Monday, 28 January 2013
VERRE ET BIBLE FIFTEEN Where is Your Jerusalem? By Pasi K Pohjala January 28, 2013 (part 2/2) Jerusalem; but in this context especially the remarkable name MAHER SHALAL HAZ BAZ being MHRSLLH alerts Readers to consider also matters of harbours whose waters also are silent. In this notorious name MAHER-SHALAL-HAZ-BAZ would thus be possibly referred to harbours whose waters are silent and calm. We now consider descriptions in Ezek 36:2 HAH WBMWT YWLM LMWRSH HJTH LNW We notice here written MWRSH that vocalised is quite similar to the MURSAHA that in Surat HUD denotes a harbour; and this statement write of Bamot Olam. Usually this is rendered with “ancient high places”- but in the society of Israel and legitimate places of worship, such BAMOT had really central status- the BAMOT were anciently in Israel legitimate altars, legitimate places of worship. Marcus Jastrow concisely summarises this now really important detail “Bamah, name of the legitimate altars prior to, and of the illegitimate after, the establishment of a central sanctuary (at Shiloh) and of the Temple at Jerusalem” (Jastrow 176). However, now we in the current study are questioning the meaning of “Jerusalem” and arguing that “Jerusalem” is noun designating ancient harbours and safe anchorages, rather than being name of only one ancient city. Bamot high places are of course usually considered having been established only in hills. But now we comprehend TRANSLATION: HAA! For us were ancient BAMOT sanctuaries in Harbours! (Translation Pasi K Pohjala 2013) This statement of Ezekiel 36:2 thus increases our comprehension of the structure of old Israelite harbours MURSAHA- there was usually BAMOT “high place” sanctuary. (Hereby I am not suggesting that Bamot high places sanctuaries were located only in harbours; rather these apparently ancient lighthouse edifices were found in harbours and in important places around country for guiding travellers with their lights; more detailed discussion of importance of lighthouses and such tower edifices for ancient Israelite navigating and directing routes across land is in my recent Commentary of Book of Malachi, also in Verre et Bible series, published recently in December 2012 and rapidly becoming increasingly popular already now in beginning of year 2013! I acknowledge that I am really encouraged for Readers’ ever increasing interest and thus I, Pasi K Pohjala, pledge to powerfully and effectively continue my progressing publishing of Biblical Studies, to so much rejoicing of many Readers! With much thankfulness: apparently the VEB Verre et Bible publishing Series of my Biblical studies is increasingly becoming VIP). But HERE in Ezekiel 36:2 we find noticed ancient BAMOT sanctuaries in MURSAHA harbours. Importantly, language in this context is very clearly describing ancient harbours. Thus we read here in Ezek 36:3 JYN BJYN SMWT WSAP ATKM MSBJB LHJWTKM MWRSH LSARJT HGWJM Here is written concerning the MURSAHA and that it is placed amidst waves swallowed all around (SAP, and YN can notice wallowing); this is realistic description of a harbour place in coastal line beside swallowing waves of the high seas. This is nice description of MURSAHA harbour in ancient Israel, and notice of ancient BAMOT (sg. BAMA) sanctuary in this harbour (apparently some taller tower like edifice in the harbour, like a lighthouse); and notice how this harbour was from all sides swallowed up amidst waves. Also we read in Ezekiel 11 statement written of Jerusalem and Mursaha, reading 11:14ff that “Then the word of the Lord came to me: “O mortal, your brothers, your brothers, the men of your kindred, all of that very house of Israel (KL BJT JSRAL KLH) to whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem (JSBJ JRWSLM) say, ‘Keep far from the Lord; the land has been given as a heritage to us (LNW HJA NTNH HARZ LMWRSH)” (Tanakh translation) This is interesting statement that in the vocabulary of Ezekiel much specifies his statements concerning Israel, Jerusalem and MURSAHA. Clearly in this statement are very importantly “Jerusalem” and “MURSAHA” actually identified. Here is recorded saying of the “inhabitants of Jerusalem” maintaining that the area concerned had been given to them as MURSAHA. Importantly, MURSAHA is clearly here presented as some area or place (ARZ), it is not something abstract such as money, and “Jerusalem” is here apparently presented also as place noticing the inhabitants of “Jerusalem”. Thus is actually the meaning of “Jerusalem” explained with the term MURSAHA, that is: this statement indeed presents “Jerusalem” as old noun that designates harbours. Also is notable that this context in prophesy of Ezekiel 11-12 really specifically notices matters concerning with seafaring. This statement notices namely AHJK AHJK ANSJ GALTK, Tanakh translation noticing “your brothers, your brothers, the men of your kindred”, and the word GALTK is here especially noteworthy in THIS context of Ezekiel 11-12. Boat construction is clearly described in the following 12:3 with GL words, stating WATH BN ADM YSH LK KLJ GWLH WGLH JWMM LYJNJHM WGLJT MMQWMK; I have recently discussed also this description of old seafaring in my Commentary Nahum)). Thus is more understandable here stated “Say then: Thus said the Lord God: I have indeed removed them far among the nations and have scattered them among the countries, and I have become to them a diminished sanctity (Miqdash- “sanctuary”) in the countries whither they have gone” (Tanakh translation Ezekiel 11:16) This statement of Ezekiel 11 describes notoriously the situation of people scattered around, among different countries and different folks: God Himself has become to them small Sanctuary (AHJ LHM LEMIQDASH MYT BARZWT ASR BAW SM). With this description it is really understandable that “Jerusalem” is here in Ezek 11:14ff actually identified with the MURSAHA place (harbour or safe haven). We read some more descriptions also in Psalm 61. I have in my preceding Commentary of Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 more discussed the notorious details of vision production (MIKHTAM and Greek rendering STEELOGRAFIA) described in those Psalms. However, Psalm 61 is NOT a Mikhtam Psalm- in this Mikhtam Psalm genre are reckoned Old Testament Psalms 56-60 and 16 where the MIKHTAM is noticed; and the theme “Jerusalem” or MWRSH is in the Mikhtam Psalms not important. Furthermore, the Psalm 62 is Psalm of Jeduthun and has certain importance in the histories of Obadiah and Temple Musicians, and this Psalm 62 has been therefore somewhat discussed in my recent Commentary to Book of Obadiah. Neither Psalm 62 discusses “Jerusalem”. Now we consider some details in Psalm 61 that are clearly important for current discussion concerning MURSAHA and “Jerusalem”. Ideologically is noteworthy that in this Psalm 61 is apparently emphasised matters concerning to seafaring KJ ATH ALHJM SMYT LNDRJ NTT JRST JRAJ SMK JMJM YL JMJ MLK TWSJP SNWTJW KMW DR WDR We can read the JMJM YL JMJ being from JAM “sea” even if translations prefer to read here the JOM “day” (this is one of the famous and actually quite often occurring puns of reading Hebrew Bible). Recognising this apparent detail notices in this statement strongly matters concerning seafaring. We thus notice that NTT JRST JRAJ SMK describing how God has given JRSH HARBOUR to those who honour his name, those from Seas; and here is also noticed that God has enthroned a king over the seas. Also is worth noticing the Hebrew word TNHNJ that is form with sg.1 suffix (NJ) and formed of NH; the apparent reference to NH or NOAH clearly refers Readers to attentively here consider matters of seafaring, especially when JAM seas clearly here are discussed. Actually quite nice description of piers is here alluded to in writing of “ends of the earth” in the meaning that quite concretely indeed piers of harbours are “ends of earth”; here Psalm 61:3 writes of MQZH HARZ. This sentences namely also notices TWP floating, and the BBZWR notices also such places that are surrounded by bars, such as balconies (or piers, see Jastrow 183). Thus are in this Psalm 61 interestingly noticed seas and harbours JRSH. Important seafaring traditions are written in Isaiah 33-34, and we now notice first Isa 33:21 and 34:1 stating “for there the Lord in his greatness shall be for us like a region of rivers, of broad streams, where no floating vessel can sail and no mighty craft can travel (BL TLK BW ANJ SWT WZJ ADJR LA JYBRNW) - their ropes are slack, they cannot steady the sockets of their masts, they cannot spread a sail…approach, O nations, and listen, give heed O peoples! Let the earth and those in it hear, the world (WMLAH TBL) and what it brings forth” (the Tanakh translation). Here is the TBL importantly written in description of floating vessels. The Isa 33:8 also emphasises words of rising, QWM and RWM and the 33:10 notices TEBEL here in Isaiah. And in this discussion Isaiah writes of Jerusalem in words “Your eyes shall behold Jerusalem as a secure homestead (YJNJK TRJAJNH JRWSLM NWH SANN) A tent not to be transported, whose pegs shall never be pulled up, and none of whose ropes shall break” (Tanakh translation) Readers comprehend that thus is Jerusalem here connected to NOAH traditions, thus to the Biblical traditions of seafaring, in writing of this NWH; and the SANN also refers to the ANJH noun, usual word in Hebrew for ships and boats. What is, then, such notable tent AHL edifice? Apparently here is described a tent like edifice where boat was resting (NH) in the landing place, and this harbour place with this boatshed tent edifice is here called “Jerusalem”. Also in important seafaring description in Ezekiel 27 we find interesting references to floating. The Ezekiel 27:28 writes namely in Hebrew Bible that LQWL ZYQT HBLJK JRYSW MGRSWT In the current Study we here below shall more notice these emphasised RS words JRYSW MGRSWT, that they are important words of seafaring life that describe how boats are in anchorage tossing and shaking much (RYS), so well known for every sailor, and the MGRSWT noticing the safe anchorages and safe harbours (cf. Mursaha in Surat HUD and Mersa coastal harbour cities- for more discussion, see below). Here we notice LQWL ZYQT HBLJK where also THB is written, somewhat appropriately with word HBL noticing these captains, they apparently being important for keeping boats and ships afloat. Below we shall comment the SYR word of tossing and shaking with “Following the Tanakh translation we then question HOW such isles and islands might tremble or quake? Obvious answer of course is that they look somehow like seen from a boat- seen from the quaking boat the islands indeed seem quite much trembling (even if the islands themselves are strong and stable), the quaking and tossing of those islands is caused by the quaking of place of observer, that the islands are Also in Haggaj 2:6-7 is important detail that RYS words in Old Testament notice Harbours and safe havens; thus “Jerusalem” is not name for one city but old noun for safe harbours. We study now details of Haggaj 2:6-7, especially the Hebrew RYS word; and thus we comment that very large and important question of Old Testament study, namely question concerning meaning of the numerous RYS words in Hebrew Bible. We shall notice that often also these RYS words importantly notice anchorage, safe havens and safe harbours. In Quran we remember the Sura HUD where the safe anchorage is noticed MURSAHA. Thus we even more consider that quite big question of Biblical research, to what extent Old Testament and especially Apocrypha of Old Testament describe reality of ancient maritime empire. Of course Readers much consider that mostly Old Testament describes events in ancient times in the area that we currently know as Palestine (or Israel), and many happenings generally in regions of modern areas of Jordania, Syria, Egypt and especially Lebanon. But we shall see that notoriously much Old Testament describes reality of such regime and rule that was a naval trade empire, stretching from East to West. Thus one important detail is that we notice reality typical of such naval empires- and thus are questions of harbours and safe havens of very big importance. The current writer Pasi K Pohjala also recently has discussed previously question of distant ancient trade settlements and trade voyages between these trade stations in discussing writings of the GOLA in Old Testament. Usually is GOLA seen as quite hapless and unhappy exile, and pious are looking forward to divine help to gather together pious from such utterly wretched situation. But I have recently put forward important argumentation in the tradition that comprehends such GOLA rather as description of reality of maritime trade empire whose trade posts and trade settlements are located in distant areas and much of activity of that regime is concerning the successful voyages between these settlements, so that trade, commerce and cultural exchange are reality. Now we more study the question of HARBOURS in Old Testament, studying RYS words in Old Testament Now we more study the question of HARBOURS in Old Testament, studying RYS words in Old Testament, also in Haggaj 2:6-7. We notice the currently understood usual lexical meanings of RYS words (and some similar words) in Hebrew Bible. Marcus Jastrow translates RYS with “to tremble, be in commotion, rage” and the Hifil as “to shake, disturb”. And Marcus Jastrow notices the noun RYS with “commotion, earthquake” (p. 1489). Everyone who has been in a boat or travelled in a smaller ship well knows how much these are shaking and are trembling. Boats and ships in anchorage especially much are shaking and are in disturbance. And the BDB (that is fundamentally continuing and developing the Gesenius) notices the RYS “quake, shake” and “tremble, quake, toss rage (of sea)” (BDB 950). It is now really important to notice that the BDB that is based on Gesenius and is thereby developed during generations of Biblical scholars here indeed notices RYS ALSO as “toss, rage (of sea)”. this important notice of RYS having circumstance in seafaring and seas is now noticed as actually quite usual in Old Testament, so that RYS quite often notices trembling and quaking on seas, amidst waves, and importantly, also in the situation that boat or ship is anchored in a harbour. In the Ezekiel 27:28 we read LQWL ZYQT HBLK JRYSW MGRSWT “at the outcry of your pilots the billows shall heave” (Tanakh) Thus is noticed a kind of strong cry from captains and that then in MGRSWT areas shall be quaking. The RYS word is here explicit describing situation of seafaring, and thus it is in these widely received translations such as Tanakh rendered. The Septuagint tradition indeed translates here the HBL as KUBERNEETAI. And description of circumstances of harbours and naval affairs is important also in Ezekiel 26:15 that in Hebrew Bible states of TYRE that KH AMR ADNJ JHWH LZWR HLA MQWL MPLTK BANQ HLL BHRG HRG BTWKK JRYSW HAJJM “Thus said the Lord God to Tyre: The coastlands shall quake at the sound of your downfall, when the wounded groan, when slaughter is rife within you” (Tanakh) The word AJJM also may be translated as islands or isles (see BDB)- thus is noticed the RYS doing and AJJM isles and islands that clearly thus specifies RYS being importantly relevant also in context of maritime culture and seafaring. Following the Tanakh translation we then question HOW such isles and islands might tremble or quake? Obvious answer of course is that they look somehow like seen from a boat- seen from the quaking boat the islands indeed seem quite much trembling (even if the islands themselves are strong and stable), the quaking and tossing of those islands is caused by the quaking of place of observer, that the islands are seen from a boat or ship that is in midst of sea quaking and tossing. And thus Ezekiel 26:18 concludes that YTH JHRDW HAJN JWM MPLTK WNBHLW HAJJM ASR BJM MZATK “now shall the coastlands tremble on the day of your downfall and the coastlands by the sea be terrified at your end” (Tanakh). Also interesting notices are in the following prophecy concerning Tyre in Ezekiel 27 where the 27:4-5 notice “your frontiers were on the high seas, your builders perfected your beauty. From cypress trees of Senir they fashioned your planks;they took a cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for you” (Tanakh) BLB JMJM GBWLJK BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM MSNJR BNW LK AT KL LHTJM ARZ MLBNWN LQHW LYSWT TRN YLJK This prophesy is concerning Tyre, the important ancient naval centrum. Appropriately thus is noticed BLB JMJM GBWLJK, that the frontiers of Tyre were on seas. And then we notice in Hebrew stated BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM and ask what, then, is this BRWSJM. Preceding words BLB JMJM GBWLJK refer clearly to situation or place beside high sea, that is, harbour. Thus we now render this BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM so that this statement refers to RWS HARBOUR, thus rendering that “your builders perfected your beauty IN THE HARBOUR”. Of course, this is really appropriate description of that ancient famous flourishing Tyre, appraisal of that magnificent beautiful harbour of Tyre. Now the BDB translating tradition, of course, does render this BRS as denoting cypress or fir (BDB 141) but there also acknowledging that the specific meaning of BRS root is, however, unknown. We notice that even if BRS in some statement indeed notices cypress or fir trees, attentive Readers of Hebrew Bible shall specifically notice the B-RS where the meaning of noun RS (or RYS) is central; THUS reading now B-RS we indeed find reference here to the RS harbour and can thus render here IN THE HARBOUR. This is of course specially appropriate because this statement immediately before writes of place being the frontier beside the high seas- and harbour is exactly such place, built by builders. Then this statement continues noticing that plank structures in that harbour were of planks from Senir; and structures of poles and masts were of poles of cedar trees. We now observe here in Ezekiel 27:4-5 written BLB JMJM GBWLJK BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM we notice that apparently here is written of area beside the coast, so that the RWS here designates the harbour of Tyre, that truly famous ancient naval centrum, Thus we compare this apparent statement with writing in the Ezekiel 27:28-29 that LQWL ZYQT HBLJK JRYSW MGRSWT WJRDW MANJWTJHM KL TPSJ MSWT MLHJM KL HBLJ HJM AL HARZ JYMDW Here is described clearly how seamen and captains come to land from their ships. Apparently that area MGRSWT where this happens is usually designated as “harbour”, and I thus present slightly emended form of Tanakh translation (emendation in capital letters) “At the outcry of your pilots TREMBLE THE HARBOURS (MIGROSOT) and all the oarsmen and mariners, all pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships And stand on the ground” (Ezekiel 27:28-29) Apparently coming to land from ships occurs in harbours: thus in this statement we have really obvious description of harbour MIGRASA in this prophesy concerning Tyre. We have now noticed in numerous Old Testament writings that the R-S word MURSAHA indeed in many statements there refers to harbours and safe anchorages. Now we consider some writings of word MGRS (Migrash) that is in Old Testament quite often and well defined part of many cities, word used in apparently well defined meaning in Old Testament. This word is in current translation tradition usually rendered as “common-land” or “open land” (BDB 177), but apparently this tradition more reflects considerations of cities located inlands. However, when we realise that some (or many) cities noticed in Old Testament may have actually been located in coastal areas, Readers surely ask how Biblical statements might then tell of the harbour of such coastal cities. Answer is now that current Bible translation much less considers questions of harbours because of the assumption that there described cities were inland cities. Here noticed quite many descriptions of RS words and Mursaha words noticing apparently harbours, also constructed and developed harbours, importantly lead Readers to consider that actually the MIGRAS city part noticed in Old Testament may have been in some (or in many texts) the HARBOUR of that city. We shall now see that indeed some MIGRASH statements in Old Testament clearly are descriptions of HARBOURS of cities. Thus we consider more statements in Old Testament. We consider more statements in Isaiah 57. There are RS words mentioned interestingly in Isaiah 57:20 writing “the wicked are like the troubled sea which cannot rest; whose waters toss up mire and mud. There is no safety, said my God, for the wicked” (Tanakh) Thus we consider this statement in Hebrew Bible writing that BWRA NWB SPTJM SLWM SLWM LRHWQ WLQRWB AMR JHWH WRPATJW WHRSYJM KJM NGRS KJ HSQT LA JWKL WJGRSW MJMJW RPS WTJT (57:19-20) This statement in Hebrew Bible writes of GRS (of form NGRS) and RSYJM, and the modern translation clearly acknowledges that indeed here is written concerning seafaring and sailing and seas. We easily notice that RS words noticing harbours and anchorages in Hebrew Bible are there quite usually written clearly in this meaning, in many statements and in many books of Hebrew Bible. This is especially important to notice; merely some occurrences could still be regarded as belonging to style and special vocabulary of a particular book or prophesy. Merely some scattered examples of RS words designating harbours and anchorages and safe havens could also be thought as occurring for merely referring to suspect practises of older cultures or cultures surrounding, presented thus mostly for purpose of criticism. Thus the task in the current study was to show that RS words designating harbours and anchorages in Hebrew Bible indeed occur in many books and by many authors and prophesies, AND that these RS words thus describe and name the OWN culture and practises of the culture and religion of these writers and prophets. With this argumentation we then described to the Readers that indeed in Hebrew Bible RS words in many statements and in many descriptions and prophesies do occur as positive description of the culture of these prophets and the Biblical religion. This is to say, in these statements the prophets and writers thus were describing everyday life of their societies and practises of their culture and religion, their OWN practises of seafare and harbours, anchorages and safe havens. We now especially remember that the region of Palestine was from the times ancient indeed very famous for their seafaring. Tyre and Sidon little north of the area of modern Palestine were in ancient world enormously famous for their seafaring, their seafaring in the whole Mediterranean region and even beyond. Remember well that the famous ancient sea god in Hellenistic world is POSEIDON whose name unmistakably to everyone referred to SIDON, that enormous centrum of ancient seafaring; and worth is remembering that POSEIDON actually had established status as one patron of ancient polis ATHENS. Ancient Phoenicians were very important seafaring people, their naval trade empire was in Eastern Mediterranean from time ancient very important, and old Egyptians often employed specialist Phoenician captains, seamen and ship builders for their endeavours in Mediterranean naval trade. This regarded, where have all the seamen gone in modern Bibles- this question is essential for really many versions of modern Bible understanding, as well in Christian Bible translations, as in the modern Tanakh project “the Tanakh is an entirely original translation of the Holy Scriptures into contemporary English, based on the Masoretic- the traditional Hebrew- text. It is the culmination of three decades of collaboration by academic scholars and rabbis representing the three largest branches of organised Judaism in America. Not since the third century B.C.E, when seventy-two elders of the tribes of Israel created the Greek translation of Scriptures, known as the Septuagint, has such a broad-based committee of Jewish scholars produced a major Bible translation.” (Tanakh translation, The Jewish Publication Society). The Tanakh project indeed is monumental and the representants thoroughly learned. Alas, we questioned their translation already considering word BHR or B-Har, because famously is BAHARI in Arabic language the “sea”. And so on. Also their use of word “Jewish” is completely unacceptable, because Rabbinic Judaism was ONLY ONE of the branches of ancient Judaism, well known in ancient literature also groups of Sadducees and generally temple Priests, Zealots, general people or the Am Ha Aretz; and importantly we remember that early Christianity and followers of Jesus of Nazareth indeed were one important and growing group of ancient Jews. Maintaining that Rabbinical party is and was well established branch of ancient Judaism well is in accordance with reality; but simply appropriating the title “Jew” only to those who are or were of Rabbinical party is thorough perversion of truth and enormous humbug. These questions are in modern Bible research of course well known; and worthy reading and contemplating for these questions are also letters of Paul, former Rabbi who was educated in school of R. Gamaliel. We can thus conclude this study: indeed Old Testament often writes of MURSAHA and MEGRASA harbours and indeed some Old Testament statements very clearly identify “Jerusalem” as noun designating safe harbour. But we remember that actually many statements in Old Testament where “Jerusalem” is mentioned are actually somewhat vague and unspecified in their descriptions so that in reading many Old Testament statements mentioning “Jerusalem” we really should attentively consider if that particular statement actually describes a “safe harbour, Jerusalem”. Old Testament records many histories of ancient naval empire where overseas trade and travelling were important actions. END OF VERRE ET BIBLE FIFTEEN.
WHERE IS YOUR LOCAL JERUSALEM? IN OLD TESTAMENT “JERUSALEM” OFTEN IS NOUN FOR SAFE HAVENS AND SAFE HARBOURS, NOT NAME OF ONE CITY (VERRE ET BIBLE 15) A Biblical Study of Old Testament, By Pasi K. Pohjala , January 28, 2013 Studying Old Testament statements concerning Jerusalem we first specify precisely the topic of this study. Thus we first notice questions of orthography: in the Old Testament this name is almost always written as JRWSLM; only in few statements is the variant JRWSLJM written (thus in 1 Chron 3:5, 2 Chron 25:1, Esther 2:6 and Jer 26:18). In the Greek Septuagint translation is written of IEROUSALEEM, and Greek New Testament writes of HIEROSOLYMA. And in cuneiform equivalents is of URUSALIM and URUSALIMMU written. Especially important now is to notice ideas concerning etymology of this name; in the scholarly consensus, at least among Editors and Editorial Board of the TDOT, this question is now solved in favour of finding JRH word, stating “etymologically, the name may mean something like ‘foundation’ (JRH I yara) of the God Shalem. This would be a pre-Israelite name” (thus Editor Helmer Ringgren in Art. Jerusalem in TDOT VI). Everyone knows well that discussions concerning “Jerusalem” is of quite importance for Biblical religion, so that Scholars and Editorial Boards of thus important co-operations as TWAT (in English translation this is the TDOT) have discussed and pondered this question profoundly. Thus it is important to notice that the little older large Scholarly consensus result is reflected in BDB article of “Jerusalem” (BDB 436, the BDB is founded upon the work of Gesenius, translated by Robinson and thereafter developed noticing much progress of Scholarly discussions) where is concerning etymology listed possible derivation from JRH “foundation of peace” or “foundation of Shalem” but ALSO in the BDB concise article is noticed scholarly tradition of finding the derivation from RWS words: JRWS SLM “possession of peace” or “Salem’s possession”. Currently in the important TDOT dictionary now the scholarly consensus more prominently emphasises the derivation from JRH “founding”. And Marcus Jastrow does not make any special references to etymology of the name “Jerusalem” (Jastrow 595), but in this Dictionary the name Jerusalem is mentioned after JRWSH that means “conquest, taking possession” and “inheritance, heirloom”; and after “Jerusalem” the Dictionary writes of JRWTA “conqueror, heir” and “conquest, possession” (Jastrow 595); this suggests to the Readers more referring to RWS words. These now may here represent current more widely represented scholarly comprehensions of the etymological origination of the name Jerusalem, reflected in the widespread scholarly opinions as recorded in the TDOT, BDB and Jastrow’s Dictionary. Many of best current and past Biblical Scholars and many religious leaders have written extensive books and articles concerning Jerusalem: indeed, enormous number of books and articles in huge number of languages and religious groupings have been written concerning Jerusalem during hundreds of years, and even numerous are well researched bibliographies. Important question thus is to consider what the Jerusalem then may refer to. Usually of course is considered that Jerusalem refers to one city, the city that is capital of current Israel and that was founded in Israelite rule as the capital of Davidic kingdom. This study, however, studies mentions that strongly argue that often the Biblical mention of Jerusalem does not refer to ONE city (as usually is thought)- this study argues that in Bible many mentions of Jerusalem rather occur as general NOUN, the noun meaning safe harbours and safe havens and safe anchorages. For Readers might this comprehension sound quite surprising, regarding that the current city Jerusalem is inland in the mountainous Judaea and that no other major city with that name is currently known. How could thinkably Jerusalem be thus comprehended? But we find surprisingly easily important and even contemporary support for such argument. We should well remember that Old Testament does know actually quite much of realities of maritime trade and ancient seafaring, also according to the currently widely accepted translations (English RSV, NRSV, King James’ Bible and other modern translations in main European languages); world of seafaring and sailing is to some extent indeed known in Old Testament, according to widely accepted comprehensions. But Jerusalem? Let us first remember the ancient and important Mediterranean busy harbours Marseille and Barcelona. Everyone of course quite often in casual contexts talks also of these well known and busy cities. But studying their names surprisingly reveals these names as close parallels to name Jerusalem. Name Marseille includes the M-R-S, clearly possible noun formation of root R-S, and reference to EL (usual designation of God, also in Bible and Semitic traditions). Name Barcelona is currently really famous in whole world and especially amongst followers of top football; but attentive reading of name Barcelona reveals in this name interestingly R-S and SELN (that is actually really close parallel to SALEM or SELEM). Every Reader well knows something of Barcelona and Marseille and easily now finds these names as close parallels to name Jerusalem. And looking in southern Mediterranean coast, we find there still currently existing and also prospering harbour cities MERSA or cities whose name include this MERSA (thus in the Arabic-speaking coast of South Mediterranean coast). We of course remember that from times ancient, Phoenician sailors sailed across whole Mediterranean sea and established settlements also in Western Mediterranean areas, even in Spain. It is quite worth considering that the busy and prosperous harbour city of Athens of Greece is PIREAS, also in this name of thus important harbour is the R-S element found. Historically worth considering is also that Apostle Paul was native of Tarsus and missionary journeys of Apostle Paul in Eastern Mediterranean were to many important harbour cities of Eastern Mediterranean. Pauline Christianity of Gospel of Jesus was spreading in many ancient harbour cities of Eastern Mediterranean, and seriously worth emphasising is also that Bible knows the Joshua-Jesus as the Joshua Son of NUN –indeed, NUN is in Egyptian religion designation for the Waters, the Primeval Seas and Deeps. And in front of the harbour of ancient megalopolis Alexandria was the island PHAROS- and the lighthouse of PHAROS was considered as one miracles of ancient world. We remind the Readers also of that the Quran Sura HUD indeed notices MURSAHA as harbour. In reality of Catholic Europe, we remember that Order of St. John of Jerusalem, or the Hospitallers, was anciently indeed a major naval power in Mediterranean. Thus from many important and quite different religious traditions we find widely well known and surprisingly usual details that clearly suggest this comprehension that JERUSALEM is a NOUN for harbours. We have thus many details both modern and ancient that strongly suggest to seek clarification of “JERUSALEM” by seeing that “Jerusalem” was an ancient NOUN FOR HARBOURS and SAFE ANCHORAGES. It is thus quite worth to read with much consideration how the current TDOT writes of Jerusalem, there also stating “Although the installation of the ark and the building of the temple were acts of kings, the election (9) (footnote 9: H. Seebass BHR bachar TDOT II, 80f.) of Jerusalem as the site of God’s rest and presence was always understood as an act of God’s free will.” (TDOT VI, art “Jerusalem” by M. TSEVAT). This statement by M. TSEVAT- and certainly well in detail considered by the General Editor Helmer Ringgren, he wrote smaller part of that article- is truly notorious. In writing of Jerusalem, here M. Tsevat makes reference to article BHR written by H. Seebass; this is from M. Tsevat really clear reference to matters concerning “sea” because name Seebass translated from German includes reference to “sea” (der/die See) and the BHR refers to SEA when the Arabic usual noun for sea BAHAR is considered (this Arabic BAHAR word for seas is important also for considering many details of the important ancient Cabbalistic BAHIR; we seriously should remember that many ancient Jews were living in regions were Arabic was the usual language). And in this statement of the Jerusalem article in TDOT, the writer M. TSEVAT emphasises Jerusalem as the place where God rested- and this apparently alludes to idea that a harbour and an anchorage is place where ships are resting. Of course this writer M. Tsevat in writing the article keeps to the current comprehension that Jerusalem indeed refers to one city, that in current Palestine, but such very clear allusions to considering matters of sea and seafaring here in the TDOT article are truly thought-provoking! Considering Jeremiah 32:8 is also important, because there is JRSH word written (BDB 440 “possession, inheritance”, of JRS). In this statement the semantic field of JRSH is interesting for current study, here is written that BARZ Binjamin KJ LK MSPT HJRSH WLK HGALH QNH LK Here are letters JRSHWL written that is almost the name Jerusalem, or some orthographical variant of name Jerusalem (if we consider grammatically the name containing plural masc, this JRSHWLK would be, indeed, form of “your Jerusalem” with sg. 2 possessive K). This statement writes name Binjamin where reference to high seas JAM, JAMIM is heard; and the word GAL also notices reference to such Phoenician usual ships that in Greek were famously called GAULOS boats. Here this text writes of purchasing some area of land. NOW we importantly find that this well can have been in Book of Jeremiah 32 description of purchase of place for anchorage or small private harbour, or place for boat shed, reading JRSHWLK as “your Jerusalem”. Really, this semantic context very strongly writes concerning matters of sea, Binjamin and GAL or Gaulos boats. We apparently render: TRANSLATION: please, purchase in area near to sea (area of Binjamin) that small harbour place for you (HJRSHWLK), suitable for GAULOS boats; you have right (Mispat) for that. (translation of Pasi K Pohjala 2013). Details of semantic context here quite clearly specify that here concerned area is actually a small harbour area, so clearly words in this sentence describe matters of sea and seafaring. Thus is considered response to Hanamel son of Shallum (SLM) for QNH LK AT SDJ ASR BYNTWT Prophet Jeremiah is thus offered to purchase field that is in Anatot; it is worth noticing that really this name ANATOT includes reference YNJ that indeed refers to ships and boats (ANJH); and the name well may include reference to THOTH who had important role in Egyptian mythology concerning seafaring, e.g. by ruling winds. It is indeed comprehensible that here considered area HJRSHWLK located in Anatot was actually a small harbour, a nice place for anchorage. (This Jeremiah 32 occurs in such situation that “Jerusalem” was under siege by Babylonians, so that here is notorious word play: the city Jerusalem being under siege and thus dangerous, Jeremiah is encouraged to purchase his own “safe haven” HJRSHWLK). In this text of Jeremiah 32 we also can suppose much specific terminology: this text Jer 32 describes in great detail procedure of making purchase of area: the offer, negotiation, writing the document, sealing the document and taking witnesses, weighing silver for payment, giving the deed of purchase to his secretary Baruch in presence of witnesses, for being included properly in archives. This Jeremiah 32 is widely regarded to be one good detailed description of writing of official documents and documents of purchase and their archival: the terminology is concrete and well reflects official parlance in court of those times. Thus finding here word HJRSHWLK is apparently and clearly then officially used title or noun for “your harbour area” or “field for your landing-site”- we thus observe here that here is not merely described area as “possession” but specifically “harbour area” HJRSHWLK is here discussed. Importantly, the JRSH noun is also in Judges 21:17 written in discussion of matters concerning the tribe Benjamin. Here is written that WJAMRW JRST PLJTH LBNJMJN The PLT in Hebrew Bible notices escaping and being fugitive, so that JRST PLJTH can here well notice harbour place for fleeing or becoming refuge, especially appropriate because name Binjamin here is noticed, referring thus to JAMJM seas. The chapter Judges 21 describes a very difficult episode in history of the Twelve tribes; in the situation described in Judges 21 these words may refer to encouraging some Binjaminites to flee overseas via the JRST PLJTH harbour of fugitives. (We present merely as important speculation that the PLJTH here refers to Philisteans, famously reigning the rich Levantine coastal lands, usually under Egyptian rule, so that here JRST PLJTH could notice that Benjaminites shall reign some “PHILISTEAN HARBOUR”, historically well appropriate. Importantly, the following discussion of Blessing of Moses Deut 33 also presents MWRSH clearly as harbour in Philistean regions.) Apparently the name refers to some connection with seas; thus here may be heard some foundational myth why some ancient Israelites were seafarers and thus travelling around, when others were mostly settled in life of agriculture. This Chapter Judges 21 concludes the Book and is concluded noticing how people of different tribes journeyed to possessions of their tribes. Apparently was situation of seafarers different because they did not have special allotted land areas in their possession but rather practised their profession in sailing in seas; rather were the harbours and safe anchorages for sailors centrally important- and indeed, here in Judges 21:17 are noticed the JRST PLJTH where we encounter the JRSH apparently referring to harbours. Well worth mentioning is tradition of ancient poem in Deuteronomy 33:5 writing TWRH ZWH LNW MSH MWRST QHLT JYQB WJHJ BJSRWN (Jesurun) MLK BHTASP RASJ YM JHD SBTJ JSRAL Traditions of this very old poetry are really ancient and of such times that much precede foundation of Jerusalem capital for Davidic kingdom or times of Jebusites immediately preceding times of foundation of Jerusalem capital. Here in Deut 33 is written concerning Israel. Thus we more freely can trace this very old parlance of MWRST QHLT JYQB, in this statement this MWRST apparently is compared with the Jesurun, noticed that he reigned as king in Jesurun. What do we, then, find here? The Jesurun only seldom occurs in Hebrew Bible, mostly being “poetic name of Israel, designating it under its ideal character” (BDB 448). However, when we consider the almost similar name SHARON (SRWN) we consider area traditionally recognised as the very fertile lowland north of Joppa (ancient major harbour) (BDB 450). Considering the Jod as poetic variant of orthography, we find here reference to reigning king in that Sharon fertile lowlands near to Joppa, something that of course was historically important; and in THIS context of geographically discussing that area near to Joppa is obviously important to talk of HARBOUR, and indeed here is of MWRSH discussed! (This Deuteronomy 33 is the famous Blessing of Moses, in Old Testament formally placed in situation where Israel had arrived near to the borders of the Promised Land and had not yet started conquering that Land- especially, normal historiography regards that in those times the Mediterranean coastal land was inhabited by the powerful Philisteans whom Israelites for considerable times could not win in battlefield for the military superiority of Philisteans. More pondering such questions are special questions of early history of Israel. Who were, exactly, Israelites? Who were those “Philisteans” who reigned those enormously fertile coastal lands? Much of modern research of course does not regard the episodes of Exodus and subsequent episode of conquering the Promised Land even partially as historical descriptions but rather mostly as beautiful and ideologically important mythologies. NOW we merely STOP at noticing that certainly it is appropriate to consider reigning king in those specially fertile Levantine lands Sharon north of Joppa and in those coastal areas certainly is interesting to talk of a harbour- thus is here indeed noticed the MWRST place!! But it is certainly really important that in this ancient Blessing of Moses the MWRSH is actually connected to Mediterranean Levantine coastal region and that in conclusion of Book of Judges the JRSH is clearly discussing matters of seas and coasts, Benjaminites. Apparently in these ancient traditions the JRSH word is much more specific than merely “possession”, it more specifically designates area governed that was actually a good harbour area. We now consider some details in Isaiah 8. Recently the current Writer Pasi K. Pohjala has published more extensive commentary on Book of Joel in the increasingly popular and increasingly discussion generating Verre et Bible publication series, and in this Commentary were much discussed ancient developments of watering and irrigation technologies, arranging channels, conduits, dikes, and narrower irrigation channels; these were much developed from ancient times in Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures, and in the Commentary of Book of Joel I presented that in Bible such irrigation agriculture is well known and surprisingly much in detail described. Now we notice in the current discussion the extensive description of different waters in Isaiah 8, there is written that “because that people has spurned the gently flowing waters of Siloam Assuredly, My Lord will bring up against them the mighty, massive waters of the Euphrates, the king of Assyria and all his multitude. It shall rise above all its channels, and flow over all its beds, and swirl through Judah like a flash flood reaching up to the neck” (Tanakh translation of Isaiah 8:5-8) In the Old Testament this is one vivid and in its tragic description, regrettably, quite realistic description of often prevailing circumstances in the countries where much dikes and channels were built- those somewhat often tended to break asunder and the following flooding and its devastation is well known in numerous ancient documents from those countries. Such flooding waters are quite violent waters, spreading around and bringing large devastation. Here Isaiah 8 importantly contrasts such waters with silent waters of Siloam. It is thus interesting that Siloam is thus clearly by Isaiah connected with peaceful water; we recognise that also waters in harbour behind the wharfs are such peaceful and calm waters, clearly in contrast with the roaring stormy waves in the high seas just beyond the piers built to protect the harbour (or the natural formations of that style that in the more ancient times were so centrally important for choosing suitable places for harbours and anchorage). Waters of Siloam are silent, calm; and Hebrew Bible states this MJ HSLH HHLKJM LAT and reading the name as Siloam is in Translations well supported. Here Isaiah emphasises that Siloam is place of such silent, calm waters. And in this Chapter Isaiah 8 is studied the remarkable name MAHER-SHALAL-HAZ-BAZ, this is also the name that Isaiah should give to his newborn son, thus emphasised in 8:3. We now remarkably notice that this name includes the MHRSLLH that is also apparent parallel to MURSA, MURSALA and MERSA MERSAHA nouns or a possible dialect variant or orthographical variant to these, thus referring to harbours, especially for including the SLH letters and the following writings specifying that the waters of SLH are calm and silent; and this name also parallels the name Jerusalem. The Siloam is of course usually in this context comprehended to denote the famous “tunnel of Siloam” that directed Gihon waters to Jerusalem; but in this context especially the remarkable name MAHER SHALAL HAZ BAZ being MHRSLLH alerts Readers to consider also matters of harbours whose waters also are silent. In this notorious name MAHER-SHALAL-HAZ-BAZ would thus be possibly referred to harbours whose waters are silent and calm. We now consider descriptions in Ezek 36:2 HAH WBMWT YWLM LMWRSH HJTH LNW We notice here
Thursday, 17 January 2013
Thus we quite much better comprehend these descriptions in Haggaj; and so have rendered to Readers of our times in English formulating that “The Kavod appearance is so magnified (GDL) in he House for Observing (HZH) in the Aaron style, the qualities that it is showing in doubles (SN) in the lamp vessel (AM,NR) of God of magnified visual signs, this place of magnifying (maqom, QM) is for observing visual sign (AT) miraculous (NS) in completeness (SLM)- that is prophesy from God of magnified visual signs” (New and Modernised Translation of Haggai 2:9 by Pasi K. Pohjala in Verre et Bible 2, 2008). Many Prayers to Mighty Typhoon in Greek Magical Papyri In the magical rituals described in Greek Magical Papyri notably many ritual prayers are said to divine Typhoon serpent. Important prayer is written in the Great Magical Papyrus IV, notably in ritual of LECANOMANCY bowl divination. Thus we read in PGM IV.154ff that “NEPHOTES TO PSAMMETICHOS, immortal king of Egypt…You will observe through bowl divination (SKEPSEE DIA LEKANEES AUTOPTOU) on whatever day or night you want, in whatever place you want, beholding the god in the water (THEOOROON TON THEON EN TOO HUDATI) and hearing a voice from the god which speaks in verses in answer to whatever you want. You will attain both the ruler of the universe and whatever you command, and he will speak on other matters which you ask about You will succeed by inquiring in this way: First, attach yourself to Helios in this manner (SUSTATHEIS PROS TON HELION TROPOO TOUTOO)…” Thus here in the PGM IV.154-170 is described ritual of bowl divination, lecanomancy, and thereby observations of appearances of the god in the waters, and hearing his answers to questions. This ritual involves importantly recitation of prayer “O Mighty TYPHON, ruler of the realm (KRATAIE TUPHOON, TEES ANOO SKEEPTOUKHIAS SKEEPTOUKHE) Above and master, god of gods, O lord ABERAMENTHOOU O dark’s disturber, thunder’s bringer, whirlwind Night-flasher (NUKTASTRAPTA), breather forth of hot and cold, Shaker of rocks, wall-trembler, boiler of The waves, disturber of the sea’s great depth (BUTHOTARAKSOKINEESE)…” (PGM IV.180-185, in Translation of E.N. O’Neil, in Ed. H.D.Betz) Thus is to Typhon prayed, noticing that Typhon in various situations brings light, in form of thunders and during night; and Typhon also disturbs the sea and boils the waves. Another ritual of bowl divination is thereafter described here in IV.224ff, ritual of bowl divination. In the bowl is poured rainwater if heavenly gods are called, or seawater if gods of earth are called, or river water if Osiris or Sarapis are called, or springwater if the dead. The PGM IV.235-242 then writes the spell spoken over that vessel, and divine name of hundred letters. This is then commented “but you are not unaware, mighty king and leader of magicians, that this is the chief name of TYPHON, at whom the ground, the depths of the sea, Hades, heaven, the sun, the moon, the visible chorus of the stars, the whole universe all tremble, the name which, when it is uttered, forcibly brings gods and daimons to it” (PGM IV.244-249, in Translation of E.N.O’Neil in Ed. Betz). Here is then also third important prayer to mighty TYPHON written, prayer said towards the rising sun: “I call you who did first control gods’ wrath You who hold royal sceptre o’er the heavens You who are midpoint of the stars above You, master TYPHON, you I call, who are The dreaded sovereign o’er the firmament… (SE KALOO TON PROOTA THEOON OPLON DIEPONTA SE TON EP’OURANIOON SKEEPTRON BASILEION EKHONTA SE TON ANOO MESON TOON ASTROON TUFOONA DUNASTEEN SE TON EPI TOO STEREOOMATI DEINON ANAKTA…) TYPHON, in hours unlawful and unmeasured, You who’ve walked on unquenched, clear-crackling fire, You who are over snows, below dark ice, You who hold sovereignty over the Moirai, I invoked you in pray’r, I call, almighty one…” (PGM IV.261-272 in Trl. E.N.O’Neil and Greek text from the Ed. of Karl Preisendanz. The Magical Papyri are in their terminology difficult and mysterious and in formulating their prayers mystical. Thus modern discussions better quite much follow the serious attempts in Ed. Karl Preisendanz and Ed. Betz to bring these very difficult and mystical texts somewhat comprehensible to readers of modern times. Readers do, of course, some own translations but public discussion better is much based on these very learned Editions.) We also here make important notices concerning cult of Asclepios. It is very important to be well knowledgeable of this ancient important and widespread religious cult, and it is likewise important to make distinctions of different rituals and cults were snake staffs and religion of snakes are mentioned; generally, in much of ancient religions snakes were positively noticed. But one important religious cult where snakes were centrally important was the cult of Asclepios. One quite comprehensive recent study is by C. Kerenyi “Asklepios. Archetypal Image of the Physician’s Existence” (1960, the Bollingen edition). It is quite worth mentioning that name Asclepios for that famous Hellenistic god of healing and medicine is notably similar with the usual Arabic TABIB (in Semitic languages the T and S often are changed so that we easily recognise how similar is name Asklepios to usual Arabic TABIB noun designating physicians. We may suppose certain, or quite much, Oriental influence; somehow similar what we notice in name Archimedes whose Principle is important for scientific study of floating objects- essentially important for designing BOATS and SHIPS- because in Greek language the name ARCHIMEDES actually means “Median Prince” (of the usual Greek verb ARKHEIN noticing ruling and reigning and ARKHEE noticing leading offices and ruling activities. Understandably, the ancient Median culture had certainly much and comprehensively studied floating objects and made more scientific theories of floating objects. The Archimedes’ Principle in purely descriptive terms notices the essential condition of any floating objects and thus is truly the fundament for successful boat construction (the famous principle noticing when a body is partly or completely immersed in a fluid the apparent loss of weight is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced). Thus such “Archimedes’ Principle” in Greek Science understandably is old Median or Babylonian tradition learned via some “Median Prince” or “Median nobleman”.) And notably the name Asclepios is in developments of Semitic languages notoriously similar to word TABIB for physicians. And important episode in the quite popular Biblical book of Tobith is finding medicine cure against eye infection, after a long search in distant travel. Many statues of Asclepios usually represent him with his snake staff. In the Greek world, the main sanctuary of Asclepios was in Epidaurus, although quite little is known of the details of the religious cult. Some notices by Pausanias emphasise that snake was considered a form of epiphany of Asclepios (II.10.3). Usually is regarded that the sacred snake of Asclepios was the coluber longissimus, quite lengthy tree snake whose head is, importantly, of brass colour. The Hebrew NAHAS word, of course, denotes both snakes and copper and brass; but specifically identifying thus the snake sacred to Asclepios should certainly be quite restricted especially to avoid too hasty comparisons with Hebrew NAHAS. The religious cult of Asclepios had interesting connections also with cult of sun. Near to city KOS in grove of Apollo Kyparissios was built temple of Asclepios, and in that temple also Helios and Hemera (Sun and Day) were worshiped. Indeed, in several inscriptions is Helios mentioned together with Asclepios, the name Helios usually there mentioned first (Kerenyi 1960, 55-56). Moreover, in Hellenistic religion, Asclepios has certain connections to sunrise “the morning song of Asklepios was incised on marble tablet in the Asklepeion at Athens “Awaken, Paieon Asklepios,” it begins and the closing words are: “Awaken and hear the hymn!” This god’s relations to the sunrise, his appearance as a kind of solar epiphany, could scarcely be made clearer” (Kerenyi 1960, 59). Indeed, also is known some medals of Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-35) from Nikaia, Asia Minor, where Asclepios is depicted on a winged snake as a sun god flaring up out of darkness (Kerenyi 1960, 99). Indeed, the cult of Asclepios could be founded where the sacred snake staff of Asclepios was present. Thus has cult of Asclepios apparent connections with solar cult and especially rituals at sunrise. It is important to remember Greek popular cult of Asclepios when considering Greek texts that consider healing or that notice snake staffs; but cult of Asclepios was, ONLY ONE widespread and popular cult where snakes and snake staff were centrally important symbols. Another very important religious cult is the cult of Hermes, and soon we make more notices of Hermes and his Caduceus snake staff that is also famous solar symbol. The cult of HERMES was (and is) of enormous religious importance and included important traditions of alchemy and cosmology, especially in Hellenistic Egypt the Hermetic religion developed intriguingly much. this is Verre et Bible of January 2013 by Pasi K Pohjala.
of the divine and divine utterance much emphasised here, and importantly in the Hebrew statement we indeed find clear and emphasised reference to snake god TWB. In Greek translation is described KURIOS, and Hebrew Bible writes with emphasis of TWB snake god. “1:8 making magnifying (YL) in the white vessel (HR) and making water reflections of complete method for finding advises (YZ); and thus build the House; and there is keen seeing illumination (AR, RZ) there, that is place of globule formed vessel (KB), such lamp vessel of God 1:9 you were looking for magnification, observing (HNH) thus what is small (MYT); and in the house of visions, from the blown vessels (PH, NPH, thus: glass blowing) you made water reflections (BA), there making divinations (YN) concerning the what-ness (MH), so are the words from God (neum), God of magnified visual signs (ZBAWT); and in the House was divination in the Assurian method (YN, ASR) that magnified visual signs in waters- and the fire-flame in the water-bowl, for keenness of seeing in that white vessel 1:10 vision from LEKANE is magnifying (YL) to plenitude (NKM) in that vessel that is water-container, making stretchings (NTH); and the keen seeing illumination (AR, RZ) produced (JBL) in that vessel” (New and Modernised Translation by Pasi K. Pohjala in Verre et Bible 2 (2008)). Haggaj 2:16-17 writes important description of magnified visions and snake god. The Hebrew Bible writes these statements MHJWTM BA AL YRMT YSRJM WHJTH YSRH BA AL HJQB LHSP HMSJM PWRH WHJTH YSRJM HKJTJ ATKM BSDPWN WBJRQWN WBBRD AT KL MYSH JDJKM WAJN ATKM ALJ neum JHWH This statement in Hebrew Bible includes important references to snake religion; and this is important statement describing magnification of visions. We notice AL YRMT that also echoes the description of the wise snake in Genesis 3:1 where Hebrew Bible describes that with YRM stating WHNHS HJH YRWM MKL HJT HSDH ASR YSH JHWH ALHJM WJAMR AL HASH Here Hebrew Bible describes the YRWM special wisdom of NHS snake. The AL YRMT here in Haggaj 2:16 reminds to Readers this description of specially clever YRWM snake NAHAS in Genesis 3:1. Here the Hebrew text emphasises comparison of YSRH and YSRJM, and thereafter emphasises comparison of HMSJM and YSRJM. “when one came to heap of twenty measures even if there had been only ten and when one came to wine vat of fifty measures even if there had been only twenty” (New and Modernised Translation of Haggaj 2:16 by Pasi K. Pohjala in Verre et Bible 2 (2008)). This New Translation much follows current Bible translations but emphasises the magnification noticing earlier situation of less and thereafter observed more. The magnification is noticed in word YRMT, usually translated “heap”, thus often in Biblical Hebrew, magnification noticed so that such “heap” was produced in magnification- ten measures became twenty. Importantly, reference to Genesis 3:1 emphasises that such magnification expressed and was realised by the wisdom of the Serpent. Greek Septuagint translation notices here EIS KUPSELEN KRITHEES. In my previous Commentary to Haggaj (Verre et Bible 11) I commented this KUPSELEE noticing that this word is in Septuagint quite rare word- it notices hollow vessels, generally chests and boxes. Thus are the KUPTOO words important, and these notice seeing and attentive observations; some writings of KUPTOO words in Septuagint were thus in Verre et Bible 11 noticed (p.6, especially EIS-KUPTOO, DIAKUPTOO, PARAKUPTOO). But importantly the current writer Pasi K Pohjala in that Verre et Bible 11 Commentary Haggaj noticed that the old Greek GUPS noun notices some large flying beings; one may thus find in Septuagint allusion even to GUPS FLYING SERPENT in Haggaj 2:16- quite much in accordance with Hebrew text writing YRMT that specially notices the Wisdom of the Serpent in Genesis 3:1. For studying book of Haggaj, the Psalm 102 (LXX 101) was found notorious, by stating EKSEKUPSEESEN EKS HUPSOUS HAGIOU AUTOU KURIOS EKS OURANOU EPI TEEN GEEN EPEBLEPSEN (Ps 101:20) Notable was found in LXX Ps 101:10 clear references to snakes. Also we notice here in Haggaj 2:16 the Hebrew Bible states BA AL HJQB LHSP HMSJM PWRH WHJTH YSRJM HKJTJ ATKM Here is noticed the JQB wine vat- but it is important to read in detail the following word LHSP, because the LHS notices also reciting incantations. We find here notorious situation that to this wine vat JQB was recited incantations- and this notoriously much is similar to the usual descriptions of bowl divination, the lecanomancy. And the AL in this Hebrew text writes also of god of that wine vat to whom were recited incantations. The Greek text writes of HUPOLENION EKSANTLESAI where the LEENOS and indeed the usual FIALEE word for bowls is noticed (noticing changes of P and F letters). Biblical comparison with overflowing wine vats in Joel 4:13 (PLEEREES E LEENOS HUPEREKKHEITAI TA HUPOLEENIA OTI PEPLEETHUNTAI) was by the current Author Pasi K Pohjala in earlier Commentary Haggaj (Verre et Bible 11) noticed. There was also in detail more discussed comparison of this Greek EKSANTLEESAI and the usual Aramaic TIL word for bowl divination and bowl observations (Verre et Bible 11, p.5). Production of magnified and projected visions in Temple- Haggaj 2:7 and Haggaj 2:9. We notice descriptions of vision production in the Coptic document Hypostasis of Archons. “Sophia, who is called Pistis, wanted to create something, alone without her consort, and her product was a celestial thing. ‘A veil (KATAPETASMA) exists between the world above and the realms that are below; and shadow (HAIBES) came into being beneath the veil; and that shadow became matter; and that shadow was projected apart. And what she had created became a product in the matter, like an aborted fetus. And it assumed a plastic form molded out of shadow, and became an arrogant beast resembling a lion’ It was androgynous, as I have already said, because it was from matter that it derived.” (The Hypostasis of the Archons ,Trl. by Bentley Layton in Nag Hammadi Codex II, 2-7, N.H.S XX) The Hypostasis of Archons is one important Nag Hammadi document, and this recent Translation by Bentley Layton (1989) quite makes understandable this difficult text. In this text we notice quite detailed description of a special veil and producing shadow pictures by projecting on that veil. Actually thus in this Gnostic document the Hypostasis of the Archons is quite in detail thus described picture production by making shadowy projections on a special veil. Readers may well compare this description with currently practised method of picture projection in cinemas, where picture in the film is via special set of lenses projected onto the screen. In other words, this text in the Gnostic Hypostasis of the Archons is notably detailed description of then practised vision producing. This treatise begins by quoting statements in Colossians 1:13 and Ephesians 6:12; and the treatise discusses many Biblical histories. Here is noticed how Pistis Sophia “established each of his offspring in conformity with its power- after the pattern of the realms (KATA PTYPOS NAIOON) that are above, for by starting from the invisible world the visible world was invented. As incorruptibility looked down into the region of the waters, her image appeared in the waters” (The Hypostasis of the Archons 87, Trl. by Bentley Layton). This notices how visions are appearing in waters, and that how pattern of realms above are the model for creating. Also is noticed how the archontes “like storm winds they persisted (in blowing) that they might to try to capture that image which had appeared to them in the waters” (87). Thus is commenced history of creation of Adam, and thereafter this treatise continues commenting creating, much noticing there details of creation in Genesis. The appearance of the snake in the Genesis 3 is here understood as appearance of Female Spiritual Principle TREFTAMO; indeed is here noticed the snake as the Instructor (89). The current study now much studies cult of SERAPHIM Serpent, the Seraphim being in Old Testament usual word- and notably, this TREFTAMO name includes name SERAPHIM or TERAPHIM (noticing the usual change of reading P or F letter). Hebrew Bible writes in Genesis 3 of NAHAS Serpent- and here in Hypostasis of Archons treatise that Snake comprehended as appearance of TERFTAMO Spiritual Principle- and this is similar to name SERAPHIM. This treatise then continues discussing many episodes in Genesis. Here one interesting comparison of the Ark and the snake is that the Snake was seen as appearance of TREFTAMO Female Spiritual Principle; and the statement to build Ark is noticed in Coptic with TAMIO in stating TAMIO NAK NNOUKIBOOTOS and second time PALIN AFTAMIO NTKIBOOTOS. Also it is quite interesting to read that Noah here is encouraged to first set that Ark on Mount SIR (HITJEM PTOOU SIR)- this Coptic tradition interestingly emphasises our usual discussions of R-S words noticing harbours in ancient world, such as MURSAHA in Surat HUD and numerous MERSA cities, especially harbour cities; and finding ARARAT in Bible as older Aramaic form of R-S (the S and T are often changed) so that Biblical episode concerning Ark stopping at mount Ararat easily is comprehended to describe how Ark “stopped at safe anchorage, harbour”. And thus is “Jerusalem” found easily as general ancient noun for safe (SALEM) harbours (think e.g. of still nowadays very famous Marseille and Barcelona with C-L-N letters!!). This Coptic tradition that Noah first placed the Ark on Mount SIR thus emphasises S-R and R-S as designating ancient safe harbours and safe havens. Moreover, the current Study now much discusses that TWB (TOOB) is in Old Testament name for snake in many statements. Thus it is notably interesting to see that TB word in this Hypostasis of Archons appears as the name of the device or method of MAKING LIGHT. The 94:31 notices how “Sophia stretched forth her finger an introduced light into matter” (Trl. Bentley Layton)- that is, Sophia thus used her TEEBE and introduced the light (ATSOFIA SOOT EBOL MPESTEEBE…where is N-PES-TEEBE written with the N noticing object and the PEC noticing the possessive prefix). Thus is the TEEBE also here LIGHT-PRODUCER. Read Biblically, the TOOB snake brought light, apparently being installation of flints, somewhat similar to modern lighters. Small and quite unnoticed secrets but huge effect: snake kindles light, snake brings fire! This Hypostasis of Archons is interesting ancient Gnostic document and here quoted statements describe clearly production of magnified visions by projecting upon a special screen: “a veil (KATAPETASMA) exists between the world above and the realms that are below; and shadow (HAIBES) came into being beneath the veil; and that shadow became matter; and that shadow was projected apart” (The Hypostasis of the Archons 94:10-15 in Translation of Bentley Layton in N.H.S. XX (1989)). Here is noticed the veil, and that the shadow came into being beneath the veil, and that the shadow was there projected. This is apparently nice description of production of shadowy pictures by projecting upon a veil. We thus notice that notoriously similarly is picture production noticed in old versions of Haggaj. We notice especially the word HAIBES here written, noticing that notorious shadow. Thus we notice in Haggaj 2:9 written (Hebrew Bible) that GDWL JHJH KBWD HBJT HZH HAHRWN MN HRASWN Here is the KABOD (consonants KBWD) picture or visual appearance noticed and it is specified as the KBWD HBJT HZH so that the HBJT HZH now is notorious. Remembering that in Hebrew and Aramaic dialects T and S easily are changed, we see from the HBJT HZH also the form HBJSHZH (this is seen also in many current Rabbinical dialects, BJT and BJS changed). But this HBJSHZH is notoriously similar with the Coptic HAIBES, easily seen in the usual vocalised form of that HBJSHZH that is HABAISHAZE. This Coptic HAIBES word for Shadow is notably similar to this KABOD HABAISHAZE. And here usually is found the JHJH the imperf sg.3 of HJH- but only slight difference of Jod ad Waw letters(usual question in reading many Hebrew MSS) distinguishes here the JHJH (imperf. of HJH; to be) and the Divine Name Tetragrammaton JHWH. Thus we here find also formulation that GDWL JHWH (Tetragrammaton) KBWD HBJT HZH HAHRWN MN HRASWN THIS statement writes of enormous KABOD visual appearance of God JHWH, that HABAISHAZE; as magnified larger than before!!!! And now this enormous visual KABOD appearance of God notably, described with this HABAISHAZE word, leads thoughts to the HAIBES Shadows that are also in this ancient Coptic Hypostasis of Archons described. We think thus quite much of such houses that we in modern times more designate as Cinemas or Picture Houses. This formulation is here in Haggaj 2 specifically emphasised because here 2:7 writes also WMLATJ AT HBJT HZH KBWD AMR JHWH ZBAWT In this very similar formulation are similarly KBWD (KABOD) and HBJT HZH written, this indicating here clear formulation. Indeed, here in 2:7 is the Tetragrammaton JHWH written, this detail much supporting comparisons of JHJH and JHWH in writing of 2:9. The Greek Septuagint translation here writes concerning 2:7 KAI PLEESOO TON OIKON TOUTON DOKSEES LEGEI KURIOS PANTOKRATOOR and 2:9 DIOTI MEGALEE ESTAI E DOKSA TOU OIKOU TOUTOU E ESKHATEE HUPER TEEN PROOTEEN LEGEI KURIOS PANTOKRATOOR The current writer Pasi K Pohjala in recent Commentary on Book of Haggaj (Verre et Bible Eleve, of March 2012) commented this statement by describing production of visual appearances of God in Temple, quite much in style of projecting pictures in cinemas: ”thus is divine Lord here describing how He appears in enormously large visual appearance in Temple, in so enormous appearance that the appearance actually seems to fill the whole Temple (PLEESOO). It is truly notorious that this Greek translation of prophesy of Haggai is indeed very descriptive and specific concerning the magnitudes of that enormous divine appearance in writing MEGALEE ESTAI E DOKSA E ESKHATEE HUPER TEEN PROOTEEN, this noticing that the latter visual DOKSA appearance is much larger than the first visual DOKSA appearance- and this notoriously well describes visual magnification. Ancient priests were quite specialists of arranging diverse visual tricks and miracles (see e.g. many descriptions by Th. HOPFNER). Enormously large, vivid and certainly visually impressive visual appearance of Deity could easily be arranged for some smaller group gathering in a dark temple by placing a bright candle behind a colourful glass mosaic where some ‘picture of deity’ is formed of pieces of colourful glass, and then projecting this colourful light figure through a magnifying glass bowl- this produces indeed, impressive colourful and large visual apparition of Deity, certainly for ancient people awe inspiring apparition.” (Pasi K. Pohjala: Verre et Bible Eleven, p.7). In this Commentary Verre et Bible Eleven also were much then discussed use of glass bowls such as currently known MOSQUE LAMPS in this picture projecting for making the magnification. Currently are preserved numerous beautifully decorated MOSQUE LAMPS that are quite large and nicely partly globular and thus also act as powerful magnifying lenses when water filled (and not decorated but merely of clear white glass). Thus could “prophets” successfully and cleverly arrange visual impressive appearances of “god”, with a miniature glittering colourful glass figurine, by placing that figurine appropriately beside that magnifying globular water bowl, so that huge magnified colourful picture was promptly projected onto Temple Veil! Apparently powerful “prophet”, powerful prayers, helped with some mastery of arrangements of ancient vision technology! Thus we quite much better comprehend these descriptions in Haggaj; and so have rendered to Readers of our times in English formulating that “The Kavod appearance is so magnified (GDL) in he House for Observing (HZH) in the Aaron style, the qualities that it is showing in doubles (SN) in the lamp vessel (AM,NR) of God of magnified visual signs, this place of magnifying (maqom, QM) is for observing visual sign (AT) miraculous (NS) in completeness (SLM)- that is prophesy from God of magnified visual signs” (New and Modernised Translation of Haggai 2:9 by Pasi K. Pohjala in Verre et Bible 2, 2008). Many Prayers to Mighty Typhoon in Greek Magical Papyri In the magical rituals described in Greek Magical Papyri notably many ritual prayers are said to divine Typhoon serpent. Important prayer is written in the Great Magical Papyrus IV, notably in ritual of LECANOMANCY bowl divination. Thus we read in PGM IV.154ff that “NEPHOTES
Pasi K Pohjala Verre et Bible JAnuary 2013. earlier Translation of Psalm 107 (the Greek Psalm 106) in the important and currently increasingly popular and ever increasing more widely well received Bible translations in Verre et Bible 2 (2008) “107:15 Thank to God his Hasid and for his vision miracles (PL,AT) from the instruments built by men of white glass (LBN) 107:16 because He multiplied those that are low (DL) in these divinations (NHS) and with help of Spirits of water-ponds-of-shadows, this valley of understanding (G-DY) 107:17 God of the water-pond (AL-JM), from Your Chrystal ball their simpleness, and their ponds produce prophecies. 107:18 Vessel! Oh, Vessel! You strange, and their soul will reach to the magnification that lightens even the death 107:19 they cried to their God concerning what is narrow and He produced from the blown glass vessel (SY) them the reflections 107:20 He sent his Word (cf. Logos-thought) and healed them, and He delivers them from their illusory thoughts” Especially now is important 107:16 that “because He multiplied those that are low (DL) in these divinations (NHS) and with help of Spirits of water-ponds-of-shadows, this valley of understanding (G-DY)” This translation writes of “Spirits of those water ponds of shadows” and notices thereby the Hebrew NHS word that Readers know usually notices snakes in Old Testament; because of the quite fundamental challenges involved if we write of snakes was here translated with “divinations (NHS) and with help of Spirits of water-ponds-of-shadows” where Readers themselves could associate these NHS with such “Spirits of water-ponds”. Especially, explicit noticing Snakes in this writing of water bowls would have alarmed thinking of the great ancient Snake deities, so that the questions become indeed of religious and ideological character. In the current study we write of such questions explicit and aim at presenting to rejoicing and increased knowledge of Readers here well formulated and quite convincing study. The current study is explicit study of much theological and ideological character in noticing many ancient great snake and serpent deities and their cult practised in cult described in Old Testament. Writing this question explicit would have also required more fundamental notices of role of Snakes and divine Snakes in Old Testament prophesying. Now we return to this writing and emphasise that so are indicated divine snakes of water bowls; and we emphasise that Greek Septuagint translation here indeed translates the beginning TWB with KHREESTOS that is so similar with KHERSUDROS, Greek noun denoting water snakes. Actually the Greek Septuagint translation of Psalm 107 very clearly emphasises here noticing waters and water ponds, noticing that 106:2 EIPATOOSAN OI LELUTROOMENOI HUPO KURIOU OUS ELUTROOSATO EK KHEIROS EKHTHROU 106:3 EK TOON KHOOROON SUNEEGAGEN AUTOUS APO ANATOLOON KAI DUSMOON KAI BORRA KAI THALASSEES 106:4 EPLANEETHEESAN EN TE EREEMOO (dat) EN ANUDROO HODON POLEOOS KATOIKEETEERIOU OUKH EURON We notice that after writing in beginning here TO KURIOO (dat) OTI KHREESTOS, this Greek translation writes importantly of LUTROO that refers to waters, and purifying with waters; and thus is THALASSA sea also noticed here emphatically, especially comparing with ANUDROS places. Readers certainly not only think of dry places but consider reference to famous HUDRIA water serpent. Importantly, ancient multilingual readers found here important comparison HUDROO (dat) HODON (Greek, in LXX 106:4) HODUU LJHWH KJ TWB (Hebrew, in 107:1.) This heinous detail is worth closely pondering because many ancient Readers were multilingual, with sufficient knowledge of Greek language and Hebrew, in Hellenistic and Roman times. Thus reading the Hebrew HODUU LJHWH KJ TWB these Readers remembered interpretation HODON in Greek translation, WITH dative HUDROO (of course, HEE HODOS in Greek is noun for roads and ways- but we now emphasise that its accusative HODON is so similar with Hebrew HODUU that begins this Psalm 107.) Thus becomes here for these Greek readers actually JHWH equated with HUDRIA the great Water Serpent! Hebrew statement here characterises that JHWH is TWB, so that such TWB now becomes actually equated with HUDRIA Water Serpent. This emphasises that ancient Hellenistic readers indeed comprehended the TWB word as divine designation as denoting Serpent. Thus we notice that 106:24 writes AUTOI EIDOSAN TA ERGA KURIOU KAI TA THAUMASIA EN TO BUTHO For Readers finding this EN TOBUTHO (dat) in Greek translation notices of the T-B letters and thus directly refers to the TWB word that is in beginning of Hebrew text of this Psalm 107 there written. Importantly, this is written in context where Greek translation explicit much writes of waters and seas, noticing EIS TEEN THALASSAN, ERGASIAN EN HUDASI POLLOIS and KUMATA. Thus are depth and deep water bowls and their divine beings noticed. (n.b. Once more we notice to Readers that Psalm 106 in Septuagint is Greek translation of Psalm 107 in the Hebrew Bible. This is pervasive in considering numbering Greek Translations of Psalms, Greek Septuagint Psalms 10-112 are Greek translations of those Psalms that are in Hebrew Bible Psalms number 11-113.) We now are far better knowledgeable to approach the mysterious ancient myth of Noah’s Ark. This is really important ancient myth of historical background, and now the comprehensive interpretation of this history myth of Noah’s Ark cannot thus be approached in this very limited study. Now we notice, however, that the ARK is in Hebrew Bible noticed with word TEBA, in consonantal script written TBH. This is rendered as “ark”; the TBH Hebrew word also can notice “chests”. NOW we recognise that in Hebrew Old Testament the TB words notice snakes and dragons. Thus we easily recognise that this history myth of Noah’s Ark describes some sailing in a DRAGON BOAT. In ancient seafaring the DRAGON BOATS were, of course, well known in Mediterranean. Greek sources often describe the HIPPOS boats of Phoenicians, boats like “horses” HIPPOS. Their special figure stem indeed resembles animal head, like head of horses- or heads of dragon. Recognising that Noah specifically built that dragon boat, the Ark, thus brings our comprehension of this important history myth well in accordance with well known realia of ancient Mediterranean seafaring, where dragon boats were in ancient times usual- and finding such harmony of Biblical reading with otherwise then known realia of the circumstances then is strong argument in favour of such reading. It is good to remember that Quran usually talks of “Noah’s Ark” with PULKA word. Importantly, FULKAN refers also to volcanic activity and Surat Al-Falaq is of Daybreak; Quranic usual designation PULKA thus has certain references to fire and morning break- and thus we hear something relevant to lights and fire. Quranic traditions of MURSAHA harbours and anchorages of ships (Surat HUD) also proceed our comprehension of history myth of “Noah’s Ark”: Hebrew Bible tells how the Ark stopped at mount “Ararat”- and this name is in Semitic parlance of the same root as the Quranic noun MURSAHA of anchorage (the usual change of S and T importantly show similarity of R-S and R-T, so that reading the Ararat we notice its referring to “anchorage”. In this history myth Ark thus stopped at certain place, namely: ANCHORAGE. This may sound for current readers quite ridiculous and trivial statement, considering in our times highly developed engine driven and gps guided ships navigating along well surveyed waters to top efficiently built harbours. But this history myth tells of completely other circumstances, and thus was important to notice that indeed, the Ark came to still in certain place: anchorage. Even currently we find numerous coastal MERSA cities and important ancient harbours such as Pireas, Tarsus of Turkey, Barcelona, Marseille where RS-L is found. This emphasises to Readers that Biblical writings originate in culture of international seafaring and trade across numerous important harbours, and that there were NUMEROUS “Jerusalem” safe havens and harbours- so we understand also the Gola as “overseas settlements” or “overseas trade stations” (not as sorrowful and hapless “exile”, so following our earlier Studies in Verre et Bible commentaries.) Continuing the study of Old Testament, we notice mentions of TEBA “ark” in the history myth of Noah’s Ark. Genesis 7:1 writes WJAMR JHWH LNH BA ATH WKL BJTK AL HTBH And Genesis 6:14 states YSH LK TBT YZJ GPR QNJM TYSH AT HTBH WKPRT ATH MBJT WMHWZ BKPR These are in the Hebrew Bible important statements concerning the TEBA “Ark”. We now in the current study merely notice that such TEBA Ark certainly was a seafaring vessel somehow of type of Dragon Boats. Noticing this detail merely brings our comprehending this history myth of Noah’s Ark much more in accordance with otherwise known histories of ancient Mediterranean seafaring cultures, especially the famous Phoenician seafaring and Phoenician boats and ships. Greek Septuagint rendering translates the “Ark” with KIBOOTOS where is also the B-T recognised. BASILEIA TOON OURANOON – kingdom of Tail of NUN. Nun was the old Egyptian God of streams and waters, also depicted as serpent (we remember that in traditions of Book of Joshua is presented Joshua Son of Nun, so that finding reference to NUN in teachings of Jesus of Nazareth is quite obvious. We remember that usually Jesus teaches of kingdom of OURANOON, thus really often presented as the center of teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Thus we recognise OURA-NOON or Tail of the NUN, that is, Tail of Sea Serpent NUN. In the Greek Septuagint translation Psalm 106 we notice writing 106:29 KAI EPETAKSEN TE KATAIGIDI KAI ESTEE EIS AURAN (cf. OURAN) KAI ESIGEESAN TA KUMATA AUTEES 106:30 KAI EUFRANTHEESAN OTI EESUKHASAN KAI OODEEGEESEN AUTOUS EPI LIMENA THELEEMATOS AUTOON Greek translation here notices coming of serene and calm on the seas when the roaring waves silenced and so was God leading them through that chosen sea. So is noticed the ESTEE EIS AURAN; but slight change of A and O letters in Greek notices the OURAN, the TAIL of WATER SERPENT. Notice the profound ancient pondering of the miracle of floating- calm sea and serene weather- and boats were floating; and even amidst roaring waves and high seas the boats somehow floated even if the situation was truly threatening. Small and quite rudimentary built boat amidst roaring waves and in midst of violent storm. How was this boat floating? Who kept the boat floating? The divine Water Serpent, with its powerful tail. And in ancient bowl divination this miraculous support was reproduced with miniature boat floating in bowl that was shaken, and the people were assured of the power of Divine Water Serpent ad his Tail for keeping boat floating in midst of storm and waves, as well as in serene and calm seas. BASILEIA TOON OURANOON in Gospel of Jesus of Nazareth- the kingdom of Tail of the NUN Water God. Serpent Cult in Book of Haggaj, continuing Commentary Haggaj (Verre et Bible Eleven of 2012) We find important mentions of TWB snake cult in the Book of Haggaj. The current Author Pasi K. Pohjala has recently published New and Modernised Translation of Book of Haggaj in Verre et Bible 2 (2008), and also recently published more detailed commentaries to Haggaj in Book “Haggaj. Paraside- Encountering the Divine Wise and Friendly Dragon in Cinema Style Visual Shows in Temple of Jerusalem” (Verre et Bible Eleven, of March 2012). We now continue these studies in writing more observations of the Book of Haggaj in Hebrew Bible and ancient Translations. The Haggaj 1:2 writes KH AMR JHWH ZBAWT LAMR HYM HZH AMRW LA YT BA YT-BJT JHWH LHBNWT Here is written of JHWH ZEBAOT. Notorious detail in this Hebrew statement clearly is writing the YT BA and YT BJT where attentive Readers find the TB written in stating YTBA and YTBJT. The YTBJT also includes mention of TB when read backwards. Readers thus comprehend that this statement in Hebrew Bible apparently refers to TB, and now we can easily state that in this mention of TB this statement writes of TB SNAKES AND SERPENTS. Importantly, here is then the name Tetragrammaton written, so that the divine name JHWH here becomes notably connected with such emphasised references to TB SERPENTS. In the recent Verre et Bible 11 commentary on Book of Haggaj was noticed that the Greek Haggaj in 1:2 writes also apparent reference to snake cult O LAOS OUTOS LEGOUSIN OUKH EEKEI O KAIROS TOU OIKODOMEESAI TON OIKON KURIOU Here was found clear reference to OKHEE and OKHIA that is one important Greek word for snakes. This reference thus here notoriously specifies writing of the OIKODOMEESAI making residence, and even the OIKOS. Here Greek translation also writes importantly of snake deity and Temple. Importantly, here is presented in Greek translation that people said ritual salutation to snake deity with word OUKHEE! Importantly also “thus is referred to ancient practises of OKHEIN, practises of irrigating with water hoses and also practises of cult of snake”. The Greek OKHETOS notices, indeed, water pipes and water hoses made of leather (see discussion in my Verre et Bible 11, 2012, p.25). Imagery of “horned” such as horned serpent may be concealed in OKAIROS in context where OKHEE serpents are noticed, the KERAS, KERAIA notice horn and some horned beings; and KERKOS notice tails and beings with tail. This is notoriously comparable with the Hebrew statement here emphasising the TB here in Haggaj 1:2, the TWB Serpent. “Thus in the strength of the lamp-vessel speaks God (KH, AM, NR) God of magnified visual signs (ZBAT) describing in the lamp-vessel (AM, NR) such heaping (YM) for visioning in the lamp-vessel (AM, NR) in that place (AJ) that moment (YTH); water-reflection (BA) in the house of God that was built” (New and Modernised Translation of Haggaj 1:2 by Pasi K Pohjala in Verre et Bible 2 (2008)) We now specify that in this vision ritual the God who speaks from the Lamp Vessel is the Serpent God TWB (vocalised TOOB). This ritual of visioning in lamp vessel in cult of Serpent TWB is notoriously really well comparable to the ritual of Bowl prophesying (Lecanomancy) that is in the Great Magical Papyrus PGM IV described and that is below little more discussed (Nephotes to Psammethicos…). This Haggaj 1:2 is one great statement of Lecanomancy in Bible where very specifically is noticed the rituals of the TWB Serpent God of that bowl Lamp Vessel. We then continue noticing in Haggaj 1:4 written that HYT LKM ATM LSBT BBTJKM SPWNJM WHBJT HZH HRB WYTH In the Hebrew Bible this is important statement. We notice written the LSBTBBTJKM where the TB is written, also when read backwards. The reading backwards here is actually emphasised with HYT…WYTH formulation. And in the LSBT we find important notice of SBT staff and rod, also thus snake staff or caduceus, where snake is winding around the staff. Greek translation notoriously emphasises OIKOS and OIKEIN in writing of EI KAIROS HUMIN MEN ESTIN TOU OIKEIN EN OIKOIS HUMOON KOILOSTATHMOIS, O DE OIKOS OUTOS EKSEREMOSETAI. This Greek statement emphasises the OIKOS and OIKEIN (house and residing) and it is actually notorious that KOILOSTATHMOIS is here in Greek rendering written. The Greek SKOLIOS notices, indeed, something curved, twisted and winding and STATHMEE notices lines, such as carpenter’s line or plumbline, so that KOILOSTATHMOS includes certain allusion to snake staff where snake or snakes is winding around the staff. (Greek KOILOS of course notices mainly hollows and hollow places but also notices something that forms a hollow). This is in Greek Septuagint tradition written and notably well reflects the meaning of SBT in Hebrew Bible, as SBT notices rods and staffs and the letters in LSBTBBTJKM include mentions of the TWB snake god. Also is important to read with much attention Haggaj 1:9 where is written that PNH AL HRBH WHNH LMYT WHBATM HBJT WNPHTJ BW JYN MH Neum JHWH ZBAWT JYN BJTJ ASR HWA HRB WATM RZJM AJS LBJTW Readers easily notice here clearly emphasised TWB sayings- thus is here said of LMYTWHBATMHBJT where is YTWHB noticed thus referring to TWB and such referring is apparent also in TMHBJT. Such reference to TWB appears also in WNPHTJBW in TJBW letters. This statement in Hebrew Bible writes thus much of BJT in stating concerning HBJT, BJTJ, LBJTW and these are also usually in modern renderings well noticed in writing of “houses”. In the Haggaj 1:2 was such specific reference to TWB snake god found in statements of TWB in HYM HZH AMRW LA YTBA YTBJT JHWH LHBNWT Notably in Haggaj 1:9 to TWB snake god is referred with YTWHB that is importantly similar with the YTBA in Haggaj 1:2 and they refer to TWB snake god. Also the WNPHTJBW in Haggaj 1:9 is apparent reference to TWB snake god and in 1:2 LHBNWT read backwards is TWNBH that is quite similar to NPHTJBW. Moreover, the mentions of TWB in Haggaj 1:2 are in that statement nicely compared with BJT especially in formulating YTBJT- and this comparison of TWB and BJT words in Haggaj 1:2 now much compares with the TWB mentions of Haggaj 1:9 where BJT often are mentioned! Thus we are now clearly finding in Haggaj 1 specific language and specific formulations for writing concerning TWB snake god, and that such formulations are in Haggaj 1 in consequent manner often written. The mention of the PH blowing here notices HBJTWNPHTJBW where is the PH mentioned with TJB and TWNPH that notice “blowing” and even can refer to specifically to Aramaic form of TYPHON Serpent who was in mythology well known for “blowing” and fiery breath. Mythology of producing PH blown glass is therefore important. We now specially notice here described LMYT WHBATM HBJT where is described of making BBA water reflections, and this formulation now specifies comprehension that such quite extraordinary water reflection visions were comprehended as production of water deity, Serpent water god, so clearly emphasised in LMYTWHBATMHBJT where reference to making BBA WATER REFLECTIONS is noticed and doings of TWHB snake god are described. This is important statement concerning production of magnified visions, how that what was only little was seen as large (PNH AL HRBH WHNH LMYT…). In Greek translation this seeing magnified visions is emphasised in noticing EPEBLEPSATE EIS POLLA, “this notices attentively observing BLEPO something that is merely one (EIS) and how it becomes so much (POLUS-POLLA)” (Verre et Bible 11, p.3). Commenting Haggaj 1 in the earlier Verre et Bible 11 Commentary (March 2012) I already emphasised that this Haggaj 1:8-9 emphasises divine utterances, noticing in Greek translation EIPEN KURIOS and TADE LEGEI KURIOS (Verre et Bible 11, p.3). Thus is the role of the divine and divine utterance much emphasised here, and importantly in the Hebrew statement we indeed find clear and emphasised reference to snake god TWB. In Greek translation is described KURIOS, and Hebrew Bible writes with emphasis of TWB snake god. “1:8 making magnifying (YL) in the white vessel (HR) and making water reflections of complete method
Pasi K Pohjala. Verre et Bible, January 2013. For Bible Reading, this is going to develop substantially Readers’ knowledge! Everyone remembers well that the Ark of Noah is TEBA in Hebrew Bible. Thus we recognise that the Ark of Noah was actually a DRAGON BOAT. In ancient history, Dragon Boats were well known but in Biblical history somehow forgotten. But recognising T-B words as also designating snakes and serpents, brings to rejoicing of Readers the comprehension that also NOAH BUILT A DRAGON BOAT. Of course, in Biblical seafaring histories, the Ark of Noah is the most famous historical ship, so that recognising Noah’s Ark as DRAGON BOAT brings our Bible reading much in accordance with knowledge of seafaring and boats in cultures of those areas, where DRAGON BOATS were quite usual; thus we recognise that in writing of Noah’s DRAGON BOAT the Bible is much in accordance with usual details of seafaring in surrounding ancient cultures. Such comprehension is, of course, really good! Importantly, in Synagogues the Ark of Torah Scrolls is the TEBA; and in front of this is the NIR OLAM eternally burning Lamp illuminating. This is quite much like incarnation of the ancient role of light-bringing serpent. And reading New Testament, we remember STEPHEN, important in early Christianity and described in New Testament Acts. Traditionally, St. STEPHEN is remembered in the day following Christmas day in Christian Churches; and parishes and religious groups may ascribe quite much importance for celebrating St. STEPHEN. And many more interesting questions for Bible reading are here to be discussed. We begin shortly reminding Readers that in the mythological ancestry of descendants of Cain, we know mentions of TUBAL-CAIN in Genesis 5. It is now very noteworthy that Genesis 5:22 notices that among descendants of CAIN, the TUBAL-CAIN son of Lamech and his wife Zillah, is presented as specialist of metal producing, handling of copper and iron, thus in Gen 5:22 “as for Zillah, she bore TUBAL-CAIN, who forged all implements of copper and iron” (Tanakh) This is based on Hebrew Bible, stating WZLH GM HWA JLDH AT TWBL QJN LTS KL HRS NHST WBRZL Septuagint translation tradition, however, writes of THOBEL and states here SELLA DE ETEKEN KAI AUTEE TON THOBEL KAI EEN SFUROKOPOS KHALKEUS KHALKOU KAI SIDEEROU The Greek name THOBEL usual in Septuagint tradition notices THOB-EL, that is, the God THOB. The TUBAL CAIN, the Greek THOBEL, represents in this concise mythological lineage of CAIN according to Genesis 5 thus very important ancient true high technology, techniques of metal handling, producing iron and copper products. That role is very central in ancient cultures, ability of producing copper and iron products; and for this role is specifically important ability to master use of fire, melting processes and melting furnaces, and knowledge of art of smith. TUBAL CAIN (THOBEL) thus was important specialist of use of fire in ancient cultures. One example relevant for this clearly ancient reference to THOB-EL specialist of producing copper and iron products may be found in numerous archaeological finds in Cyprus that was famous for its plentiful copper production; also religion of snakes and snake charming are there very well attested. Palestinian plentiful copper mines in Timna near to Salt Sea were ancient important Egyptian copper mines. We emphasise that in Biblical Hebrew the word NAHAS both refers to snake and copper, thus in widely currently accepted scholarly Bible comprehending. We read in Psalm 14 that AJN ALHJM HSHJTW HTYJBW YLJLH AJN YSH TWB JHWH MSMJM HSQJP YL BNJ ADM LRAWT HJS MSKJL DRS AT ALHJM First is noticed ELOHIM and then HSH leads to considering NHS Hebrew usual word for “snake”. So is continued in writing WHT, especially because the ending Nun and Waw are in many scripts quite similar, thus reminded of NHT and thus NHS snakes. Then follows TYJB that is thus connected with such references and allusions to NHS snakes. The ELOHIM here specifically designates God and then are thus written allusions to NHS snakes and also the TYJB. Thereafter is interestingly written of YSH TWB JHWH; the Tetragrammaton thus is connected with TWB, and importantly the YSH reads of NAHAS backwards: JHWH, TWB and Nahas. Notoriously also is written of LRAWT HJS where is seeing and allusion to NHS the Nahas serpents noticed. Thereafter in this Psalm 14 we read AT ALHJM HKL SR JHDW NALHW AJN YSH TWB AJN GM AHD Thus is the YSH TWB here emphasised another time; and reading backwards we find NJAHS and TWB here written, referring to NAHAS serpent. Then we also find YZT YNJ TBJSW KJ JHWH MHSHW Also here we find TB written with Tetragrammaton and MHSHW alluding to NHS; the ending Waw is so similar to ending Nun so that backwards reading finds NHS, and the MHS can include MN-NHS because Nun is often assimilated, so that NHS is specially emphasised here. Notice here especially well that here the Greek tradition of Romans 3:13-18 makes very interesting addition to the Greek rendering of Psalm 14:3- that text being notorious description of SNAKES TAFOS ANEOGMENOS O LARUKS AUTOON TAIS GLOOSSAIS AUTOON EDOLIOUSAN IOS ASPIDOON HUPO TA KHEILEE AUTOON OON TO STOMA ARAS KAI PIKRIAS GEMEI OKSEIS OI PODES AUTOON EKKHEAI HAIMA SUNTRIMMA KAI TALAIPOORIA EN TAIS ODOIS AUTOON KAI ODON EIREENEES OUK EGNOOSAN These words are in Septuagint tradition found in renderings Psalm 5:10, 9:28, 35:2, Isa 59:7-8 and Psalm 139:4 and in tradition of Paul’s Letter to the Romans 3:13-18 are added to Greek translation of this Psalm 14:3. This emphasises comprehending here importantly description of snakes, the IOS ASPIDOON being especially clear mention of poisons of snakes. This Midrashic tradition presented in Letter to the Romans 3:13-18 importantly emphasises in this Psalm 14 comprehension of Snakes. The Book of Isaiah is in Old Testament notorious, we now find written in Isa 44:19 WLA JSJB AL LBW WLA DYT WLA TBWNH LAMR HZJW SRPTJ BMW AS WAP APJTJ YL GHLJW LHM AZLH BSR WAKL WJTRW LTWYBH We now consider the details of this statement- we find here notoriously mentions of famous Egyptian snakes, almost a list of Egyptian snakes important in mythology and religion. Thus the famous APEP snake is referred to in WAPAPJTJ, and WADJYT noticed in WLADYT; the SRP notices the Seraph serpent. The word WJTRW here certainly alludes also to the Egyptian Cobra WRT. It is important to notice that also famous snake goddess RENETET is clearly alluded to here in Isa 44:23 RNW SMJM KJ YSH JHWH HRJYW THTJWT ARZ PZHW HRJM RNH JYR WKL YZ BW KJ GAL JHWH. The text translated conveys of course certain meanings, but reading the text this apparent list of important Egyptian snake deities is noteworthy. Importantly, in this list is mentioned TBWNH and TWYBH that emphasise that T-B words importantly also refer to snakes; so we specially recognise version of S))BT Spotted Snake. The book of 2 Kings 10:6-7 writes notorious statement HTWB BYJNJK YSH WJKTB ALJHM Here we may read also YSHWJ; and allusion to ELOHIM (Jod and Waw letters) finding that HTWB BYJNJK YSHWJ KTB ALJHM Here is notably described that “the TWB snake is made, in your observation, similarly with the ELOHIM Snake” This reading is well motivated reading the KTB (usu. KATABA, to write) as K-TWB, motivated here because HTWB is mentioned; and the ALJHM alludes to Elohim God. Worth noticing is Isaiah 44:5 stating ZH JAMR LJHWH ANJ WZH JQRA BSM JYQB WZH JKTB JDW LJHWH WBSM Here are seemingly Hand of JHWH compared with TWB. Regarding this question it is important to remember that in Biblical Hebrew indeed the ZPY in standard scholarly discussion IS comprehended as snake (see BDB 861 translating ZPY as “serpent” and the verb ZPY meaning “to hiss” as is usual sound of snakes and serpents). In the famous passage of Isaiah 11:7-8 we find the notorious description WPRH WDB TRYJNH JHDW JRBZW JLDHN WARJH KBQR JAKL TBN WSYSY JWNQ YL HR PTN WYL MAWRT ZPYWNJ GMWL JDW HDH This Biblical text is famous to the Readers in beautiful translations, Tanakh translating “The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, the leopard lie down with the kid, the calf, the beast of prey, and the fatling together, with a little boy to herd them The cow and the bear shall graze their young shall lie down together and the lion, like the ox, shall eat straw A babe shall play Over a viper’s hole, and an infant pass his hand over an adder’s den in all of my sacred mount nothing evil or vile shall be done” This describes interesting details of snake cult. The PTN may be comprehended as Cobra and the ZPY notices also generally Serpents (see BDB). Here is written of SYSY JWNQ, and in the Book of Isaiah this certainly refers to prophet Isaiah himself, as in Hebrew his name is written JSYJH, and his group. The GMWL notices one meanings of GM-EL, those who nourish. For reading the JWNQ we shall consider the quite usual QWN that notices lamenting, singing or playing hymns. Thus we comprehend Isaiah 11:8 “TBN; man of Isaiah-group shall play music over a cobra’s hole; and nourisher pass his hand over an serpent’s den” This describes clearly doings of SNAKE CULT, the introducing with TBN notices thus name of this Snake Deity- TB. The TBN word is usually comprehended to denote grass, thus in usual lexica of Hebrew; but e.g. the Arabic usual TUABAN word designating snakes and serpents is here especially noticing to Readers that in THIS context of Isaiah 11:8 writing thus clearly of snakes, Cobras, and vipers the TBN word certainly must be read following the usual Arabic TUABAN word that is word specially designating snakes and serpents. Thus we find this interesting description of snake cult in Sacred Mount, especially TBN snake noticed, and Cobra and Serpents. We emphasise that thus is referred to very important religious cult as there is noticed then the Sacred Mount “in all of my sacred mount nothing evil or vile shall be done” (in words of Tanakh). We notice Psalm 106:1 beginning HLLWJH (Hallelujah) HWDW LJHWH KJ TWB KJ LYWLM HSDW Here is stated that JHWH is TWB; usually we comprehend this so that here is described how good is JHWH. So we notice 106:4 writing LRAWT BTWBT BHJRJK LSMH BSMHT GWJK LHTHLL YM NHLTK Important detail is that here is described thrice TB, TWB, TB so that readers certainly see this emphasised. Then follows BHR referring to Sea (cf. Arabic BAHARI) and then are questions of Name emphasised SMH SMH (or Simha rejoicing). Then are noticed divine mighty deeds in the Sea of Suf in travelling from Egypt “Our forefathers in Egypt did not perceive your wonders; they did not remember Your abundant love; but rebelled at the sea, the Sea of Reeds; Yet He saved them, as befits his name, to make known his might, He sent His blast against the Sea of Reeds; it became dry; He led them through the deep as through a wilderness” (Tanakh translation of Ps 106:8-10). Thus we continue studying mentions of TWB in Psalms and notice promptly that God’s TWB is often mentioned in the beginning of Psalms, the Psalms 106:1, 107:1, 118:1 and 136:1 (numbering of Hebrew Bible) commencing HWDW LJHWH KJ TWB LYWLM HSDW “praise the Lord for He is good; His steadfast love is eternal” (Tanakh translation) Now here studied word TWB here is usually comprehended with “good” thus denoting divine quality of goodness and mercy, thus also comprehending this Tanakh. But we notice in this formula JHWH KJ TWB Simply stated, we here find notice that JHWH IS TWB; and we can comprehend this formula when we comprehend word TWB (and thus can attempt to comprehend how such TWB is connected with JHWH). Important information of ancient comprehending this statement is found, as usual, in the Septuagint translation, and these show important differences. We read in LXX Psalm 117:1 EKSOMOLOGEISTHE TO KURIO (dat) OTI AGATHOS OTI EIS TON AIOONA TO ELEOS AUTOU Here the AGATHOS renders the TWB as we would expect if TWB indeed means moral goodness and mercy. Importantly in this Psalm Lxx 117 is OTI EIS TON AIOONA TO ELEOS AUTOU often repeated formula; and such repeating TO ELEOS of divine mercy indeed much supports translating the YWB in beginning with OTI AGATHOS. But now it is really important that Septuagint rendering of the beginning formula in the other mentioned Psalms 106, 107 and 136 impotantly renders TWB with KHREESTOS. It is now notorious that THIS rendering of Hebrew TWB as KHREESTOS in this usual Greek Septuagint tradition actually is quite near to statement of SNAKE- one Greek noun for “snakes” namely is KHERSUDROS, especially for water snakes! We compare now KHREESTOS with noun KHERSUDROS and find those very similar indeed. Comparable are KH-R-E-S-D/T-S letters in KHERSUDROS and KHREESTOS. Thus the usual Greek Septuagint rendering interestingly well refers to ideology of snakes in beginning of Psalm 106, 107 and 136 by translating the Hebrew TWB with KHREESTOS that is very similar with noun KHERSUDROS that in Greek language denotes water snakes. Thus in Greek Septuagint translating we find interesting tradition comprehending the TWB in Psalm 106:1 107:1 and 136:1 with reference to water snake, for translating TWB with KHREESTOS. We thus notice in my earlier Translation of Psalm 107 (the Greek Psalm 106) in the important and currently increasingly popular and ever increasing more widely well received Bible translations in Verre et Bible 2 (2008) “107:15 Thank to God his Hasid and for his vision miracles (PL,AT) from the instruments built by men of white glass (LBN) 107:16 because He multiplied those that are low (DL) in these divinations (NHS) and with help of Spirits of water-ponds-of-shadows, this valley of understanding (G-DY) 107:17 God of the water-pond (AL-JM), from Your Chrystal ball their simpleness, and their ponds produce prophecies. 107:18 Vessel! Oh, Vessel! You strange, and their soul will reach to the magnification that lightens even the death 107:19 they cried to their God concerning what is narrow and He produced from the blown glass vessel (SY) them the reflections 107:20 He sent his Word (cf. Logos-thought) and healed them, and He delivers them from their illusory thoughts” Especially now is important 107:16 that “because He multiplied those that are low (DL) in these divinations (NHS) and with help of Spirits of water-ponds-of-shadows, this valley of understanding (G-DY)” This translation writes of “Spirits of those water ponds of shadows” and notices thereby the Hebrew NHS