering and dispersing and distributing (compare F/P with B letter and Z with the R letter). In North Jordan also is located modern town Mafraq! Apparently Judges 1:3 here refers to METEORITES BEZEQ and practising metalworking LOHEM with the iron material of METEORITES. This description in Judges 1:3 thus importantly reflects much of the widely recognised practises of earliest iron working- iron material found in meteorites. Thus we also notice mention in Judges 1:9 that WAHR JRDW BNJ JHWDH (Jehuda) LHLHM BKNYNJ JWSB HHR WHNGB (Negeb) During the current study we are finding many references to the metalworking practises of EHUD individuals, or JEHUD, and thus is also here apparently importantly noticed that these JEHUD people practised LHM LOHEM doing, metalworking. Also are here important places noticed. BKNYNJ word when pronounced sounds notoriously much like BAHNANJ. In traditions of ancient metalworking and iron working this is especially important find, because the rich iron mines of FEYNAN east of Jordan river were truly important. Of course the name Canaan is important, but THIS SPECIAL CONTEXT of Book of Judges now calls specific attention to this form BKNYNJ or BAHNANJ because in those regions from times old the notoriously rich FEYNAN mines very specially important source of iron ore. Important archaeological excavations have been conducted in sites around WADI FIDAN and important finds of ancient practises of metallurgy and smelting facilities there have been unearthed; and specialists of archaeology have much been comparing ancient metallurgy of that region of WADI FIDAN with ancient metallurgy of Beersheba region. The Judges 1:9 notices the LOHEM metal working activity of JEHUDA people in BAHNANJ, probably thus in FEYNAN regions east of Jordan, near to the rich mines, and also notices their LOHEM metalworking in NEGEB area. Apparently the LOHEM activity is in the descriptions of Book of Judges presented distinctively specific activity of metalworking and activities of smiths (even if often read merely as L with pl.3 suffix “to them”, or as possessive “their”). Thus we importantly notice description in Judges 1:19 of horrifying weaponry of Canaanite troops that RKB BRZL LHM- apparently the LHM here expresses that these iron chariots of Canaanite troops were produces of SMITHS practises LOHEM. Interestingly, we thus here encounter very ancient term of FORGED IRON, BARZEL LOHEM. Usually is of course the BARZEL here comprehended as denoting IRON, BUT this text of Judges 1:19 is here apparently very specific in stating BARZEL LOHEM, that we may now render to modern readers understandable FORGED AND HAMMERED IRON. Importantly, this description of iron chariots directly shows that this culture necessarily at those times must have known sources of iron more amply than the tiny and scattered pebbles of meteorites; and thus we understand their having then used MINED IRON ORES, e.g. the iron ore from the nearby ample and ancient FEYNAN mines. Indeed, in the histories of Sisera the Judges 4:13 notices that his troops had NINE HUNDRED iron chariots that represents in those times really enormous number of iron strengthened chariots (here is mentioned place Haras-Goyim, and it is thus important to remember that HRZ words in Hebrew Bible usually refer to various iron objects, and notice their sharp qualities, and also notice trenches and thus some old IRON MINES). The terminology of LHM LOHEM is written also in the 2:16 noticing LHM WJZR LHM Meod. The JAZAR is the usual Biblical word noticing form-giving, forming and producing and apparently
by Pasi K Pohjala July 2013. Comparing some historical developments, these times after 950BC are in Palestine later times of their early Iron Age, times of Judges and developments towards monarchy begun by YEMENITE-ARAB KING SAUL THE FIRST MONARCH OF ISRAEL (Bible records that king Saul was of tribe of Benjamin, that is, king Saul was YEMENITE-ARAB (e.g. 1 Samuel 9 and 10:20ff). The monarchy in Israel was begun by the YEMENITE-ARAB king Saul, so the Bible tells. Ancient names of monarchs often referred to the deity of their realm, in Israel often thus names including –JAH or –JAHU. This is of course important information of main tenets of religion of certain ancient realm in the time of reign of certain monarch. But the name of Saul rather sounds including reference to deity –EL or –ELH; Readers thus may seriously contemplate what such reference might mean with regard to that king Saul was from YEMENITE ARABS there living in Palestine; Islam is religion of worship of Allah. After king Saul, the king David was anointed, recorded in 1 Samuel 16; importantly, David was son of Jesse of Bethlehem; 1 Sam 17:12 tells that David was the son of a certain Ephrathithe of Bethlehem in Judah whose name was Jesse (Tanakh) (and see also Judges 19 concerning Bethlehem). The areas of tribes of Benjamin and Judah are basically besides and thus ethnically much connected; e.g. Judges 3:15ff records victory by Benjaminite EHUD who made sword and gained victory- this history is of YEMENITE ARAB (Benjaminite) metalsmith EHUD. Important detail of manuscripts is also the name of JESSE, in consonantal text of Hebrew Bible written Jod, Sin and Jod. But during the progress of traditions, we should consider quite similar Hebrew name JSJ written with Jod, Samekh and Jod, and this name is in Manuscript traditions easily confounded with Jod, Mem, Jod or JMJ; and name BENJAMIN is written usually BNJMN, some times BNJMJN. Continuing such “Bibilical logic” we write son of JMJ with BNJMJ- and this is notoriously similar with Hebrew writing of name BNJMN or Benjamin. Shortly stated, currently we talk of king David son of JESSE of Bethlehem. But behind this name JESSE may well be original Hebrew consonants name JMJ (e.g. JEMMI, or “JEMNI”) written early with consonant Mem: thus early traditions can have known of David BEN-JEMMI or David BEN-JEMN, David of Yemenite group. But these consonants JMJ of this name could easily be early confounded with consonants JSJ written with Samekh letter and thus easily confounded with name JESSE. In early Manuscripts letters S Samekh and M Mem often thus are quite similarly written. And later editing may have concealed these remarkable questions by writing the JSJ name not with Samekh that is easily with Mem confounded, but with letter Sin that cannot be confounded with Mem; e.g. in the proceedings of Rabbinical tradition and much emphasising the ideal King David, there understandably can have been many reasons to conceal YEMENITE origins of such popular king David by writing such small editorial trick of change of S letter Sin to S letter Samekh. Such early editing process can well be great attempt to conceal that also the more popular king David was of ethnical YEMENITE origin, BEN-JEMENI. First king Saul was of YEMENITE origin, Benyemeni, and also his successor the popular and ideal king David, son of “JESSE” may well have been originally known as YEMENI, JMJ and BNJMJ. The third king of Israel is Solomon, son of David and his wife Bathsheba (e.g. 2 Samuel 12 and I Kings 1). Importantly, the name of Bathsheba means “daughter of SHEBA” and this emphasises that her origins are of “SHEBA”. And the 1 Kings 10 tells of the notorious history that QUEEN OF SHEBA visited king Solomon. This chapter in whole Bible is one especially descriptive of pomp, glory and overwhelming prosperity. We thus understand that actually we here are reading of events of the glorious and mystical kingdom of SHEBA. The kingdom of SHEBA is ancient glorious kingdom in Southern Arabia, that is, of the areas of YEMEN. Let us well remember that also regions of Mecca and Medina are “approximately there”, especially in ancient geography. But YEMENITES, or “those from Southern Arabia” are importantly represented among the “tribes” of Israel, or the “ethnic groups” of Israel: many important towns were of YEMENITES, or “Benjaminites”. Saul the first king of Israel was of YEMENITE ethnos, Benjaminite. And the ideal king David was son of “JESSE” that probably conceals that he actually was also BENJAMINITE, thus also king David probably was of YEMENI ethnos. King David was succeeded in the throne by king Solomon, the son of David with his wife BATHSHEBA, or Daughter of SHEBA. And 1 Kings 10 tells of visit of Queen of SHEBA to this king Solomon. Apparently we recognise here histories how the realm of ancient Arabic kingdom of SHEBA was establishing also near to Mediterranean coast stronghold in Judah-Israel, especially for securing trade routes to Mediterranean coast. Thus are quite understandable histories of YEMENITE settlement there and first Israelite king been Yemenite king Saul, probably also king David was of Yemeni ethnos. King Solomon was son of BATSHEBA “Daughter of SHEBA” and then Queen of SHEBA visited king Solomon. With these notices we have arrived to comprehending that early Israelite monarchy of Saul, David and Solomon was apparently local monarchy of important area belonging to realm of empire of ancient SHEBA. This interesting event in ancient Ephesus recorded in Acts 19 has understandably been discussed also in Bible commenting, and we now follow discussion of some prominent modern Biblical scholars, especially notice comments of Conzelmann and Pervo, whose Commentaries on Acts are published in the important Hermeneia series (Conzelmann’s Commentary of 1987 is English translation of his originally in German published Commentary of 1963, and in Hermeneia series is published the other Commentary on Book of Acts, written by Pervo). Conzelmann comments the important formulation in Acts 19:24 DEMETRIOS GAR TIS ONOMATI, ARGUROKOPOS, POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS with noticing the POIOON NAOUS meaning “who made shrines” (thus in the English translation of Hermeneia (1987) series of his original German commentary). He notices that a NEOOPOIOS (temple official) named Demetrius indeed is mentioned in an inscription from the first century; but he also emphasises that such NEOOPOIOS is title for temple official who belongs to the administrative staff of temple of Artemis, he is not one who produces and markets small souvenir temples. Conzelmann also notices that small souvenir miniature copies of temple of Artemis of Ephesus have not been found at Ephesus. Also Pervo discusses archaeological finds in interpreting meaning of these words in Acts 19 in his newer Commentary of Acts in the Hermeneia series. He reminds that quite well known are archaeological finds of images of this goddess in niche, made of terracotta, although not in silver; but Pervo more avoids detailed discussion concerning exact character of such NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS in stating that “probably, most such objects were niches with a statue of Artemis (NAISKOI), but the important point is less Luke’s accuracy than that, by saying “temples” (NAOI), he both evoked the speeches of Stephen and Paul (7:48; 17:21)” (p.491). This statement by Pervo somewhat describes the direction of discussions concerning these mentions of Artemis and temples of Artemis in Acts 19 in more recent times, tendency of more discussing terracotta miniature shrines of Artemis. Thus I Pasi K Pohjala am here really motivated to emphasise the evidence that indeed well known are pictures of Artemis on fore-end of ship in ancient Greek coins of Leukas and Smyrna and in Thessalian MAGNETS: well motivated thus BY ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE, here in Acts 19 in words POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS are noticed apparently STANDARDISED MAGNETS DECORATED WITH PICTURE OF GODDESS ARTEMIS ON FORE-HEAD OF SHIP, PRODUCED AND DISTRIBUTED TO SEAFARERS BY SILVERSMITHS OF EPHESUS AS PART OF CULT OF ARTEMIS. SPECIAL STUDY: Book of Judges Describes Early Arab Smiths Settled in Palestine The first Chapter of Book of Judges is important in comprehending early Yemenite settlements in Palestine. Early settlement patterns are importantly noticed in 1:21 that: The Benjaminites did not dispossess the Jebusite inhabitants of Jerusalem; so the Jebusites have dwelt with the Benjaminites in Jerusalem to this day (Tanakh translation of Judges 1:21) In the scholarly research concerning Benjaminites much is noticed the alliance of Benjamin and Ephraim and that descriptions of Ephraimite regions or Ephraimite hills may somewhat include regions of Benjaminites in somewhat vague Biblical descriptions. And descriptions of federation of Gibeonite cities in early histories of Benjamin are important (see e.g. J. Blenkinsopp’s Gibeon and Israel). Alas, in Palestine geography the important Jerusalem is somewhat south of regions specifically understood being Benjaminite region. This notice of Judges 1:21 concerning Benjaminite settlement in Jerusalem, among Jebusites, is thus especially important: this description emphasises that Benjaminites from old times have been settled in Jerusalem AND that in Jerusalem Benjaminites were living together with Jebusites. This description also suggests that in Jerusalem these Yemenites were actually quite strong and powerfully living with Jebusites. It is worth noticing that Judges 1:21 does in this description mention only Benjaminites living thus with Jebusites in Jerusalem; the Benjaminites apparently thus are special group- here are no other Israelite tribe noticed. Thus also Jerusalem in some meanings is of realm of Benjaminites, that is, ARABS (YEMENITES) have been powerfully settled in Jerusalem since ancient times, told in Judges 1, there living together with Jebusites. In the Judaean hill country Jerusalem was developing one important strategic stronghold and thus was apparently important for Arabic project (of Saban empire) of establishing settlements and forts western parts of their Oriental trade routes, in Palestine. From times ancient Yemenites (Arabs) have been thus settled in the important Palestinian fort Jerusalem, Judges 1:21 describing their settlement there with Jebusites. We have learnt now histories of the YEMENITE Arab smith EHUD who was skilled handiworker of YEMENITE artisan technology, described in Judges 3:15. Now Readers certainly much ponder if this EHUD may be connected with the famous Israelite tribe JEHUD (the Judah). For modern Readers names EHUD and Judah may sound really different, BUT in the Hebrew Bible these names are almost similarly written, there is written of JEHUD, that in modern renderings is the Judah. Apparently the names EHUD and JEHUD are almost similar, thus in the writings of Hebrew Bible! (NOW in this study I prefer to write name JEHUDA to emphasise this detail that is in current discussion of Yemenite Arab settlement of importance.) Worth contemplating in Hebrew Bible is e.g. the archaic Blessing of Jacob in Genesis 49, where the words for blessing of JEHUDA begin JHWDH ATH JWDWK AHJK JDK Name JEHUDA is here commented with AHJK (“your brother”) where the word ends with letter Kaf; but ending Kaf is in Hebrew writ easily confused with ending Dalet, and Jod is easily confused with letter Waw. Recognising these details we notice similarity of the AHJK with writing Hebrew letters AHWD, and this is REALLY notable for our current discussion!!!! And in Judges 1:9 is noticed that WAHR JRDW BNJ JHWDH LHLHM BKNYNJ and also here are members of JEHUD group compared with AHWD EHUD because AHR is in Hebrew Bible surprisingly similar with AHD, the Dalet and Resh being almost similar letters. This detail is in Hebrew Bible notoriously prominent in Judg 4:15 where is in Hebrew written of AHRJ…AHRJ…and YD AHD, so that this statement provides nice and fundamentally important comparison of AHR and AHD, even name AHD of EHUD (this is detail of Hebrew consonantal script, and is not at all based on any questions of meanings of this statement in 4:15). In these archaic poetries the name JEHUDA is apparently compared with name AHWD, the name of YEMENITE ARAB EHUD (the Judges 3:15 in Hebrew Bible writes the name EHUD with the consonants AHWD)! The Blessing of Jacob in Genesis 49 is archaic blessing of the Israelite tribes, and thus its details are important in discussions of old comprehension of Israelite tribes. And this apparent comparing name JEHUD with name EHUD of YEMENITE ARAB smith warrior is now specially important. Here we now also notice the important topic concerning name Israel. Currently everyone of course has numerous times heard the name Israel, we have comprehension of contemporary state of Israel, and various level of knowledge of history of Israel in ancient times. And all this is founded mostly on the Biblical name Israel that in Old Testament so numerous times occur; almost nothing in this world seems so clear and well comprehended as the very existence of Israel and some main tenets of history of Israel. Of course we have learnt also of Ismael, the first son of Abraham, but story of Ismael is currently less regarded. In the Old Testament histories, Genesis 16 describes birth of Ismael to Abraham, by Hagar; and current comprehensions usually then notice that Abram some time thereafter expulsed Hagar with Ismael, they stayed alive and prospered, but are thereafter absent from Biblical histories that consider histories of Isaac born by Sarah. For all Readers these names Israel and Ismael might appear similar; and this is indeed fundamentally important remark. Now we make very important notice that is well known to Readers of ancient Hebrew manuscripts and fragments written in Hebrew: THE LETTERS MEM AND RES ARE NOTORIOUSLY ALMOST SIMILARLY WRITTEN. The Mem letter written inside a word in Hebrew writ looks like a triangle (approximately an equilateral triangle), and the Res letter is in many writings much like triangle without the base. This is one typical notice of many ancient Hebrew writings: the Mem letter and Res letter are notoriously much similar! And Ismael has disappeared from Biblical history, merely Gen 16 describing birth and expulsion of the first son of Abraham; and in Biblical writings everywhere is considered Israel, the Jewish folk. But the names Israel and Ismael are almost the same, and the difference between these consists in letters Mem and Res that are almost similarly written in many ancient Hebrew writs. And the name ISMAEL can easily be changed into the name Israel simply by scratching the letter Mem so that the base of the equilateral triangle Mem disappears and the remaining letter then is the Res letter: thus is easily in ancient Hebrew writs the name ISMAEL changed into name ISRAEL. This is much similar in ancient Greek manuscripts where ISMAEL written in minuscules is easily changed to name ISRAEL with simple change of Greek letter M to letter R. Current Bible now everywhere reads Israel but after Gen 16 is silent of Ismael. But we recognise that in earlier times and in earlier manuscripts, many of the words that we now recognise as name Israel, in earlier Hebrew manuscripts can have been name ISMAEL written. We thus recognise that Ismael can have been written in many those statements of Old Testament that currently notice Israel! And earlier politico-religious situation of rejection of Ismael people and Ismaelites from community venerating Old Testament, can have motivated project of comprehensive editing of Hebrew Old Testament writings in such manner that the name Ismael almost completely was erased from the Old Testament, by the above described method of simple scratching of Mem letters of Ismael names, so that remaining name was the name Israel, with Res written. So heinously simply the history of Ismaelites and Ismael in Old Testament can have been erased, and forgotten! Thus we now summarise this in simple statement IN OLD TESTAMENT WHEREVER IS NOW THE NAME ISRAEL WRITTEN, THAT NAME IN EARLY WRITS CAN HAVE BEEN THE NAME ISMAEL, BECAUSE THE HEBREW MEM LETTER IS EASILY EDITED TO LETTER RES (appearing in name Israel). EARLY POLITICO-RELIGIOUS SITUATION CAN HAVE MOTIVATED SUCH ERASING OF MEMORIES OF ISMAEL AND ISMAELITES FROM PAGES OF HEBREW BIBLE (AND THIS ALSO REALISING PRACTICAL EXPULSION OF ISMAELITES FROM BIBLE-READING COMMUNITIES.) THIS IS UTTERLY SERIOUS. It is worth remembering that during the lengthy and eventful history of Jewish people the SHEMA, ISRAEL is the central in Jewish prayers and liturgy. Actually the centrally important comparison of letters Mem and Res appears in these words and thus notoriously importantly reminds of importance of comparison of Res and Mem letters, and thus also of the issue of Israel and Ismael. We shall see that in Book of Judges this Israel and Ismael is important detail in the histories of Gideon. We now more read the important archaic Judges 1, especially remembering the similarity of name JEHUD of that Israelite tribe, with the name EHUD of YEMENITE ARAB smith warrior, more described in Judges 3. The writings of Judges 1 importantly notices especially doings of JEHUD and BENJAMIN, but are more silent concerning doings of other tribes. We learn in Judges 1:10 WJLK JHWDH AL HKNYNJ HJWSB BHBRWN WSM HBRWN LPNJM QRJT ARBY Here is described that members of JEHUD group marched against Canaanites who dwelt in Hebron and here is emphasised that at those old times name of Hebron was “ARAB-CITY” (QIRYAT ARBA). Thus we learn that JEHUD conquered place in Hebron and that the city in those old times was known as “ARAB CITY”. Also this emphasises ancient traditions of comprehending JEHUD being Arabs, the important settlement of JEHUD in Hebron was known as “ARAB-CITY”. Logically it is easy to comprehend that also the remarkable EHUD smith of Judges 3:15 was YEMENITE ARAB and practised his artisan skills of YEMENITE ARAB technology. And in histories of Judges 1, this JEHUD has special prominence, this book beginning emphasising in 1:2 WJAMR JHWH JHWDH JYLH This statement thus here specially distinguishes JEHUD among tribes of Israel, in this historiography of Book of Judges. Thus we learn in Judges 1 that Benjamin group, YEMENITE ARABS, settled in Jerusalem permanently and lived there together with Jebusites (1:21) apparently thus securing Arab presence in that important Palestine fort, for securing Yemenite settling at Palestine beside Mediterranean coast, in western end of their Oriental trade routes. Thus is of special importance to read in Judges 1:18 description that JEHUD conquered AZZA (GAZA), ASHKELON and EQRON, these with their surrounding areas. This is short description but its meaning in reality is enormous: here is simply stated that JEHUD conquered the main harbours of Palestine, GAZA and ASHKELON. And EQRON is neighbour to ASHDOD. Here is described early military campaign of Yemenite Arabs in Palestine, apparently for securing trade route to Mediterranean coast of their Oriental trade; they settled in Jerusalem, Hebron, and conquered important harbours Gaza, Ashkelon and Eqron (maybe also Ashdod region). Readers find even in the recent scholarly consensus expressed in Anchor Bible Dictionary (art. Benjamin, Vol. 1) interesting indirect diplomatic formulation reminding that considerations of Yemen ARE important in reading traditions of Biblical Benjamin; the article discusses this detail in comparing birth narrative of Benjamin where name Ben-Oni was changed to Ben-Jamin, finding interesting comparison in descriptions of land of Yemen being “land of south” and Arabia Felix; thus Readers are actually implicit exhorted to contemplate relation of land of Yemen with notices of Benjamin, even if the article, understandably, refrains from discussing clearly possibility of finding in the name reference to land Yemen. We learn in the Book of Judges much important events in very old histories of Palestine, events mostly of Early Iron age in Palestine. Campaigns of GIDEON are in those histories very prominent. One important event also very descriptive of the ethnic situation occurs after GIDEON’s victorious campaign, and importantly in this history are names ISRAEL and ISMAEL interestingly compared. Thus we now study the already above stated important tenet that IN OLD TESTAMENT WHEREVER IS NOW THE NAME ISRAEL WRITTEN, THAT NAME IN EARLY WRITS CAN HAVE BEEN THE NAME ISMAEL, BECAUSE THE HEBREW MEM LETTER IS EASILY EDITED TO LETTER RES (appearing in name Israel). EARLY POLITICO-RELIGIOUS SITUATION CAN HAVE MOTIVATED SUCH ERASING OF MEMORIES OF ISMAEL AND ISMAELITES FROM PAGES OF HEBREW BIBLE (AND THIS ALSO REALISING PRACTICAL EXPULSION OF ISMAELITES FROM BIBLE-READING COMMUNITIES.) The events after victorious campaign of Gideon are described in Judges 8:22-24. There is noticed dialogue between Gideon and men of Israel, the 8:22 commences WJAMRW AJS JSRAL AL GDYWN Usually is BNJ JSRAL in Hebrew Bible written to designate “Israelites” generally, so that here noticed AJS JSRAL is notable formulation, apparently noticing special representatives of Israel who were thus debating with Gideon. Importantly, here is described situation of political character, so that language is more referring to circumstances of politics and institutions of society. Apparently here Israelite representants suggest to Gideon to become the king; language and descriptions reflect institutions of society. In this situation Gideon states importantly a request to those chiefs of Israel that each of them would give to Gideon one golden earring; they had golden earrings because they were Ishmaelites. Thus we come to consider the notoriously important question: who had those earrings because they were Ishmaelites? Is thus noticed those Midianites that Gideon had won- this is (understandably) emphasised in the Tanakh translation. But rather this text here describes these chiefs of Israel THEMSELVES: the Judges 8:24 notoriously states that Israelite chiefs had golden earrings because THEY THEMSELVES WERE ISHMAELITES! We thus understand the specially important description in Judges 8:22-24 that there are recognised the political entity Israel and that chiefs of that political entity were themselves ISHMAELITES. Apparently here is described political entity Israel and noticed that chiefs (and also the general population) of this political entity were ethnically of ISHMAELITE ethnicity. Here is mainly concerned the statement of Hebrew Bible that WTNW LJ AJS NZM SLLW KJ NZMJ ZHB LHM KJ JSMYALJM HM For the question concerning possessing the golden earrings central is the SLLW word. This word in Hebrew Bible generally describes wealth and possessions and thus does not indicate that those defeated Midyans were ISHMAELITES. Rather, here the Hebrew Bible writes of SLLW generally noticing the possessions and wealth of those chiefs of Israel themselves. The usual and apparently fundamentally important question in Bible reading is the question concerning “Who were the Israelites?” Considering these descriptions of campaigns of Gideon in Judges 6-8, we find the answer in THIS case, stated in Judges 8:22-24 that men belonging to the political entity Israel were themselves ISMAELITES, that is, ethnically these chiefs were Arabic. Thus the Book of Judges notoriously often describes ancient settlement and activities of Arabs in land of Palestine in those times of Early Palestinian Iron Age (Iron Age I). In the Book of Judges 6-8 we learn of ancient military campaign of Medina towards these Palestinian areas. Normally this is presented as campaign of MIDYAN to these regions, but understandable Readers easily comprehend that actually here is presented campaign by MEDINA forces, apparently in order to secure Mediterranean trade routes. And the Judges 6-8 present then how then local ISHMAELITE ARABS led by GIDEON, made resistance for such campaign. Apparently the rich iron ore finds in Midyan area were for ancient MEDINA important; the Midyan was famous in ancient world and in Bible for their rich iron finds. Importantly we consider description of Judg 6:1 that WJTNM JHWH BJD MDJN SBY SNJM Usually this is comprehended to describe that God delivered them to power of Midyan for seven years. Apparently, however, this statement refers to the empire of SABA! Rendering is thus And God delivered them to power of MEDINA (that is, SABA) for years! The Hebrew SBY is here usually rendered as referring to seven (similarly as in name Beersheba according to usual comprehension “seven-wells”). But apparently writer here notices the military rule of SABA empire, by MEDINA one of main cities of SABAN empire and allies. Thus is described in Judges 6:1-2 that God delivered them to power of MEDINA (that is, SABA) for years, and MEDINA ruled over region of Israel. The 6:3 (and 6:33) specifies that in this campaign participated forces of MEDINA, and Amaleq, and Eastern People (BNJ QDM), apparently forces of QEDAR people, and very important notice is that this campaign extended to the GAZA; indeed this describes ancient campaign to secure that important Mediterranean harbour GAZA, near to regions of Beersheba; and Hebrew Bible here describes that WJHNW YLJHM WJSHJTW AT JBWL HARZ YD BWAK YZH (Gaza) In this notice of WJSHJTW we probably hear reference to ancient furnace metalworking that was in Beersheba regions widely ancient practised, and the statement emphasises establishing connection with harbour GAZA. The ancient metalworking especially working iron is important in history of Midyan region, and here we recognise apparent traditions that these forces of MEDINA (SABA) did the metalworking practise also in these regions,up to GAZA harbour. Also is interesting 6:5 that KJ HM WMQNJHM JYLW WAHLJHM JBAW KDJ ARBH LRB WLHM WLGMLJHM AJN MSPR This notorious statement notices their METALWORKERS MQNJHM; they and their metalworkers came in large numbers, like Arabs of KEDAR, and the LOHEM smiths; and their carriages were innumerable. (Remember well that QJN in Arabic notices metalworkers and iron workers and this informs much of meaning of Biblical QJN word (see BDB 883)- for example, Judges 4:11 reminds that the father-in-law of MOSES, himself was of QJN group (HBR HQJNJ NPRD MQJN MBNJ HBB HTN MSH).) Interesting notice is also the 6:7 describing how these ISRAEL-ISMAELITES cried to JHWH concerning YL ADWT MDJN, but apparently is here noticed the EHUD of MEDINA (the Hebrew Dalet and Waw easily are confused with letter He), we motivated here read the name EHUT or EHUD of troops of MEDINA, apparently noticing leader or chief of the troops (cf. Arabic HUDA notices to lead and direct), quite similarly with the histories of YEMENITE SMITH EHUD who made sword and brought rescue to ISRAEL-ISMAELITES, described in Judges 3. Also AHD appears in divine promise to Gideon strengthening him to the campaign, the 6:16 emphasising AHJH YMK WHKJT AT MDJN KAJS AHD Also here the AHD appears, and in the context of Book of Judges we should remember the leader EHUD of Judges 3, and also here in Judges 6 described leader EHUD of MEDINA; thus this prophesy assigns
We now begin noticing much ancient knowledge of magnet stones. The important ancient encyclopaedic collection of much of then known information of nature by PLINY in NH is also interesting in noticing magnets. In the NH 34.147-148 Pliny writes interesting details concerning magnets, stating that “The common folk call the lodestone “quick iron” and wounds made with magnetic iron are worse than ordinary wounds, this mineral occurs in Cantabria also, not as a massive rock but in scattered pebbles called bullae, but its influence on iron is the same”. Also Pliny here notices that “who would hesitate to deal first with the magnet? For iron, the tamer of all substances, is drawn by the magnet. So the magnet is given another name, sideritis, while some call it Heraclion.” From these remarks in the encyclopaedic NH we now find much information of THEN prevalent discussions concerning magnet, and then used nomenclature. Importantly, HERACLION, or HERACLEAN STONE, or SIDERITIS, or QUICK IRON, or MAGNET were names known to Pliny as being THEN designating the material that modern is named as magnet. Already in the testimony of Plato in the dialogue ION we noticed that Plato presented the name HERACLEAN STONE as designating magnets. Thus we emphasise to the Readers that in the ancient world to seafarers were well known in West the mythical PILLARS OF HERACLES; usually in modern renderings the PILLARS OF HERACLES are comprehended to designate the Gibraltar, that was for ancient seafaring well known in the southern edge of the Iberia. This is to be remembered when reading of mentions of Heracles in old Greek literature, cultic practises concerning PILLARS OF HERACLES; magnetic stones could detect reliably the direction towards north and thus also reliably inform of the direction of the West or the location of edge of Gibraltar strait in far distant Western Mediterranean. The HERACLEAN stone or lodestone was important for ancients, and thus we considering cultural developments of Hellenistic Egypt with interest notice that then the ancient Egyptian deity KHONSU of the Theban triad was often identified with HERACLES; importantly the name KHONSU means “NAVIGATOR” or “HE WHO CROSSES THE SKY IN THE BOAT” and identifying this Egyptian KHONSU with HERACLES thus emphasises Hellenistic Egyptian understanding of role of HERACLES in NAVIGATING. (Readers of Bible may compare with KOHEN priests of Biblical religion). This is well understandable noticing that magnets were widely known for ancients as HERACLEAN STONES, Hellenistic Egyptian ancient identifying deity KHONSU “the Navigator” with HERACLES emphasises ancient technology of using in navigating magnets, that then were widely called as HERACLEAN STONES. Thus considering KHONSU the Navigator, we once more refer to some important finds in the Egyptian museum. Some very precious cups and bowls belonging to UNDJEBAUENDJED the general of Pharaoh PSUSENNES I (1045-994BC) are kept in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Very precious SILVER cups belonging to Undjebauendjed are there preserved, and important detail in these is the beautiful ROSETTE decorating the bottom of these beautiful silver cups; the ROSETTE of course is appropriate to notice cardinal points of compass. (Importantly, colour of silver cups, even the electron silver and gold alloy, can be quite similar with ancient known magnets coming from MAGNES of Asia, that were of white colour). Thus we importantly notice that inscriptions in some of these cups notice that this general UNDJEBAUENDJED was prophet of KHONSU; and in Theban triad the KHONSU was the famous “NAVIGATOR”. We thus motivated can comprehend that very probably this general UNDJEBAUENDJED, PROPHET OF KHONSU, was actually doing navigating by these silver bowls, using these bowls as compass bowls and placing there some magnetite pieces and so determining direction of north, and thus reading in the bowl’s rosette decoration exactly the directions. (It is actually quite interesting to compare this role of ancient Egyptian general UNDJEBAUENDJED with that Plato in dialogue ION 541D presents as ancient clever STRATEGOI generals Phanosthenes of Andros and Heracleides of Clazomenae. The specific task of conducting and directing the troops is indicated in the AGO verb included in the title STRATEGOS of general, and noticing that Heracleides been clever ancient STRATEGOS recalls also his clever knowledge of directing the travel of the troops; and in Hellenistic Egypt of those times the deity HERACLES was identified with Egyptian deity KHONSU “The Navigator”. We are reminded thus that the ancient Egyptian general UNDJEBAUENDJED in his full title is also known as Prophet of KHONSU so that knowledge of clever navigating was important in this role. Ancient compasses DIABETES and BOSLA (Arabic), the Passover – Compass festival DIABATERIA; and much evidence by Philo of Alexandria Then we find ancient compass, usually designated with Greek word DIABETES. Importantly, in the Arabic language the word BOSLA designates compass device- and this Arabic word BOSLA is, notably, echoed in the Italian word BUSSOLA for compasses; this emphasises the huge role of ancient Arabic seafarers in the Mediterranean seafaring. The Mediterranean sea has of course during history been much contested, especially defeat in battle of Lepanto (1571) much restricted, almost excluded Arabic and Muslim seafaring in the Mediterranean for much time. But Italian word BUSSOLA for compasses is one continuous reminder of the continuous enormous importance of Arabic seafaring in Mediterranean during centennia. And thinking of Abrahamic histories, it is worth noticing that Arabic word IBRA notices needles; possibly also some magnetic compass needles. But now we discuss that the ancient Mediterranean navigators used DIABETES COMPASS (Liddell-Scott 390), thus is the “compass” one important currently widely recognised lexical meaning of the Greek word DIABETES. (Alas, Modern Readers rather of course recognise with the word diabetes currently designated serious disease diabetes mellitus). The word DIABASIS notices passage, crossing over and means and places of crossing over and ALSO the Jewish PASSOVER FESTIVAL (L-S 390); also the Greek word DIABATERIA notices Jewish Passover. This is important- usually modern Readers regard those events in descriptions of “exodus” that is derived from Greek language EKS-ODOS and notices “departing from” a place, thus “departing from Egypt”. But there is in Jewish PASSOVER Festival much that makes that festival the COMPASS FESTIVAL, OR NAVIGATING FESTIVAL, festival of clever travelling. We should remember that the cultural language of the Mediterranean world after Alexander was mostly the Greek language, much of culture even in times of Roman empire was Greek speaking educated culture in Eastern Mediterranean- thus considerations of Greek parlance do have specially much importance; this we remind noticing the horrific cultural catastrophe of modern state of Greece that from yesterday (June 11, 2013) closed down their national Television broadcasting because of extremely deep budget cuts in the state budget- the Greek society is in these days in brink of collapse because of extremely serious austerity savings programs dictated by Troika of IMF, EU and ECB that currently mostly dictate governance of Greece. We Europeans are in really much scions of Greek and Hellenistic culture and now are profoundly horrified following the continuous and ever deepening economic crisis of current Greece. We should much help Greece! The Greek word DIABETES designates compass. Ancient comprehension of DIABETES and DIABAINO is well recorded e.g. in writings of Philo of Alexandria. We read in the Migratione Abrahami interesting notices concerning DIABAINO; in Philonic literature the De Migratione is treatise especially devoted to describing travelling, the LEKH LEKH of Abraham whose quotation begins the whole treatise De Migratione. The whole treatise is remarkable allegory interpreting travel of Abraham describing Soul’s progress, and the allegorical treatise is written in very Platonic terms. But even in treatise that is profoundly allegorical there are the more realistic descriptions or at least words and sayings from realistic world; thus it is important to consider DIABAINO descriptions in Philo’s De Migratione. We thus find in Migr 217 that We are reminded that merchants and traders for the sake of trifling profits cross the seas (DIABAINEIN TA PELAGEE) and compass the wide world (KAI TEEN OIKOUMENEEN EN KUKLOO PERIIENAI APASAN), letting stand in their way no summer heat nor winter cold (translation of Whitaker, rev. by Colson, in LCL); the Greek reads LEGOUSI GOUN OOS ESTIN ATOPON EMPOROUS MEN KAI KAPEELOUS GLISKHROON ENEKA KERDOON DIABAINEIN TA PELAGEE KAI TEEN OIKOUMENEEN EN KUKLO (dat) PERIIENAI APASAN I prefer to translate slightly differently this description merchants and traders for the sake of trifling profits NAVIGATE (DIABAINEIN) across the seas and thus go around the inhabited world in their circular voyages (trl. Pasi K Pohjala 2013) We thus notice that here Philo clearly notices that merchants travel across the seas, specifically, that they NAVIGATE these voyages across the seas- here the DIABAINEIN clearly describes sea voyages directed by NAVIGATING WITH COMPASS. Importantly, the DIABAINEIN is not merely DIA voyaging across the sea, but it recognises the developed skilful method of such voyage, that the voyage is done NAVIGATING across the sea, WITH THE HELP OF COMPASS. In this writing Philo is commenting the Biblical statement of Gen 12:6 noticing travelling from Haran, to the place of Schechem DIODEUSAI TEEN GEEN EOOS TOU TOPOU SUKHEM EPI TEEN DRUN TEEN HUPSELEN. Thus Philo starts here interpreting the word DIODEUSAI (TI DE ESTI TO DIODEUSAI, SKEPSOOMETHA). More allegorising, Philo then writes in Migr 219 of DIODEUSON MENTOI PSUKHE. And sea travelling is in this context also noticed in Migr 218 where is written that TOU DE KALLISTOU KAI PERIMAKHETOU KAI MONOO TOO GENEI TOON ANTHROOPOON OIKEIOTATOU KHARIN, SOFIAS, MEE OUKHI THALATTAN MEN APASAN PERAIOUSTHAI, PANTA DE GEES MUKHON EPERKHESTHAI, FILOPEUSTOUNTAS EI POU TI KALON ESTIN IDEIN EE AOUSAI Here Philo writes of travelling across every sea, writing the PERAIOUSTHAI. But truly interesting is to notice with this notice of sea voyages across seas, statement of MUKHON because this word notoriously resembles MAGNET- already for Plato the MAGNETIS LITHOS was well known in meaning “magnet stone”. The word MUKHOS clearly much resembles MAGN or MAGNETIS. The treatise De Migratione is very delicate and consists of remarkable details and interpretations, and thus Philo here writing the Greek MUKHON word apparently refers to MAGN or MAGNETIS, Magnets. Stated concise, Philo here in Migr 218 notices that men voyage across seas and do this with scrupulous examination of MAGNET. And Philo here in 217 writes of DIABAINEIN TA PELAGEE, also this noticing voyage across seas, and the DIABINEIN specifies that such voyage is with navigating with COMPASS (DIABETES). Acts of Apostles 19, and distribution of standardised magnets in cult of Artemis of Ephesus to seacaptains, in profession of silversmiths of Ephesus We now consider some interesting details of Acts of Apostles recording teaching of Paul in Ephesus and there occurred tumult initialised by silversmith Demetrios who called people to defend then cult of Artemis of Ephesus. In those times the Ephesus was very important centre in the Asia Minor, in modern Turkey, and the temple of Artemis in Ephesus was world renowned in the ancient Mediterranean world, and deity Artemis is old deity and centrally important in Hellenistic pantheon. Importantly, the Ephesus of those ancient times was located in area of very active mining of the ancient Lydian region; also mining of iron ores was in those days important in that region, and Ephesus was very important harbour of that region. We shall see that this tumult concerning teaching activity of Paul in Ephesus has much interesting connections to ancient use of LODESTONES, or MAGNETS, by ancient mariners. We read in Acts 19:23ff that EGENETO DE KATA TON KAIRON EKEINON TARAKHOS OUK OLIGOS PERI TEES HODOU. DEMETRIOS GAR TIS ONOMATI, ARGUROKOPOS, POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS PAREIKHETO TOIS TEKHNITAIS OUK OLIGEEN ERGASIAN…EIPEN ANDRES EPISTASTHE OTI EK TAUTEES TEES ERGASIAS HE EUPORIA HEMIN ESTIN KAI THEOREITE KAI AKOUETE OU MONON EFESOU ALLA SKHEDON PASEES TEES ASIAS Thus is in the New Testament book of Acts 19:23ff described the important encounter and tumult of public in Ephesus, after mission of Paul. This Demetrios was silversmith ARGUROKOPOS. The KOPOS thus appearing in the professional title of smiths of various specialities in those Hellenistic times also calls much comparison with the designation of Copts of Egypt; of course Smith’s profession was widely in those times practised. We now notice that here is described DEMETRIOS GAR TIS ONOMATI, ARGUROKOPOS, POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS We shall show that this production POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS well can be argued to have been production of magnetic LODESTONES that were inscribed with Artemis’ signs and thus specifically guaranteed to be genuine (and thus really operative) LODESTONES, popular and important for ancient mariners. Of course, the modern comprehension is that silversmith Demetrios was producing small miniature silver models of then widely famous Temple of Artemis of Ephesus. But it is important to notice that some MSS here write more specified that POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ISOOS OOS KIBOORIA MIKRA (or KIBOOTIA MIKRA), thus witnessed in few MSS 1739, 1837, 915 and importantly such specification known also by Chrysostomus and in Armenian tradition (see the Novum), especially Armenian MSS knowing of such tradition seems of particular importance concerning history of Ephesus, because Armenian regions are geographically near located to western coast of Asia Minor and ancient Ephesus, and the Armenian Churchly traditions and Manuscripts we much outside of the sphere of old Byzantian Churchly editors whose activity is in much quite responsible for the harmonisation tendencies. But preserved geographically quite near to the famous ancient centrum Ephesus, such Armenian tradition probably is much reliable simply because of in the ancient world, some details of ancient prosperous culture of Ephesus certainly were well known in areas quite near, such as in Armenian regions; and also in some Greek MSS that tradition of KIBOOTIA/KIBOORIA is supported! With much interest thus should be here noticed that ancient Armenian traditions support comprehension that the Acts 19:24ff POIOON NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS was in some regions of Ancient Asia Minor or in their neighbouring areas comprehended as ISOOS OOS KIBOORIA/KIBOOTIA MIKRA. THIS TRADITION OF KIBOOTIA DESCRIBES THAT SUCH NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS WERE LIKE SMALL BOATS; KIBOTOS IS IN BIBLICAL TRADITION WELL KNOWN TERM AND DENOTES BOATS, OR AT LEAST CUP/BOWL FORM OBJECTS. IMPORTANTLY, GREEK WORDS HERE NOTICE POSSIBLE SLIGHT IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE, BECAUSE NAUS DENOTES SHIPS AND NAOS DENOTES TEMPLES AND SHRINES. WELL MOTIVATED, WE THUS HERE FIND MENTION OF MAKING SILVER SHIPS OF ARTEMIS, SPECIFIED BEING SIMILAR TO SMALL KIBOOTOS BOATS, thus specified in Armenian tradition that has survived outside of the realm of the harmonising Byzantian editing, but geographically very near to ancient Ephesus and thus claiming much reliability. WHAT, THEN, MAY HAVE BEEN SUCH SMALL SILVER SHIPS OF ARTEMIS, QUITE SIMILAR TO SMALL KIBOTOS BOATS? THUS WE REMIND READERS SOME IMPORTANT NUMISMATIC EVIDENCE: SOME ANCIENT COINS FROM LEUKAS DEPICT ARTEMIS ON SHIP, AND IMPORTANTLY, ARTEMIS IS DEPICTED ON SHIP IN MAGNETS FROM THESSALY (this important numismatic evidence is preserved also in the British Museum, and in scholarly discussions widely known, even the standard Pauly-WISSOWA mentioning of this important numismatic evidence in art. “Artemis” (1350), so that scholars since generations CERTAINLY do have knowledge of existence of such coins where Artemis is depicted on ship, thus even depicted on MAGNETS FROM THESSALY.) Thus we summarise this important CONCLUSION: APPARENTLY DEMETRIOS SILVERSMITH WAS ACTIVE IN PRODUCTION OF SILVER COINS OR MAGNETS WHERE WAS DEPICTED GODDESS ARTEMIS ON SHIP. THIS IS WELL MOTIVATED BY EVIDENCE: SOME GREEK AND ARMENIAN MANUSCRIPT TRADITIONS SPECIFY THAT THESE NAOUS ARGUROUS ARTEMIDOS (ACTS 19:24) WERE LIKE SMALL BOATS (OOS KIBOOTIA MIKRA) AND IN NUMISMATIC EVIDENCE ARE KNOWN COINS OF LEUKOS AND MAGNETS OF THESSALY WHERE GODDESS ARTEMIS IS DEPICTED ON SHIP (The British Museum). ANCIENT EPHESUS WAS IMPORTANT NAVAL CENTRUM IN ANCIENT PROSPEROUS ASIA MINOR, AND ARTEMIS OF EPHESUS WAS THEN WORLD WIDE RESPECTED; APPARENTLY THUS ANCIENT SEACAPTAINS COULD PURCHASE GOOD QUALITY MAGNETS (LODESTONES) AS PART OF CULT OF ARTEMIS OF EPHESUS, THESE MAGNETS STANDARDISED GUARANTEED BY IMAGE OF ARTEMIS ON SHIP ENGRAVED ON SUCH STANDARDISED ANCIENT MAGNETS (LODESTONES). SILVERSMITHS BEING ACTIVE IN ANCIENT PRODUCTION OF STANDARDISED MAGNETS (LODESTONES) IS ESPECIALLY MOTIVATED NOTICING THAT MAGNETS OF SOME REGIONS, WERE OF WHITE OR WHITE-BLUISH COLOUR (e.g. MAGNETS FROM MAGNESIA IN ASIA) AND THUS COULD BE WELL INCLUDED IN ACTIVITIES OF SILVERSMITHS, IN THEIR APPEARANCE MUCH RESEMBLING SILVER. IN GREEK TERMINOLOGY, VERB ARTAOO USUALLY NOTICES THE ATTRACTION BY MAGNETS, THUS KNOWN ALSO BY PLATO IN DIALOGUE ION, THIS EMPHASISING CONNECTION OF GODDESS ARTEMIS WITH MAGNETS THAT “ARTAOO” ATTRACT IRON (CONCLUSION, by Pasi K Pohjala 2013 in this Verre et Bible 16). The cult of Artemis indeed did have important connections with sea and seafaring, and thus it is well understandable that to seafarers were in cult of Artemis delivered standardised magnets (especially magnets from Magnesia in Asia) standardised and guaranteed with depiction of goddess Artemis on ship depicted on the magnet. Ephesus was important naval centrum in Hellenistic world, also of times of New Testament, and in whole Mediterranean world cult of Artemis of Ephesus was widely reputed and marvelled. The region of Ephesus, Lydia and regions of northern Anatolia were also very important and prosperous iron mining centra in those times. This was Big Business of those times; and cult of goddess Artemis was in Ephesus then centrally important and widely reputed in whole Mediterranean. Ancient writers much recognise this important cult, thus e.g. Strabo 14.1.20-23; Pausanias 2.25 and 4.31; Xenophon E 1. The Temple of Artemis of Ephesus was even regarded one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world! Also regarding realities of business, it is well understandable that such commercial and naval centrum Ephesus did in religious cult represent important knowledge of ancient navigating; and thus it is understandable that in cult of Artemis of Ephesus were also distributed standardised magnets (lodestones), essentially important for ancient seafarers. We thus notice some important details in Greek cult of Artemis and comprehension of Artemis. Importantly, the standard discussion of the original Pauly-Wissowa very clearly presents also many aspects of Artemis cult that are specially relevant for seafaring. “Sie ist es, die den Seefahrern glucklichen Ausfahrt (EKBATERIA) verleiht, den Lauf der Schiffe beflugelt (NEEOSSOS…EUPORIA) und ihnen unversehrte Heimkehr gewahrt (EUNOSTOS); sie ist es, die den Sturm tosen lasst oder den gunstigen Wind zuruckhalt (z.B. fur die Flotte in Aulis); Schiffe benennt man haufig zur gunstigen Vorbedeutung mit Beinamen derA“ (Pauly-Wissowa art. Artemis, 1350). Here is described the belief that goddess Artemis secured happy departure of seafarers, quickly transported the ships, and guaranteed their safe return; also Artemis governed winds and storms and could still winds. Often ships also bore the name Artemis, thus in hope of promoting voyages. Thus in Greek culture were known Artemis LIMNAIA and Artemis LIMNATIS, and also Artemis POTAMIA; and often Artemis is named also PARALIA (at the seashore). For promoting more knowledge of these important aspects of cult of Artemis, we now little more extensively quote from Pauly-Wissowa “Die Vermischung der binnenlandischen Naturgottin mit dem ionischen Letoidenkultus hatte die Aufnahme mancher neuen Zuge in das Gesamtbild der Gottin zur Folge. Galten schon fruher Quellen und Bache als ihr wohlgefallig, so dehnt sich nun ihre Macht auch uber das Meer aus, wozu sich auch die alten binnenlandischen Beziehungen zu Poseidon trefflich fugten. Nun hat sie auch am Meeresstrande zahlreiche Heiligtumer (A. AITOOLEE in Naupaktos, DIKTUNNA bei Las, SAROONIA in Trojen, der Leto und ihrer Kinder in Delios vgl auch die Epiklesis PARALIA). Sie ist es, die den Seefahrern glucklichen Ausfahrt (EKBATERIA) verleiht, den Lauf der Schiffe beflugelt (NEOSSOS..EUPORIA) und ihnen unversehrte Heimkehr gewahrt (EUNOSTOS); sie ist es, die den Sturm tosen lasst oder den gunstigen Wind zuruckhalt (z.B. fur die Flotte in Aulis); Schiffe benennt man haufig zur gunstigen Vorbedeutung mit Beinamen der A. Ein Schiffsvorderteil halt A. auf Munzen von LEUKAS (British Museum) und Smyrna; sie sitzt auf einem solchen auf Munzen der thessalischen Magneten (British Museum). Die Hafen schirmt sie als EPISKOPOS, sie ist LIMENITIS, LIMENOSKOPOS oder LIMENESSIN EPISKOPOS. Ihr zu Ehren, die von dem Bruder den Namen DELFINIA entlehnt, feiert man in Athen das Seeausfahrtfest der DELPHINEN“ (Pauly-Wissowa art. Artemis, 1350). Readers may wish to translate this in completeness, but now we notice the main details. When cult of Artemis was combined with cult of Leto, many changes occurred. Earlier were often springs and streams considered sacred to Artemis; but then becomes the power of Artemis extended even to sea- already earlier she was comprehended being connected with the great sea god Poseidon! Thus she was venerated in numerous temples on the coastal regions (A. AITOOLEE of Naupaktos, DIKTUNNA at Las, SAROONIA at Troy and often she was also called PARALIA). Goddess Artemis was also believed to secure happy departure of seafarers, she quickly transported the ships, and guaranteed their safe return; also Artemis governed winds and storms and could still winds. Often ships also bore the name Artemis, thus in hope of promoting voyages. Thus in Greek culture were known Artemis LIMNAIA and Artemis LIMNATIS, and also Artemis POTAMIA; and often Artemis is named also PARALIA (at the seashore). Goddess Artemis is depicted at fore-end of ship in coins from Leukas and Smyrna, and Artemis is depicted at fore-end of ship in Thessalian Magnets (British Museum). And Artemis protects harbours in role of EPISKOPOS, or LIMENITIS, or LIMENOSKOPOS. She is also called DELFINIA, and this is commemorated in Athenian navigating festival! Now we depart from considerations of cult of Artemis, in the important Pauly-Wissowa. Some considerations of developments in EGYPT also are important for better comprehension of cult of Artemis. During the religious syncretism of Hellenistic Egypt of Ptolemaic times, and thereafter, the goddess ARTEMIS was usually identified with goddess BASTET. She was usually depicted as cat headed or lion headed goddess, and she represented sunlight in its positive and growing powers. It is important to notice that BASTET usually is depicted holding in her hands devices like sistrum, or some “basket”. The goddess BASTET became in Egypt very important national goddess in the time of reign of Twenty-Second Dynasty when Libyan Pharaohs ruled Egypt and the BUBASTIS was the capital, the capital of 18eenth nome of Lower Egypt, in place strategically important for controlling routes to Mediterranean and to eastern Egyptian coast; e.g. important trade route led from BUBASTIS to Clysma that is situated in the areas where currently the Suez Channel starts in the coast of the Red Sea. Importantly, these trade routes were thus ONE important connection between Mediterranean coast and Red Sea and thus conducted some of the important trade between Mediterranean and Orient. It is thus quite worth recognising that in developments of Homeric times the Greek goddess Artemis more was comprehended with powers over sea and winds and protecting sea voyages; but it is here especially notable that the compass device is in (later) Arabic traditions known BOSLA that quite resembles the name of the important Egyptian BASTET deity. Other connection is that Arabic word ward notices roses and rosettes, this much reminding of the name ARTEMIS goddess, protector of seafaring. Comparing some historical developments, these times after 950BC are in Palestine later times of their early Iron Age, times of Judges and developments towards monarchy begun by YEMENITE-ARAB KING SAUL THE FIRST MONARCH OF ISRAEL (Bible records that king Saul was of tribe of Benjamin, that is, king Saul was YEMENITE-ARAB (e.g. 1 Samuel 9 and 10:20ff). The monarchy in Israel was begun by the YEMENITE-ARAB king Saul, so the Bible tells. Ancient names of monarchs often referred to the deity of their realm, in Israel often thus names including –JAH or –JAHU. This is of course important information of main tenets of religion of certain ancient realm in the time of reign of certain monarch. But the name of Saul rather sounds including reference