Tuesday, 18 December 2012
Dear Readers, today's posts are publishing of my, Pasi K Pohjala's NEW BOOK, Commentary of Bible Book of Malachi, VERRE ET BIBLE TWELVE whose FIRST EDITION TODAY December 18, 2012, is published to ALL READERS for more enjoyful Holiday time, or Christmas time, or Saturnalia time.!!!! (The Book in Word format is of 25 pages, and here today's posts publish the text of this Book VERRE ET BIBLE, of Biblical Navigating with Compass and seeing Lighthouses, in seafaring and land travel!! Happy Holidays to every Reader!!! Pasi K. LIGHT GIVING VIRTUE now specifies much also Philo’s writing of EIS TEEN ARETEES ATRAPON ELTHOON in Migr 128- LIGHT OF VIRTUE DEPICTS TO TRAVELLER THE PROPER PATH, something as if the LIGHT OF LIGHT-HOUSE depicts to sailors. Writing this beautiful and philosophically especially developed interpretation in De Migratione, Philo of Alexandria certainly contemplated also those evening moments when he was arriving at the Alexandrian harbour in the ship so securely guided by the light of the ancient famous PHAROS lighthouse. Every sailor so strictly tries to keep to the proper route indicated by the light of lighthouse, without deviating to right or left- and this is specifically by Philo indicated in writing of ATRAPOS in Migr 140 in words SPOUDAZETO D’ O NOUS MEE MONON ANENDOTOOS KAI EUTONOOS HEPESTHAI THEOO (dat), ALLA KAI TEEN EUTHEIAN ATRAPON HIENAI PROS MEEDETERA NEUOON, MEETE TA DEKSIA MEETE TA EUOONUMA We clearly find that Philo of Alexandria here interprets the ATRAPOS path of travelling of Abraham especially referring to circumstances of seafare and navigating. Actually notoriously interesting comparison to the comparison of virtue with sparks in Philo’s Migratione 123 is found in New Testament Epistle of James. Notoriously, there the discussion is explicit considering seafare and methods of directing ships. Thus we read in James 3:4-6a that EI DE TOON HIPPOON TOUS KHALINOUS…IDOU KAI TA PLOIA TEELIKAUTA ONTA KAI HUPO ANEMOON SKLEEROON ELAUNOMENA METAGETAI HUPO ELAKHISTOU PEEDALIOU HOPOU HE ORME TOU EUTHUNONTOS BOULETAI OUTOOS KAI HE GLOOSSA MIKRON MELOS ESTIN KAI MEGALA AUKHEI IDOU HEELIKON PUR HEELIKEEN HULEEN ANAPTEI Here is wondered that ships can be directed with a quite small rudder where the captain wishes, even if ships are so large and tossed in fierce winds; and so is noticed how even small fire can kindle a huge amount of material. Comparison with the Migratione 123 of smallest remnants of virtue with very small sparks thus is interesting- this writing of Epistle of JAMES here so descriptively writes of steering a ship. Also it is worth noticing James 1:6 writing of a ship being tossed amidst wind and waves; and notoriously James 1:17 writes of TROPEES APOSKIASMA that now is apparently interesting in considerations how ATRAPOS path is depicted and indicated with the light and reflected light from lighthouse that guides travellers indicating the safe path. Notoriously, JAMES 2:1ff describes how people gather to Synagogue gathering, and the 4:13 describes plans of ancient travelling merchants to travel to some town and there do business for some time. In the current study we also notice that Old Testament Book of Malachi 3 so emphasises how ELIAH is to come and do SWB- directing the route (especially we emphasise in this study that ELIAH doing SWB directing is cleverly using compass) and notably the conclusion of this Epistle of JAMES notices coming of prophet ELIAH in 5:17-18 and the 5:19 then emphasises to Readers to keep following the path of truth (ADELFOI MOU, EAN TIS EN HUMIN PLANETHE APO TEES ALETHEIAS KAI EPISTREPSEE TIS AUTON). This writing of Epistle of JAMES 5:4 has really good knowledge of the damned usual practises of rich people in ancient times and in modern times of leaving wages unpaid and thus causing exceeding suffering for workers and their families: James describes how unpaid wages of workers are crying up to heavens, and that this cry frighteningly comes to hearing of LORD ALMIGHTY: IDOU O MISTHOS TOON ERGATOON TOON AMEESANTOON TAS KHOORAS HUMOON O APESTEREEMENOS AF’ HUMOON KRAZEI, KAI AI BOAI TOON THERISANTOON EIS TA OOTA KURIOU SABAOOTH EISELEELUTHASIN. James describes how those rich gather in their stores in times of harvest- but James warns that their riches rotten and are frightening witnesses against such unjust capitalists. We find interesting Philonic interpretation of the episode of the Sea of Reeds in De Vita Mosis 1. For the current study of ATRAPOS paths is notoriously important writing in Moses 1:165-166 where Philo especially notices walking along ATRAPOS path being directed and guided by the famous Pillar of Light that revealed towards Israelites guiding light but towards pursuing Egyptians that Pillar of Light merely appeared as cloud and darkness. Thus we read in 1:165 that EKTRAPOMENOS OUN TEEN EP’ EUTHEIAIS EGKARSION ATRAPON EUROON KAI NOMISAS KATATEINEIN AKHRI TEES ERUTHRAS THALATTEES ODOIPOREIN EERKHETO Philo then re-tells to his audience the Biblical description of the light emitting cloud that guided the path of Israelites in their travel NEFELEE GAR EIS EUMEGETHEE KIONA SKHEMATISTHEISA PROEEI TEES PLEETHUOS HEEMERAS MEN HELIOEIDES EKLAMPOUSA FEGGOS, NUKTOOR DE FLOGOEIDES HUPER TOU MEE PLAZESTHAI KATA TEEN POREIAN, ALL APLANESTATO (dat) EPESTHAI HEEGEMONI HODOU This guiding miracle especially was there to guide Israelites accurately so that they might not err in their journeying (HUPER TOU MEE PLAZESTHAI KATA TEEN POREIAN), and this miraculous cloud-like appearance in day time emitted like sunlight but during night time that miracle emitted light more like from a mere flame; and such light appearance appeared proceeding in front of Israelites in their thus travelling. Thus in their journeying Israelites were following that really not at all erring guide who showed the way. This Philonic Midrashic re-telling of Biblical description of Israelites’ travelling is also of quite much historical importance, because usually in such Midrashic re-telling the description is re-told to audience with such words and references that they recognise from their practises and culture, so that often reading Midrashic re-telling we can quite much learn of really realistic details of life and practises of that particular audience. GREEK KATAIRO NOTICING ARRIVAL IN SAFE HAVEN We notice now more the statement EIS TO HIERON KATAIROUSIN OIA TINA KOINON HUPODROMON of Special Laws 1:69. The Greek KATAIRO noticing arriving to harbour now is notably similar with the KATHAIRO that notices making pure and purifying, and reading KATHAIRO we may remember possible references to usual meanings of KATAIRO, especially considering dialects and the fact that religious texts often include delicate nuances. Importantly, in New Testament writings the KATHAIRO is actually very usual and the KATHAIRO is very important word indeed generally describing the activity of Jesus of Nazareth. Thus New Testament readers always think of the healing activity of Jesus of Nazareth and his purifying people, especially purifying people from their sins. Apparently reading KATAIRO meanings into the KATHAIRO of New Testament would be quite interesting, noticing more how Jesus helped people to safe haven. We also should well remember that KATHAIRO purifying healing as such well could include bringing calmness to bodily states, even somewhat educated healers considering illnesses as extraordinary bodily states and excitation of bodily states so that important for healing was reconstitution of calm and more normal bodily states, thus more according to KATAIRO bringing to calmness, such as ship is brought to safe haven. Importantly, public activity of Jesus of Nazareth began with such KATHAIRO healings. Triple tradition in the Synoptic Gospels tell of healing of a man with leper, in beginning of public activity of Jesus; and in this episode importantly is noticed how Jesus thus encouraged this healed to arrive and encounter a HIEROS priest. This episode thus notices KATHAIRO and encountering HIEROS priest, reminding KATHAIRO, KATAIRO and that HIEROS Temple also is a safe haven. We red Matthew’s version in Matthew 8:1-4 where this healing miracle is importantly the very first action that Jesus did after his central Sermon on the Mount. Thus is this episode Matthew 8:1-4 placed in very important place, noticing the beginning of concrete public activity of Jesus, after his important teaching Sermon on the Mount, written down in Matthew 5-7. Thus this important beginning of Jesus’ public activity told in Matthew 8:1-4 is placed in very important place and this episode thus deserves much detailed consideration. Importantly, this tradition is a triple tradition of Gospels, all three Synoptic Gospels (Mark, Matthew and Luke) telling this episode in beginning of his public activity. We notice that Matthew 8:2-3 writes how the leprous man had encountered Jesus; and then follows KURIE EAN THELEES DUNASAI ME KATHARISAI. KAI EKTEINAS TEEN KHEIRA EEPSATO AUTOU LEGOON THELOO, KATHARISTHETI. KAI EUTHEOOS EKATHARISTHE AUTOU HE LEPRA. This writing centrally considers the KATHAIRO and KATHARIZO. Importantly, the meaning of KATAIRO coming to safe haven and anchorage is actually prominent in THIS context, this episode notices much “going”. Matthew thus continues noticing how Jesus said to this healed HUPAGE SEAUTON DEIKSON TOO HIEREI (dat) KAI PROSENEGKE PERI TOU KATHARISMOU SOU A PROETAKSEN MOUSES The meaning coming to rest and bringing to rest, the meaning of KATAIRO, is now emphasised in noticing HUPAGE SEAUTON, encouraging the healed to GO. Importantly, thus Jesus of Nazareth encourages the healed to GO AND ENCOUNTER THE HIEROS Priest. We now well compare this with EIS TO HIERON KATAIROUSIN OIA TINA KOINON HUPODROMON of Special Laws 1:69 by Philo. Notably Jesus encourages the healed HUPAGE SEAUTON; this is notoriously similar to Philo’s here characterising Temple as safe haven in words OIA TINA KOINON HUPODROMON (Matthew and Mark 1:44 thus write of HUPAGE SEAUTON, this being in MSS well supported, and the HUP-AGO describing movement as the HUPO-DROMON where more is DRAMOUMAI noticed). Also it is quite worth noticing that in Matthew 8 the following healing miracle, healing of servant of the pious centurion, include woeful description of the illness HO PAIS MOU BEBLETAI EN TE OIKIA (dat) PARALUTIKOS, DEINOOS BASANIZOMENOS This Greek statement includes very tragic description of the very serious situation of the servant of that pious centurion noticing BALLOO and BASANIZOMENOS that describe his seriously tragic situation tossing in this illness. This is very vivid description of those violent symptoms of that tragic illness of this servant. Apparently healing of this illness also brought visible calmness to this servant, also this emphasising here considerations of KATAIRO bringing to calmness and peace. Actually the Gospels encourage Readers to consider such seafaring terminology of KATAIRO (bring to harbour or safe haven) in reading THIS healing miracle of KATHAIRO purifying the leprous man. This healing episode namely in Gospels immediately follows very important history of seafaring and sailing, the episode of calling of first followers Simon (and James and John, his companions) in episode describing their profession of boating and fishery. This is told in Luke 5:1-11 and immediately thereafter the Luke 5:12ff describes this KATHAIRO purifying healing of this leprous man, so that readers of Luke’s Gospel certainly consider seafaring terminology such as KATAIRO bringing to harbour still when reading of this KATHAIRO purifying healing. (We also notice such word play in Luke 5:3, Jesus was sitting on board and there teaching, KATHIZO; and also is noticed OOS DE EPAUSATO LALOON of cessation of his speaking.) In the Gospel of Luke this placing of this healing episode immediately after calling of Simon and first followers attests important doings of Luke’s redaction and thus emphasises connecting KATHAIRO purifying and KATAIRO bringing to peace and calmness. (Gospel of Mark 1:14-20 tells this episode of calling first followers and much later 1:40-45 writes this healing episode, so that there connecting is not so clear. Matthew 8 places this healing episode in very important place, the first action after Sermon on the Mount, and there comparison with BEBLEMENON and BASANIZOMENOS in following episode of healing of centurion’s servant emphasise considerations of bringing to calmness and peace in doing healing, thus emphasising KATHAIRO compared with KATAIRO). This is very important consideration, because healing activities of Jesus of Nazareth are described in Gospels as very important and famous part of his activities. Thus we also comprehend here Philonic interpretation of the legislation concerning Lamps on the Lampstand. This describes ancient institutions with edifices for keeping signal lights, for travellers across land and sea; somewhat resembling the enlighted MINARETS. Greek: NAUS ship and NAOS temple- so easy even to modify in Greek Manuscripts word NAUS to read NAOS…etc….
However, also these venues as religious buildings did undergo development and some refurbishing, according to affluence of there worshipping Jewish community AND also to reflect some quite purely religiously motivated changes. Stated simply, we really have to consider that some or most of now known “Ancient Synagogues” EARLIER were Jewish Temples, properly equipped and furnished for such religious Jewish Temple rituals- even in Temple of geographical site Jerusalem was larger and more famous. There were apparently MANY TEMPLES IN ANCIENT TEMPLE JUDAISM. Also history of many ancient Christian Churches is in archaeological excavations much in detail studied and scholarly scrupulously examined and discussed. Many ancient Christian Church buildings show notorious and lengthy developments in different times of history- and many of these ancient Christian Churches probably were JEWISH TEMPLES before their religious communities turned to Christianity and the ancient Churches were somewhat refurbished in accordance with Christian religious rituals. Stated shortly, we really have to consider also the notorious detail that some ancient Christian Churches are REFURBISHED JEWISH TEMPLES and some ancient Christian Churches were new buildings built upon the site of older Jewish Temple of that place. Stated simply, many ancient Synagogues and many ancient Christian Churches probably were JEWISH TEMPLES, of Temple Judaism, although somewhat refurbished and re-developed. Much worth consideration is the detail that currently the temple in city Jerusalem is Muslim MOSQUE AL AQSA, and especially Prophet Muhammad’s night time journey to heaven is in that tradition commemorated; relevant Arabic word is the qasa and qasw (901) that in more general parlance notices to be far away, to go far away, to be remote, distant and to take far away and to send far away; even meanings of exploration of utmost and far distant thus are relevant (901; Aramaic language and Biblical Hebrew consider many such meanings of utmost distances and utmost parts with QJZ words (eg. J 1366f)). Slightly different the Arabic gasaq indeed notices dark of night and twilight before nightfall (788) and gasa verb generally notices to come and in many meanings to be dark, coming of darkness and to be veiled and cover with veil (790). (And in modern Arabic parlance, noun qassa designates various Christian clergy , also thus connecting to specific modern religious language (892)). Considering the name AL-AQSA is notoriously important because the Semitic root KNS designates religious gathering, so that in Semitic parlance Synagogues usually are named BEIT HA KNESSET (the usually spoken name SYNAGOGUE is the Greek noun, form of SYN-AGO verb that notices gathering together also in more normal and civic circumstances). In Aramaic, the KNS verb generally notices to collect and gather; and some forms specifically notice gathering to assemblies, and specifically gathering to assemblies in Synagogues (J 650); and thus formed noun KNESSET notices generally gatherings, communities, congregations and congregations of worshippers, specifically congregations in synagogues (J 650). Notably, the name of the famous Mosque al-Aqsa is apparently notably similar with the Semitic KNS that notices gathering and coming together of congregations- in circumstances of Rabbinical Judaism, congregations of synagogues. The Muslim tradition of al-Aqsa specifically commemorates the night time journey of Prophet Muhammad; and we notice that the KNS gathering so centrally involves notion of travelling- because for congregation coming together, it is necessary that the members therefore make at least some travel to the specific venue where the gathering takes place, such as Synagogue. The Arabic qasa and qasw words so specifically notice to be far away, to be far removed, to send far away (901) so that in KNS gathering and congregating involved actual travelling is more in the Arabic qasa and qasw noticed- and usual wearing of Tallith in BET HA KNESSET gathering is interestingly reflected in meanings of Arabic gasa, noticing coming and veiling, and coming of darkness and twilight (790); bright lights such as sun light are also with Arabic gazala noticed (788). Thus it is seriously worth comparing Muslim Al-Aqsa tradition with Aramaic and Hebrew KNS and KNESSET tradition- both importantly consider specific TRAVELS. We remember especially that much of the practise of Rabbinic Judaism has developed and continued in mostly Arabic speaking regions, so that such comparisons have important cultural and societal references. This includes much profound and more developed ponderings. We notice now in this Special Laws 1 by Philo of Alexandria that this treatise much interprets legislations concerning temple worship. We now notice that in THIS BOOK Special Laws 1 Philo of Alexandria does write also concerning one temple, in Spec 1:66-70. Special Laws 1:69 writes “And we have the surest proof of this in what actually happens. Countless multitudes from countless cities come, some over land, others over sea, from east and west and north and south at every feast. They take the temple for their port as a general haven and safe refuge from the bustle and great turmoil of life, and there they seek to find calm weather, and, released from the cares whose yoke has been heavy upon them from their earliest years, to enjoy a brief breathing-space in scenes of genial cheerfulness” (Translation of Colson in LCL). This description, however, does allow existence of numerous temples of this style. Importantly, Spec 1.67 writes that PROUNOESE D’ OOS OUTE POLLAKHOTI OUT EN TAUTO (dat) POLLA KATASKEUASTHESETAI HIERA, DIKAIOOSAS, EPEIDEE EIS ESTIN O THEOS KAI HIERON EN EINAI MONON We notice that the EIS ESTIN O THEOS regards His unity numerically and qualitatively, so that it is motivated to read with regard to QUALITY the KAI HIERON EN EINAI MONON; thus we find Philo emphasising that the TempleS should be of ONE TYPE or of ONE STYLE this reflecting the absolute oneness of Deity (modern Readers may compare this, for example, modern brand management where exactly similar details are produced in stores or venues of a certain brand, worldwide). It is thus not at all necessary to read this statement as referring to numerical oneness- it is thus actually exceeding and overinterpretation to attempt to find in this HIERON EN EINAI MONON statement that there is numerically only ONE temple. The OUTE POLLAKHOTI OUT EN TAUTO POLLA thus emphasise the uniqueness of the STYLE of these Temples- a genuine style Temple should not be composition of cultural influences from various countries and many local cultural tenets- but a genuine style of Temple should be of ONE STYLE. Here described oneness of Jewish Temple thus describes oneness of the STYLE of the Temple; but thus is clearly allowed existence of numerous such Jewish Temples in numerous places! It is quite worth to seriously consider now these details of English translation by C.D.Yonge of Spec 1:67 “He moreover foresaw that there could not be any great number of temples built either in many different places, or in the same place, thinking it fitting that as God is one, his temple also should be one” (translation by C.D.Yonge; modern Edition of David M Scholer). It is important to seriously comprehend that the name Jerusalem appears in writings of Philo of Alexandria very seldom indeed; once in De Somniis 2 and six times in Legatio ad Gaium (the Philo Index). Especially, name Jerusalem does not appear at all in this treatise Special Laws 1 that so detailed interprets legislation concerning religion and cult of the Jewish Temple. This important detail of total silence concerning geographical place Jerusalem in this lengthy and detailed and enormously notable treatise Special Laws 1 actually emphasises much that Philo is here writing of a ONENESS OF STYLE OF THEN MANY JEWISH TEMPLES; in the Special Laws 1 Philo does NOT argue that there existed only numerically ONE genuine Jewish Temple (the Temple of Jerusalem). Well known, there existed a large number of well established Jewish Synagogues around ancient Mediterranean world and in ancient Near East; these Jewish religious cult places apparently have also their developments- currently these are discussed in the category of Ancient Synagogues, and ancient Churches. This practically reflects party politics in ancient Jewish culture; the party of Pharisees was merely one party of those many parties of ancient Jewish culture and religion, even if we currently talking of Jews mostly then refer to Rabbinical Jews- but that restriction is truly very profound mistake. Early Christianity, followers of Jesus, was important ancient Jewish religious movement. We remember that ancient Hellenistic Alexandria was then enormous hub of commerce and transportation and culture in Eastern Mediterranean, and there lived very large Jewish population, some of whom were very wealthy and among the highest echelons of that society. Thus is here quite understandable that here Philo of Alexandria notices EIS TO HIERON KATAIROUSIN OIA TINA KOINON HUPODROMON KAI KATAGOOGEEN ASFALEE POLUPRAGMONOS KAI TARAKHODESTATOU BIOU ZETOUNTES EUDIAN HEUREIN “They take the temple for their port as a general haven and safe refuge from the bustle and great turmoil of life, and there they seek to find calm weather” (translation Colson in LCL) This Philonic statement of the Temple thus emphasises that the Temples were, especially, SAFE HAVENS. This is actually much the meaning of “Jerusalem” when considered as noun- safe have, safe anchorage. There were in ancient world MANY Jewish Temples, MANY JERUSALEMS, MANY SAFE HAVENS AND SAFE ANCHORAGES AND HARBOURS. It is in context of Jewish religiosity thus unnecessary and misleading to ascribe to the city currently regarded as the Jerusalem that special status and to devote large resources to uphold such imagined special status of that city. In the moments of history, such special status of city Jerusalem of current Israel, has motivated e.g. crusades or western military occupation of large areas of Palestine mostly for purpose of controlling some lucrative trade routes; and current overwhelming support to Zionist state until recently attempted also to create western-oriented military stronghold to guard the strategically important Suez channel, also centrally important East West trade route. But in Jewish religiosity there were MANY JERUSALEMS, there were NUMEROUS TEMPLES, so that referring to supposed uniqueness of Jerusalem and supposing that Jewish Temple only existed in Jerusalem is historically religiously gravely misleading, much attempt to religiously somehow haphazardly legitimise Zionist militarist occupation of Palestine and casting ancient Palestinians to refugees. Importantly, this also would liberate Jewish religion from being subservient to colonialist and imperialist projects as appearing strangely often as their some ideological legitimating. The attempts to legitimise Zionist occupation and exploitation with supposing uniqueness of Land of Israel and supposing uniqueness for one of Temples, located in city currently named Jerusalem, is ideological grave error that is coming to ceasing in liberating history and life in our times by telling truth. Zionist occupation of ancient Palestine is completely without religious foundation, because in ancient Jewish religion, there existed MANY JERUSALEMS and MANY JEWISH TEMPLES. Rather, centrally important is the TALMUD TORAH and AVODAT H’. GREEK ATRAPOS DESCRIBING ROUTES DEPICTED AND INDICATED BY LIGHT OF LIGHTHOUSE Philo of Alexandria writes in his quite extensive writings several notices concerning seafare, especially many woeful descriptions of serious difficulties and usually life threatening dangers of ancient sea travel, being tossed amidst roaring waves and stormy winds. Philo writes of these details many times also in allegorical writings, such exceeding difficulties and dangers depicting human life in uncertainty and errors and moral errors, whereas virtuous life is compared with sailing in favourable winds and better weather, and with arrival to safe haven. In the Special Laws 4:155 Philo writes interesting and apparently quite realistic and concrete description of successful ancient navigation in high seas with help of reading stars KAI MALLON HE OUK HEETTON TOON KATA GEEN HODOON TAS KATA THALATTAN ATRAPOUS EPISTAMENOS EK TES AKRIBOUS THEAS TOON OURANIOON What do we read here? The TAS KATA THALATTAN ATRAPOUS notices sea routes; here they are compared with land roads; Philo states that these sea routes should actually be known by method of good observing even much better than land roads. We now more question of the style of that observing, THEAOMAI. We read here of ATRAPOUS; but we now notice ASTRA POUS (of ASTEER, star)- writing of ASTRA POUS notices a star like light that is upon some pedestal or edifice- that is, ASTRA POUS veiled refers to some lighthouses whose bright light indeed is so much like stars. Every seafarer so well knows how these lighthouses indeed upon waters indicate a safe sea route (in current practise clear light indicating the safe passage and red and green lights indicating being almost on the safe passage although little deviated). This signal light system very effectively depicts the safe passage for seafarers approaching certain coastal line or harbour. Knowledge to read these lights of lighthouses is still fundamental part of navigating, even in our times when gps navigating recently is becoming more and more usual. We remember that the lighthouse of PHAROS in front of harbour of Alexandria was in ancient world famous, regarded usually as one of the wonders of ancient words, so that this well educated Philo of Alexandria thus certainly knew of then practised main methods of safely bringing ships to harbour with help of light from a lighthouse (coloured glass was also in their times well known, as well as white really transparent glass, so that even in their times they could make lighthouse lights quite similar with currently used arrangement of green-white-red lights). Philo was well educated and his knowledge and practise of methods of Bible interpretation is notorious, thus we well can be sure that Philo writing of this ATRAPOUS considered also permutation of letters yielding PAROS, thus clearly referring to PHAROS the famous ancient Alexandrian lighthouse, whose signal light indeed upon waters projects a safe path for sailing; sailing towards his home arbour Alexandria Philo may have in some calm night times observed the visual reflection of lighthouse light from the surface of still sea, a truly beautiful vision for any seafarer, and hallowed indication of safe route towards the harbour (and from little more distance beautifully visible with ancient telescope). The Special Laws 4:155 writing of TAS KATA THALATTAN ATRAPOUS EPISTAMENOS EK TES AKRIBOUS THEAS is beautiful and so descriptive for navigating ship or vessel towards harbour with observing signal lights of lighthouse, such as the famous PHAROS lighthouse of Alexandria. Philo of Alexandria indeed writes this ATRAPOS noun to describe such paths and ways that are set and indicated by divine designs and commands. Biblical really famous traveller was of course Abraham, and his life episodes and travels are by Philo so notoriously interestingly interpreted in De Migratione Abrahami, or The Migration of Abraham, one of Philo’s most consummate allegorical interpretations. Readers may be noticed that this treatise is also often quite difficult because of the notorious philosophical allegorical interpretation that Philo here is writing. But we find here important and well understandable short notices concerning the noun ATRAPOS. Philo writes namely in Migr 127-129 interesting notice of Abraham’s travel ALONG ATRAPOS, and for the current research now is especially notable that Philo here clearly comprehends that such ATRAPOS path or road is such way that God with his advice and commandments indicates to travellers. Thus Philo here interprets the fundamental LEKH LEKH episode of Abraham’s travel in Genesis 12, here now specifically noticing HOW Abraham travelled, interpreting so Genesis 12:4 EPOREUTHE ABRAAM KATHAPER ELALESEN AUTO (dat) KURIOS Here Philonic MSS follow now reconstructed Septuagint tradition; and this statement describes that Abraham so travelled according to that what God told to him; for the current discussion now is centrally important this Greek KATHAPER ELALESEN because it specifies the manner HOW Abraham travelled, according to that what God spoke to him. Somewhat typically to this philosophical treatise De Migratione, Philo then quotes the very famous Stoic maxim TO AKOLOUTHOOS TE FUSEI ZEEN where the Stoic FUSIS idea comes forward and reminds even more deep developments of moral philosophy. BUT HERE we ONLY notice that here Philo discusses Abraham’s travelling so that this travelling was not mere voyaging but it was travelling guided by divine speech- THIS specifies here the ATRAPOS GINETAI DE, OTAN O NOUS EIS TEEN ARETEES ATRAPON ELTHOON KAT’ IKHNOS ORTHOU LOGOU BAINEE KAI EPEETAI THEOO Specifically, journeying along the path (ATRAPOS) of Virtue happens when Mind walks in the Path of Right Reason (ORTHOS LOGOS), and follows god. This statement is much of Stoic moral philosophy, specifically ORTHOS LOGOS and also such HEPOMAI being here concepts distinctively of quite usual Stoic discussions. Our current discussion now notices that such walking along this ATRAPOS is particularly and specifically guided by divine commandments. Philo emphasises thus directed and guided walking of ATRAPOS once more here quoting EPOREUTHE GAR, KATHA ELALESEN AUTO (dat) THEOS. Philo so emphasises here also TOUTO DE ESTI TOIOUTON OOS LALEI O TEOS LALEI DE PAGKALOOS KAI EPAINETOOS, OUTOOS O SPOUDAIOS HEKASTA DRA TEEN ATRAPON EUTHUNOON AMEMPTOOS TOU BIOU The life in divine guidance is here emphasised with OOS LALEI O THEOS…OUTOOS O SPOUDAIOS HEKASTA DRA and thus this good man makes straight his paths (ATRAPOS), following divine guidance (OOS…OUTOOS). Specifically in THIS context of De Migratione Philo clearly does compare Virtue with shining light, and shining sparks, writing in Migr 123 SPINTHER GAR KAI HO BRAKHUTATOS ENTUFOMENOS HOTAN KATAPNEUSTHEIS ZOOPURETHE MEGALEN EKSAPTEI PURAN KAI TO BRAKHUTATON OUN ARETES, HOTAN ELPISI KRESTAIS HUPOTHALPOMENON ANALAMPSE Philo here specifically in THIS context compares ARETE Virtue with sparks- even smallest sparks when awoken to fire with some breath, produces huge fire; so also even smallest (remnant) of virtue enlivened SHINES FORTH (ANALAMPSE). Virtue thus is in THIS context of Migr 123 specifically presented as LIGHT GIVING, SHINING FORTH (ANALAMPSE), in comparison with sparks that properly breathed upon still kindle even huge fires. This important detail in Migr 123 noticing LIGHT GIVING VIRTUE now specifies much also Philo’s writing of EIS TEEN ARETEES ATRAPON ELTHOON in Migr 128- LIGHT OF VIRTUE DEPICTS TO TRAVELLER THE PROPER PATH, something as if the LIGHT OF LIGHT-HOUSE depicts to sailors. Writing this beautiful and philosophically especially developed interpretation in De Migratione, Philo of Alexandria certainly contemplated also those evening moments when he was arriving at the Alexandrian harbour in the ship so securely guided by the light of the ancient famous PHAROS lighthouse. Every sailor so strictly tries to keep to the proper route indicated by the light of lighthouse, without deviating to right or left- and this is specifically by Philo indicated in writing of ATRAPOS in Migr 140 in words SPOUDAZETO D’ O NOUS MEE MONON ANENDOTOOS KAI EUTONOOS HEPESTHAI THEOO (dat), ALLA KAI TEEN EUTHEIAN ATRAPON HIENAI PROS MEEDETERA NEUOON, MEETE TA DEKSIA MEETE TA EUOONUMA We clearly find that Philo of Alexandria here interprets the ATRAPOS path of travelling of Abraham especially referring to circumstances of seafare and navigating. Actually notoriously interesting comparison to the comparison of virtue with sparks in Philo’s Migratione 123 is found in New Testament Epistle of James. Notoriously, there the discussion is explicit considering seafare and methods of directing ships.
travellers, or MINARET LIGHTS. Considering ancient circumstances makes of course clear that light from towers (Minarets) of cities indeed much steered the travel of travellers; and light from lighthouses or Minarets of coastal line also importantly guided seafarers. We should now remember that Jewish faith and Islam strictly emphasise that God is One (In Quran e.g. so emphasised in Sura Tauhid, SURA 112), writing that God is AHAD. This oneness of God notices His oneness numerically and qualitatively, His absolute oneness. Moreover, in the current discussion it is also important to regard that verb HUDA notices steering and guiding travellers and movements. STAR OF BETHLEHEM- SIGNAL LIGHT IN TOWER OF THAT TRAVELLERS’ INN New Testament Readers remember the famous episode of birth of Jesus of Nazareth and the visit of the magicians coming to greet this newborn, told in the Matthew 2. This episode of Matthew 2 is notorious in numerous details; and for the current discussion now is notable mention that the “star of Bethlehem” guided the travel of magicians in their coming to greet newborn Jesus. Really numerous speculations have been presented in scholarly discussions for this Star of Bethlehem. Numerous studies have been discussing special heavenly events, proposed having formed the specially bright star in heavens; even many academically learned scholars have been calculating of times of such special heavenly event. In the current discussion we recognise that he Star of Bethlehem apparently was the signal fire that was burning in upper echelons of that house or in tower of that place where Jesus was born. The famous episode of Gospel of Luke 2 so famously describes that Jesus was born in midst of times of large travelling, and Jesus was born in the hut beside a house or inn made for travellers. It is understandable that such special house or inn for travellers also burned some really visible signal fire to guide travellers- this is understandable regarding ancient Near Eastern travelling practises and arrangements. There may have been even a some edifice that properly may be called a tower for such signal fire adjacent to that travellers’ inn. Such larger signal fire could then be called even a “star”, the word in Matthew 2 written. Thus is clearly comprehensible the notorious statement of Matthew 2:9 that KAI IDOU O ASTER ON EIDON EN TE ANATOLE (dat) PROEEGEN AUTOUS EOOS ELTHOON ESTATHE EPANO (dat) OU EEN TO PAIDION This Greek text of Gospel of Matthew is easily understandable with considering such ancient arrangements of guiding travellers. This Star was leading (PRO-AGO) the travel of these magicians; it is truly notable that the word PRO-AGO here is written. Comprehending that such travellers’ inn was keeping such guiding fire either on upper echelons or in tower style edifice, it is then appropriate to say that this Big Star indeed and very really stopped upon the place where Jesus was born. Description of Gospel of Matthew 2 of the Star of Bethlehem thus is understandable with considering ancient system of guiding travellers with signal fires towards cities and special edifices of travellers’ inns. SIGNAL LIGHTS of MENORAH LAMPSTANDS and MINARET LIGHTHOUSES Quran Sura SABA writes some descriptions that are of special importance for the current study of ancient travelling arrangements and ancient methods of navigating. Well known, ancient times seafare was often much safer and more practicable than travelling along landroutes. We comprehend easily that the development of ancient transportation along landroutes was often and usually limited because of condition of landroutes. Current historiography always praises Roman engineers and their administration for developing the road network in Roman areas; the Roman road network enabled actually movements of large military units and thus was of strategic importance for constructing and existence of realm of Roman rule. Current historiography usually praises such achievements of Roman rule and engineering, although obviously being too silent of advanced developments of engineering and construction methods in Near Eastern high cultures. At the same time we shall remember that ancient Near Eastern high cultures were very developed and their engineering skills also were of high quality, also developments of transportation networks in landroutes and across seas. The ancient flourishing empire of SABA was famous and in many methods communicating with Judah and Israel, also noticed in Old Testament. It is specially worth noticing that Old Testament word for magnets and compasses is the SAB, actually quite similar to the name of empire of SABA. Quranic SURA SABA 34:18 writes specially interesting description of ancient travelling WAJALNA BAJNAHUMA WABAJNA ALQURA ALLATI BARAKNAHA FIHA QURA ZAHIRA WAQADARNA FIHA ALSARA This is interpreted into English “and we placed, between them and the towns which we had blessed, towns easy to be seen, and we made the stages between them easy (M.M. Khan-Muhammad al-Hilali). Now we notice the written QURA ZAHIRA that is rendered “town easy to be seen” by these interpreters. We now notice this description of Sura SABA specially relevant and important for the current study of ancient navigating and travelling along landroutes. Understandably, travellers could find their route to town that could be found. Usual travellers could have more rememberance and knowledge of special local geographic signs and formations that were helpful for leading travellers towards direction of town; and usual travellers also better knew how to find many of then important routes. Generally it was specially helpful for travellers that a town could be seen, also from some distance. In this ancient Quranic description of land travel we now notice mention of placing along land routes some towns easy to be seen. This much reminds us of knowledge of ancient methods of travelling along caravan routes. Thus we especially now notice that Arabic statement of QURA ZAHIRA notices towns that are easy to be seen; especially the ZAHIRA word now deserves consideration. Generally the ZAHARA (682, with za letter, thus written in Sura SABA) notices many meanings to be or become visible, manifest, clear, apparent. But the ZAHARA importantly also notices many meanings of becoming manifest and visible in light and by means of light, being enlightened and coming to light. The ZUHR notices midday and Muslim Midday prayers- and the time of midday is in Near East especially full of light and splendour. Moreover, ZAHARA (446, with zay letter) indeed notices to shine, give light, be radiant. Interestingly, MAZHARIYA notices vessels such as vases and flowerpots- we should especially remember that ancient glass bowls often were glass lamps, mostly filled with water for cooling purpose, with some oil floating for nourishing the light flame; and at other times such vases and bowls of course could be used for more general purposes. And the planet Venus is called AZ-ZUHARA. We notice thus in the Sura 34:18 reference how such towns easy to be seen could be thus easy especially because of light. In the dark evenings of Near East, the lights of town show such town already quite in far distances and thus direct travellers towards the town. This QURA ZAHIRA thus may refer especially descriptively how the lights of towns make towns visible in far distances- and enlightened Minaret towers especially could be seen in quite far distances. Even in current Arabic parlance the Minaret noun also designates lighthouses, whose light is visible in far distances and so direct travellers. This history in Sura SABA 34 thus interestingly describes ancient arrangements of travelling- and we also remember that the ancient kingdom of SABA was of considerable power and importance and thus also promoted ancient travelling. Readers of New Testament Gospels remember straightforward the sayings of Jesus concerning Lamp, encouragement that the Lamp should not be placed under MODION but be placed upon a lampstand where it gives light. This saying of Jesus is notably in Gospel of Matthew 5 written with noticing that a city high upon mountains cannot be hidden, thus connecting with arrangements of ancient cities. Also notable is that this saying of Lamp placed visibly on lampstand in the Gospel of Luke 11 is connected with description how the Queen of South travelled from far distances to hear the wisdom of Solomon, indeed thus is noticed the Old Testament tradition of 1 Kings 10 telling how the QUEEN of SHEBA came to visit Solomon and hear his wisdom: The Queen of SHEBA heard of Solomon’s fame, through the name of the Lord, and she came to test him with hard questions. She arrived in Jerusalem with very large retinue, with camels bearing spices, a great quantity of gold and precious stones. When she came to Solomon, she asked him all that she had in mind (Tanakh translation of 1 Kings 10:1-2) Thus is noticed Old Testament traditions of Queen of SHEBA; and importantly, this description is one important Old Testament description of travelling of large entourage carrying much precious items. Old Testament thus identifies this travelling of Queen of SHEBA; and this detail now makes it apparently importantly relevant with Quranic writings of SURA SABA. Importantly main MSS of Greek Septuagint translation clearly identify her as QUEEN of SHEBA, BASILISSA SABA. here we find important detail in Greek New Testament, as Luke 11:29ff and Matthew 12:42 write of Queen of South, in Greek BASILISSA NOTOU, thus unanimously supported in the Greek Gospel MSS- importantly, this Gospel episode in their times has less considered that the main Septuagint tradition writes of Queen of SHEBA, the Gospels less specifically writing of Queen of South (NOTOS), but both Luke and Matthew more specifically noticing in this episode the Nineve in writing here also of Jonah. This mention of BASILISSA NOTOU for “Queen of South” in this Gospel tradition of the so called Q material, the Sprachquelle material, that is written only in Matthew and Luke but not in the Gospel of Mark is also more notable (stated simplified concisely, current Gospel research considers priority of Gospel of Mark; and that later Matthew and Luke wrote their Gospels knowing and much following Mark, inserting their own traditions such as the Q material, attested by both Matthew and Luke; this is really own genre of Gospel research with numerous important advanced studies). We now notice merely that both Luke and Matthew thus write of the BASILISSA NOTOU and this is well supported in their Gospel Manuscripts. This statement of BASILISSA NOTOU thus is apparently one interesting detail of the Sprachquelle or Q writings in Gospels and contains also important indications concerning the social and cultural specific background of that group where Q writings were composed and that special tradition circulating; especially notable is also that much of the writings of Q are very closely paralleled in the Egyptic Gospel of Thomas, very important Coptic document. We thus find interesting the statement of Lamp placed high on Lampstand in New Testament Gospel traditions. This statement is in Luke 11:33 written, especially preceded by the 11:29-32 describing travels, of Jonah and Queen of South, or the Queen of SHEBA, to hear wisdom of Solomon. Gospel of Luke 8:16-17 another time writes this saying of Lamp placed well visibly upon lampstand, and here the 8:17 notices generally things well visible and things hidden, in apparent parallel to construction in Matthew 5:14-15, but here in 8:17 Luke quite generally writes of things well visible and thing hidden but does NOT mention at all a city hidden or manifest, the special theme of writing in Matthew 5:14-15. We now notice the very important parallel in Quran Sura SABA 34:18 that notices ancient arrangements of travelling, placing well visible towns in reasonable distances along travel routes, such cities noticed QURA ZAHIRA that notices visible and manifest city, visible and manifest also with help of lights. Notably, Luke emphasises in his version that the Lamp thus shall enlighten those who are entering or coming in (INA OI EISPOREUOMENOI BLEPOOSIN TO FOOS) thus writing in Luke 8:16 and 11:33, this interestingly noticing that light to people who are coming in; but Matthew 5:14-15 more emphasises that by those arrangements those who are in the house may then see the light (LAMPEI PASIN TOIS EN TEE OIKIA (dat)). Luke thus emphasises that those who are coming may see the light; this is apparently quite relevant for Sura SABA noticing the journeys of travellers and those cities visible and manifest to travellers. Also importantly, these Gospel traditions notice that this lamp shall be placed upon lampstand LUKHNIA; the well known Hebrew Old Testament word is the MENORAH. But thus we recognise that still modern Arabic designates LIGHTHOUSES with MINARET word that is formed of the NUR light, same Semitic root as the famous Hebrew Menorah. Thus we recognise that ancient travel arrangements of the ancient huge Sheba empire are well reflected in these ancient traditions, especially the Quranic tradition clearly continuing mention of SABA. Towns are visible to travellers also by the LIGHTHOUSES or MINARETS well lightened- this helped ancient travellers to direct their journeys. The current Author Pasi K Pohjala has already earlier in my earlier book SIMILARITIES OF REDACTION OF THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW, WITH TEXTS OF PHILO ALEXANDRINUS (2006) written comprehensive study of this Gospel text of Lamp on the Lampstand in the Chapter 3.3. LIGHT AND LAMP. This Chapter much compared these texts of Lamp on Lampstand in Matthew, Luke and Mark and many traditions. Of course, themes of Lamp and Light are quite usual in many religious texts of those times and also in New Testament; and main tenets of such mentions in other New Testament texts were discussed. This Gospel text writes specifically of Lamp on Lampstand, LUKHNOS EPI LUKHNIA; and it is important to notice that THIS specific connection of writing of LUKHNOS EPI LUKHNIA is in the whole New Testament unique to this Gospel text. Notable in the Manuscript traditions is also that in this Gospel text these LUHNOS EPI LUKHNIA are well preserved by Matthew, Mark and Luke, and in their Manuscript traditions, even if they do write some details of this Gospel text with their particular redactional modifications. Important comparison was found in Philo of Alexandria’s writing Special Laws 1:296-298 where Philo writes of the commandment of keeping the holy lamps burning PALIN AP HESPERAS EOOS PROOIAS PROSTATTEI KAIESTHAI LUKHNOUS EPI TES HIERAS LUKHNIAS EISO TOU KATAPETASMATOS, POLLOON KHARIN (1:296) Here occur three words common with the synoptic tradition: LUKHNOS, EPI and LUKHNIA. Philo here writes exegesis of the OT commandments in Exod 27:21 and Lev 24:3-4; the passages in Exod 27:20-21 and Lev 24:1-4 legislate about treatment of the LUKHNOS on the Menorah of the Temple. Central commandment is that the lamp shall burn continuously (P. Pohjala 2006, 68). Philo of Alexandria’s Biblical interpretations are hugely important in the history of Greek speaking Judaism and thus we notice this interpretation with much interest. In the current discussion of SIGNAL LIGHT SYSTEMS GUIDING TRAVELLERS we now make many important observations concerning this text. Indeed, Philo writes almost immediately after this discussion of Lamps on Lampstand in 1:296-298 important description of ancient travelling “Which of these is painful or laborious? You have not to cross great waters where no ship has sailed and in the heart of winter to brave the deep, tossed up and down by the surging of the waves and the violence of opposing winds, or to foot it over rough and untrodden wilds where no road is, in perpetual dread of assault from robbers or wild beasts, or to pass the night unsheltered as a sentry on the walls, threatened with the gravest perils from the enemy ever watchful for their chance” (Philo of Alexandria Special Laws 1:301, English translation of Colson in LCL). Philo of Alexandria here in Spec 1:301 writes certainly really realistic description of woes of ancient travellers both in land and seas almost immediately after writing in 1:296-298 of the commandments concerning Lamp on the Lampstand. Before and after Roman occupation of Egypt, the Alexandria was the enormous commercial hub of Eastern Mediterranean with notably much knowledge of travelling along searoutes and land. This much specifies understanding of that peculiar lamp and Lampstand and also is highly relevant for our current discussing concerning the Visible Cities. IMPORTANTLY, IN THE SPECIAL LAWS 1:296-298 PHILO OF ALEXANDRIA IN DETAIL WRITES OF LAMPS ON THE HOLY LAMPSTAND, BUT PHILO IN THIS TEXT DOES NOT SPECIFY THIS DESCRIPTION FOR ONLY ONE TEMPLE (supposedly Temple of Jerusalem); BUT THESE DESCRIPTIONS OF LAMPS ON HOLY LAMPSTAND IN SPEC 1: 296-298 CAN APPLY TO MANY TEMPLES THAT FOLLOW THE LEGISLATION. Question of Many Temples in Judaism is one of the BIG questions. The currently prevailing discussion comprehends situation so that the religious cult was centered in the Temple of Jerusalem; when this was in Hurvan destroyed, the institutions of Synagogues developed around in numerous places and continued the Jewish religiosity. Currently studies of Levine of ancient developments of institutions of Synagogue are very important and prominent. But among scholars there are some although somewhat rare discussions of other Jewish Temples, such as Onias’ Temple; this is, apparently, one of the BIG discussions of history of Jewish religion. We shall especially notice that Levine’s modern studies of history of Synagogues consider very detailed archaeological evidence of ancient synagogues and discuss this evidence in much detail and thoroughly. Thus are archaeologically attested indeed many very ancient Jewish Synagogues. Importantly, in history of religion is also well attested that very usually, religious sites and venues of certain religion remain the same but are during times developed- the sites may be developed and refurnished to better reflect current socio-economic situation of that religious community, so that during times some costly developments and refurbishings are realised in those religious places and in those religious venues. For example, more affluent communities often in history have redecorated their religious venues with more and more costly religious decorations or have extended the site of religious venue to be even more comprehensive and ostentatious of that more wealth of that community; and in such developments the main religious functions and main religious parts of that venue may remain the same even if developed more costly. BUT it is also specifically well known that older religious venues often are developed in accordance of religious rituals motivated by religious reforms or some developments of religious practise and rituals of that religious community. In Jewish religion, change from religious practises and rituals of religiosity of Temple Judaism towards Rabbinical Judaism where Synagogue venues are the special religious venues with distinctively different religious rituals (orientated especially for Torah and Torah reading and teaching). In the academic study we normally consider that the venues attested archaeologically as “Synagogues” were par excellence Synagogue buildings. However, also these venues as religious buildings did undergo development and some refurbishing, according to affluence of there worshipping Jewish community AND also to reflect some quite purely religiously motivated changes. Stated simply, we really have to consider that some or most of now known “Ancient Synagogues” EARLIER were Jewish Temples, properly equipped and furnished for such religious Jewish Temple rituals- even in Temple of geographical site Jerusalem was larger and more famous. There were apparently MANY TEMPLES IN ANCIENT TEMPLE JUDAISM. Also history of many ancient Christian Churches is in archaeological excavations much in detail studied and scholarly scrupulously
Greek Septuagint translation of these descriptions of the Song of the Sea are also notorious and important. Greek translation of Exodus 15:1 reads TOTE EESEN MOUSES KAI OI HUIOI ISRAEL TEN OODEEN TAUTEN TO THEO (dat) KAI EIPAN LEGONTES AISOOMEN TO KURIO (dat) ENDOKSOOS GAR DEDOKSASTAI HIPPON KAI ANABATEEN ERRIPSEN EIS THALASSAN Here this Greek Septuagint tradition translates the Hebrew ASJRH LH KJ GAH GAH (gao gaa) SWS WRKBW RMH BJM Already we noticed here 15:4 writing of MERKAVOT PHARAOH in Hebrew Bible in the statement that MRKBT PRYH WHJLW JRH BJM and we noticed that ancient speakers with knowledge of sailing practises of Eastern regions, or old Arabic seafare, here in 15:4 recognised promptly description that God brought upon sea ships and troops of Pharaoh, the MERKABA in old Arabic seafare practises noticing ships. It is only logical and fully understandable to every reader to say that ships and troops sailing on ships were coming upon seas; and speakers may well ascribe this to powerful acts of God. Here in Exodus 15:1 the Hebrew Bible writes of RKB, thus of the MERKABA tradition. Importantly, Septuagint here translates HIPPON KAI ANABATEEN ERRIPSEN EIS THALASSAN. This Greek translation becomes importantly understandable more considering Greek seafare traditions: important type of PHOENICIAN SHIPS were in old Greek parlance called HIPPOS, mostly motivated for the specific decorations on the stem of those ships, looking like horse heads. Recognising thus HIPPOS designating important famous class of Phoenician ships, it is indeed appropriate to state that such HIPPOS ships are set on sea (RIPTO, aor ERRIPSEN). Of course the noun HIPPOS usually denotes the domestic animals horses; but THIS context of the famous Song of the Sea specifically writes of issues concerning sea. Thus IN THIS context of this Greek Septuagint translation it is indeed appropriate to comprehend the HIPPOS as denoting ships, motivated by the usual designation of famous type of Phoenician ships as HIPPOI. It is really logical thus to say in Greek that HIPPON KAI ANABATEN ERRIPSEN EIS THALASSAN; thus is described how ships and those people on board were brought floating upon sea. Here is written of ANA-BAINO form ANABATES that quite generally denotes those on board a ship; but in the ancient CONTEXT of Hellenistic world Readers undoubtedly recognised here ANABATEN referring specifically to NABATEANS. This Septuagint translation thus praises God for having brought on sea boats of Pharaoh and those on board, specifically designated as NABATEANS. We remember that Egyptians much employed people with good naval experience in their ships- and this poem of Sea of Reeds now notices Pharaoh´s HIPPOS boats and NABATEANS on board, probably as navigating specialists; and ANABATEN including practically everyone on board. We also remember that usually OT Hebrew writes NHG to denote to drive, conduct and to do charioteering (BDB 624); thus understandably here Hebrew Bible begins this ancient poetry with ASJRA LH (to God) KJ GAH GAH (gao gaa). Thus is God praised being leader of Egyptian naval forces- that God brought ships and those on board upon sea. However, after the complete defeat of Actium, praises of Egyptian naval forces were obviously considerably rare and such prejudice still in our times hampers to hear this praise of Egyptian naval power and God leading the Egyptian powerful navy. Here also the 15:7 writes in Hebrew Bible that WBRB GAWNK THRS QMJK This is in the Tanakh rendered In Your great triumph You break Your opponents It is certainly difficult to fully appreciate this powerful ancient poetry and its profound wisdom. However, we notice the following. Here is usually read vocalisation BEROB, “with much, by much” but we also may wonder if vocalisation RAB could be appropriate- the Consonantal Script is hallowed but vocalisation merely follows tradition and is often in interpretations speculated and changed. Reading vocalisation RAB in this poetry of ancient Song of the Sea considering matters of seafare and naval battles is of course specially appropriate- in traditions of Arabic seafare one noun designating captain of ship is namely: RAB. Already is noticed that Jerus-salem is a noun designating many safe havens, the Quranic tradition of Sura HUD 11:41 emphasising MURSAHA as the safe anchorage of the Ark of Noah and this noun still currently designating safe havens and harbours. The currently agreed lexical rendering of HRS of course describes destruction and breaking; but in this ancient Poem Song of the Sea certainly this THRS describes how God brings to safe harbour. We thus discover that this statement notices how: God with his skilled Captain with much knowledge (GAON) brings his own folk safely to harbour This poem Song of the Sea begins ASJRA LH KJ GAH GAH noticing how God leads or drives forward such forces (NHG). ELIJAH; Malachi 2:16 Malachi 2:16 writes in Hebrew Bible that KJ SNA SLH AMR JHWH Also we find written in Malachi 3:1 that HNNJ SLH MLAKJ WPNH DRK LPNJ WPTAM JBWA AL HJKLW HADWN Now we consider the SLH here described, this notices some style of “sending”. Attentive reading of these statements notices written HNNJSLH and NASLH where is written specifically of NSL and NSLH. Notoriously, this word has specific meaning of bringing to harbour. We read in Quran Sura Al-Muminun in the 23:29 in Quranic description of histories of Noah and his sailing that RABBI! ANZLINI MUNZALAN MUBARAKAN WANTA KHAIRUN ALMUNZILIN “My Lord! Cause me to land at a blessed landing place, for You are the best of those who bring to land” (interpretation by M.M.Khan and Muhammad Al-Hilali) The verb NAZALA has many various meanings, and meanings designating landing of ship, embarking and disembarking are important (1122). Malachi 3:1 so emphatically describes travelling and travel arrangements, so also New Testament traditions where Jesus of Nazareth by quoting Malachi 3:1 is noticed having described activity of forerunner John the Baptist. Comparison with 3:23 already emphasised that John´s activity SWB describes his clever finding the way and directing travel to proper destination. In these statements of 2:16 and 3:1 now we recognise the NSLH that apparently is comparable with this Quranic tradition of NAZALA bringing to harbour, bringing to landing place MUNZALA. ABRAHAM, CLEVERLY FOUND TRAVEL ROUTES Old Testament religion much begins with narratives of histories of Abraham, or Ibrahim. Interpretations of the name Abraham are numerous in Midrashic literature, and very often noticed interpretation finds in the name Abraham reference to father of mercy, AB- RHM. Important Old Testament episode was of course the change of name of ABRAM to ABRAHAM; and many interpreters write quite much discussion of such change of name as indicating more fundamental truths. Also Philo of Alexandria wrote comprehensively of Abraham especially in treaties De Migratione and De Abrahamo, and current Author Pasi K Pohjala has been during years devoting much consideration to various details in these magnificent although quite difficult interpretations, even in philosophical meaning quite elaborate and difficult. We consider now some details in the Old Testament episodes of Abraham. Everyone remembers that Abraham is famous traveller. Old Testament episodes commence with the LEKH LEKH that usually are comprehended indicating divine commandment to Abraham to commence his journey. The Genesis writes then lengthy and elaborate histories of travels of Abraham. The current study in Verre et Bible series is studying Book of Malachi and ancient methods of travelling, navigating. Thus we certainly shall notice histories of Abraham also in the current study somewhat elaborate. Abraham is often in interpretations presented being well learned in much of ancient Chaldean science, especially astronomy, and many interpretations notice his specialist observations having aided his finding routes for travelling. Also in this study we shortly consider questions that what did Abraham observe, and how did Abraham direct his routes in his travels. We thus consider some questions of ancient lighthouses, and methods of directing routes with observing light from lighthouses. Histories of Abraham begin in Genesis 12, notably after the episode of building the huge tower in Genesis 11. Many interpreters bypass connection of these episodes: namely, in Arabic language usual word for tower is the BURJ. For Semitic and especially Arabic speakers thus are obviously connected the episodes of Genesis 11 describing building the huge tower (Arabic BURJ) and there described scattering of that people around in their ancient world, and Genesis 12 describing then how ABRAHAM began his journeying in LEKH LEKH episode- important connection is exactly found in the name ABRAHAM where also echo to BURJ is heard. Then we notice of course, that the RHM or RAHAM in the name Abraham usually is rendered to denote mercy and merciful character. But travelling terminology of Arabic language knows important meaning of RAHMAN- this word denotes travel directories and some style of ancient travel aides or maps. Recognising these Arabic traditions of BURJ towers and RAHMAN travel aides and planners we recognise that the name Abraham presents this patriarch as specialist of system of towers that were aiding travellers to find their proper routes. Apparently thus are noticed ancient lighthouses whose light greatly could direct travellers towards that city or town. We especially remember that Arabic noun Minaret denotes also LIGHTHOUSES; and this Arabic noun Minaret also denotes the minaret towers of mosques. In Islamic culture the Minarets are very usual feature built with mosques; and in dark times currently Minarets are notably beautifully enlightened so that Minaret towers of Mosques in night times are also beautifully enlightened lighthouses whose light in ancient times could really well help ancient travellers to find their direction. Importantly, the word Minaret is of same Semitic root as the Hebrew word MENORAH, the famous lampstand of the Temple, so important also in the current times that the MENORAH is the symbol in state emblem of current Zionist Israel. Profoundly regrettably although so descriptively to the current Israel Palestinian conflict, numerous Palestinian families settled there since old times and worshipping in the Mosques and Minarets, have been unjustly driven to exile and Zionist state emblem Menorah become prominent in those regions. Abraham is important Biblical traveller who could successfully travel lengthy journeys towards the Promised Land and in that Promised Land; and often is his success connected with his special knowledge of Chaldean astronomy so that he could direct his journeys with looking at the stars. Certainly Abraham indeed was great traveller who successfully travelled apparently in quite distances; and his name including BURJ RAHMAN notices his special knowledge of directing travel with help of lighthouses that guide the way of travellers. We read in Quran the SURA 85 BURUJ- The Big Stars, this Sura beginning By the heaven holding the Big Stars (interpretation of M.M.Khan- Muhammad al-Hilali) Moreover, 85:3 notices WASAHID WAMASHUD, or By the Witnessing day and by the Witnessed Day; this notices visions and observations. The SAHADA widely notices meanings of witnessing, observing, seeing (570ff). We notice that here is written of Big Stars BURUJ; and thus it is especially noteworthy that SURA BURUJ 85:5-6 writes ALNAR DAT ALWAQUD ID HUM ALAIHA QU’UD Of Fire fed with fuel When they sat by it (fire) (interpretation M.M.Khan-Muhammad al-Hilali) Truly notably this SURA BURUJ writes of “big Stars” and writes of a fire fed with fuel. Importantly, the BURJ notices “towers” and here written NAR root also forms the MINARET. The QA’ADA does denote to sit and be sitting (912) BUT Arabic QADA word (930) quite differently notices to lead, conduct, guide and to steer, in modern times noticing steering cars, vehicles and even airplanes. Comprehended with this QADA, the SURA BURUJ 85:5-6 notices FIRE FED WITH FUEL; WHEN THEIR MOVEMENT WERE GUIDED BY THAT (fire) We find thus in SURA BURUJ notable description how there was big fire in such tower, fire fed with fuel and that this fire was steering travel of those who observed this fire. Also this huge light could be denoted a BIG STAR. The name of this SURA BURUJ now apparently echoes the name of Abraham; and in tradition Abraham was especially famous traveller who was specialist of Chaldean science of observing stars. We comprehend that Abraham was indeed specialist of observing stars of heavens (cf. e.g. Sura An Najm); but also very importantly, this traveller Abraham was specialist of observing the BIG FIRE-LIGHTS IN TOWERS that guided paths of travellers, or MINARET LIGHTS. Considering ancient circumstances makes of course clear that light from towers (Minarets) of cities indeed much steered the travel of travellers; and light from lighthouses or Minarets of coastal line also importantly guided seafarers. We should now remember that Jewish faith and Islam strictly emphasise that God is One (In Quran e.g. so emphasised in Sura Tauhid, SURA 112), writing that God is AHAD. This oneness of God notices His oneness numerically and qualitatively, His absolute oneness. Moreover, in the current discussion it is also important to regard that verb HUDA notices steering and guiding travellers and movements. STAR OF BETHLEHEM- SIGNAL LIGHT IN TOWER OF THAT TRAVELLERS’ INN New Testament Readers remember the famous episode of birth of Jesus of Nazareth and the visit of the magicians coming
JERUSALEM, NOUN FOR HARBOURS AND SAFE HAVENS; CURRENT MERSA CITIES; AND QURANIC MURSAHA SAFE ANCHORAGE Seafarers found important the arrival and staying in quiet anchorage of safe havens and harbours. We find numerous important Quranic traditions of harbour and safe havens for seafarers. Sura HUD describes also history of Noah and his floating rescue and arrival to safe haven. However, the episode of Hebrew Bible telling histories of Noah and Ark are of such detail more silent; thus the Quranic tradition of histories of Noah now deserves some more attention. Sura HUD 11:41 writes: And he (Nuh/Noah) said: “Embark therein: in the Name of Allah will be its (moving) course and its (resting) anchorage. Surely, my Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (interpretation: M. M. Khan) The Quranic word MURSAHA here writes of such anchorage of that Ark of Noah. Also in modern Arabic language verb RASA notices to be steady, stable and firm (393) and the derived noun MARSAN (pl. MARASIN) notices anchorage. And several cities are called MERSA combined with some specifying names or nouns; and the peaceful greeting SALAM is in Arabic and Islamic culture truly usual. We notice thus such important traditions of anchorages, safe havens and even cities. Also is of interest how the Sura HUD describes Noah coming to land from the Ark after coming to this anchorage, the Sura HUD notices in 11:48 that: It was said: “O Nuh (Noah)! Come down (from the ship) with peace from Us and blessings on you and on the people who are with you (interpretation: M. M. Khan – Muhammad T. Al-Hilali) Thus are Noah and his companions arriving to land greeted with the SALAM greeting, wishing him and his companions Peace. We thus notice that in this Sura HUD is noticed how Noah ´s ark arrives at safe anchorage MURSAHA and upon landing Noah and his companions are greeted with the SALAM wish for peace upon them. Reading here the MURSAHA and SALAM together we now importantly notice similarity with the name JERUS-SALEM, the JERUSALEM. Readers now readily also refer to numerous famous Mediterranean harbours, such as Pireas, ancient Greek harbour of Athens whose naval empire was especially high esteemed, the harbour Pireas being still in our times one of busiest Mediterranean harbours. Important ancient hub is also Tarsus of Turkey, important area with harbour connecting there to many landroutes. Readers remember also in Western Mediterranean still important harbours Marseille and Barcelona (especially here is echoed R-S and C-L-N thus similarly to Jerus-salem). Jerus-salem is noun for safe havens, both along landroutes and safe havens as safe anchorages; the Jerus-salem is not proper noun designating one specific geographic place or city as currently is often considered. We thus understand that special emphasising of holiness and status one city Jerusalem located in current Israel thus is unnecessary and without historical motivation; rather we encounter in Bible episodes and histories concerning numerous safe anchorages and harbours and numerous safe havens for travelling along landroutes. Much motivations of emphasising holy status of one city Jerusalem, that located in current Israel, can be traced back to developments of Christianity as Roman state religion: this Christianity was presented as fulfilment of Old Testament prophesies so that the Old Testament God had to be properly recognised. Emphasising the increasingly powerful status of Roman imperial administration and Bishop of Rome with Christian histories were enhanced by references to somewhat similar very centralised Old Testament religious cult in the supposed ONE holy city, Jerusalem. Emphasising the churchly power of Bishop of Rome and attempts to centralise churchly power to Rome were also legitimised by attempts to refer to imagined history of centralised cult of the Old Testament God in the ONE Holy city Jerusalem. We become liberated from these misrepresentations in recognising that Jerus-salem is noun designating generally numerous safe harbours and safe havens in sea and land travel! We consider now also concisely the prominent Old Testament episode of Ark of Noah, merely those details that are in the current discussion clearly important. We notice that Genesis 8:4 states WTNH HTBH BHDS HSBJYJ BSBYH YSR JWM LHDS YL HRJ ARRT (Ararat) This mysterious statement of landing of the Ark of Noah is rendered in Tanakh in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat (Tanakh translation of Gen 8:4) Numerous speculations and archaeological expeditions have been conducted to plausibly identify this mysterious mountainous area where the Ark may have set ashore. However, important indication is the name ARARAT. Quite typical feature of Semitic languages is vacillation of letters T and S; this feature quite often is noticed in comparisons of Hebrew and Aramaic expressions. Especially, this mythological description of voyage of the Ark of Noah certainly reflects very ancient traditions; and important comparisons have been made with Gilgamesh. Now we notice in this expression of Hebrew Bible this name ARARAT designating the place where Ark landed- noticing simply the S/T vacillation we recognise ARARAS- notably, this is similar to here discussed Quranic notice in Sura HUD 11:41 that the Ark rested on MURSAHA anchorage – these are formed of the R-S or RAS roots. We emphasise now strongly that this result of finding ARARAS word in the usually attested ARARAT word in Hebrew Bible Genesis 8:4 is done with the very usual and standard followed method of recognising vacillation of S and T letters in Hebrew and Aramaic versions of words. We thus can conclude great similarity of designating the coming to rest of Ark of Noah in Genesis 8:4 where ARARAT is written, with Quranic notice in SURA HUD 11:41 where is noticed Ark coming to MURSAHA anchorage. And these both emphasise recognising Jerus-salem being designation of safe havens, anchorages and harbours. We simply notice here ARARAT and ARARAS and MURSAHA anchorage; and so are the traditions of Hebrew Bible and Quran notoriously comparable. Some considerations of writings of name Ararat in Hebrew Bible and ancient translations increasingly emphasise these understandings. Jeremiah 51:27 notices Appoint nations against her, Assemble kingdoms against her- Ararat, Minni and Ashkenaz (Tanakh) Greek Septuagint translation here attests ancient considerations concerning such vacillation of letters S and T, writing that PARAGGEILATE EP AUTEN BASILEIAIS ARARAT PAR EMOU KAI TOIS ASKANAZAIOIS (Septuagint; the ancient vacillating spelling of names, usually seen also in ancient Greek Bible translations, is attested also in Cod Alexandrinus writing ARARETH, the ARARAT following the usually well recognised L). In this ancient Greek statement is the plural dative written in BASILEIAIS and TOIS ASKANAZAIOIS and the S ending now alerts Readers to consider also such for the ARARAT word; this clearly attests notices of speculating of ARARAS, thus similarly with here already discussed. Notably here prophesy of Jeremiah 51 (the Chapter 28 in Septuagint) does notice Jerusalem in discussing sea, the LXX Jer 28: 35-36 noticing IEROUSALEM DIA TOUTO LEGEI KURIOS IDOU EGO KRINO… KAI EREMOSO TEN THALASSAN AUTES KAI KSERANO Here is noticed Jerusalem and THALASSA sea. The KSERANO notices concerning KSERA dry land and EREMOS notices dry wilderness and generally notices withdrawal; we find here in this statement of LXX Jeremias 28:35-36 notice of Jerusalem, and reference to coming to dry land (KSERANO) and withdrawal EREMOO to dry areas, echoing also coming to harbour from sailing. NAVIGATION WITH SIGNALS AND COMPASS Old Testament clearly attests ancient developed knowledge of navigating with compass, magnetic needle indicating there direction towards north. Placed in water bowl, such magnetic needle operates quite in manner of current compass. Bowl divination thus included also reading direction towards north by observing floating magnetic needle in bowl. We notice that for ancient Arabic and Mediterranean seafare use of compass was certainly especially effective when geography of important regions is more considered. Glimpse on map alerts easily that the direction of Red Sea is along quite straight direction from northeast to southeast: thus use of compass in ancient Arabic seafare in Red Sea was certainly recognised to be especially effective. And Mediterranean coastal line from shores of Gaza and ancient naval hubs of Sinai towards shores of ancient Ugarit and southern Turkey is quite directed along southwest towards northeast. Sailing in such seas between havens located in such coasts was remarkably effectively aided by use of compass. We remember that from times ancient, Egyptian rulers practised also extensive Mediterranean seafare, often with Phoenician sailors and captains. Sailors truly were living difficult life: sailing along coastal line with coast in sight could be comprehended preferable because in high sea an ancient ship is quite diminutive and quite lost among wind and waves. However, sailing near coastal line with coast visible included the truly horrible danger of shipwreck in underwater rocks that are so numerous nearer to coastal line- especially navigating with ancient ships amidst furore of winds and storms was never so precise that currently engine driven ships precisely guided with gps satellite technology do achieve. Use of compass thus could liberate ancient sailors from sailing dangerously near to coastal line where numerous underwater rocks hampered voyages. And use of compass in sailing in the Red Sea and along Levantine coastal line was specially effective for their being thus straight directed. SONG OF SEA: PRAISE OF SAILING OF MERKAVOT NAVAL SHIPS For comprehending better Old Testament it is notoriously important to recognise that usually ships are called MERKAVOT in Arabic seafare. Indeed, the Arabic word MERKAVA is one of the most usual Arabic words denoting ships. This is straightforward noticed, and for comprehension of Hebrew Bible this Arabic MERKAVA tradition is notoriously apt and important. It is noteworthy that in Rabbinic Judaism MERKAVA mysticism is one important feature of mystical speculation; and ancient Jewish literature of MERKAVA mysticism is quite large. We remember of course, that large Rabbinical Jewish populations flourished in ancient Arabic speaking areas, also in times of Islam, and most of them quite well knew much Arabic language, so that then usual word MERKAVA designating ships in ancient Arabic seafare was to them known. Currently, however, reading of RKB (rakaba) verb and MERKABA noun in reading Hebrew Bible and Aramaic translations and interpretations is concentrating noticing events of dry land. Readers recognise currently usual tenets of verb RAKABA that so is noticed mounting and riding a horse, chariot or war chariot; and noun MERKABA designates chariots. Readers straightforwardly find this current consensus represented in important lexica. But also is famous episode concerning the Sea in Old Testament the episode of Exodus where Israel travelled amidst the Sea of Reeds (Exodus 14-15). Readers well remember the usual comprehension of this central Old Testament event: folk Israel were liberated from Egypt and came to the shore of Sea of Reeds, pursued by troops of Pharaoh. Miraculously, then God opened the route to Israel amidst the Sea- Israel was walking across the sea as if on dry ground; but waves came back and drowned Pharaoh´s troos pursuing Israelites. These are the main tenets of episode of rescue of Israel across Sea of Reeds. This is famous Old Testament episode concerning sea, the Sea of Reeds. The Exodus 15 the famous Song of the Sea that Israelites sang after being thus miraculously divinely rescued. Here writes Exodus 15:4-5 that The Lord, the Warrior- Lord is His name! Pharaoh´s chariots (MERKAVOT) and his army He has cast into the sea; And the pick of his officers are drowned in the Sea of Reeds. The deeps covered them; They went down into the depths like a stone. (Tanakh translation) Pharaoh´s chariots, MERKAVOT, drowned in the Sea of Reeds according to this currently usual reading. Of course, chariots MERKAVOT are designed for land battles, and this currently quite usual reading notices situation where such chariots drown in seas. However, recognising Arabic usual tenet that MERKABA noun designates ships, dramatically changes reading of this episode. MERKAVOT SHIPS of course are appropriate vehicles of transportation across a sea. We read in Hebrew Bible this description that H AJS MLHMH H SMW MRKBT PRYH WHJLW JRH BJM WMBHR SLSJW TBYW BJM SWP In the Hebrew Bible these words in the song of the Sea are truly notorious: here are MERKAVOT noticed and verb TBY is written, this especially referring to Biblical seafare, because the Ark of Noah in Hebrew Bible is called the TEBA. We find thus straightforwardly here interesting description that God carried Pharaoh´s MERKAVOT warships with their troops on sea, and Pharaoh´s troops thus sailed (TBYW, cf. TEBA the name of Ark of Noah) on the Sea of Reeds!! Readers with reading Hebrew knowledge are strongly encouraged to take in front of them this text written in Hebrew, preferably unvocalised consonantal writing, and nothing else than that, and some time seriously contemplate the meaning of those consonants that convey to us these so important ancient traditions. Considering usual Arabic word MERKAVA that usually designates different ships thus brings to Readers ability to quite naturally comprehend this tradition of Sea of Reeds- there are described sailing of Pharaoh´s warships and troops across the Sea of Reeds in MERKAVA warships. Importantly, large Rabbinically oriented ancient Jewish communities were living in Arabic speaking areas, and for them this interpretation was, of course, evident. Greek Septuagint translation of these descriptions of the Song of the Sea are also notorious and important. Greek translation of Exodus 15:1 reads TOTE EESEN MOUSES KAI OI HUIOI ISRAEL TEN OODEEN TAUTEN TO THEO (dat) KAI EIPAN LEGONTES AISOOMEN TO KURIO (dat) ENDOKSOOS GAR DEDOKSASTAI HIPPON KAI ANABATEEN ERRIPSEN EIS THALASSAN Here this Greek Septuagint tradition translates the Hebrew ASJRH LH KJ GAH GAH (gao gaa) SWS WRKBW RMH BJM Already we noticed here 15:4 writing of MERKAVOT PHARAOH in Hebrew Bible in the statement that MRKBT
episode of march in the surroundings of Jericho thus clearly describes Old Testament tradition of use of a device of compass to direct marching. The Psalm 6 also interestingly writes HLZ together with SB verb. thus we find written in Ps 6:5 that SWBH H HLZH NPSJ HWSJYNJ LMYN HSDK Interestingly here is written of SWBH and Tetragrammaton, and the HLZH. Tanakh now renders: Lord, turn! Rescure me! Deliver as befits Your faithfulness. We find interesting traditions also in the Greek Septuagint translation where is rendered that EPISTREPSON KURIE RUSAI TEN PSUKHEN MOU SOOSON ME ENEKEN TOU ELEOUS SOU Greek translation here writes of the EPI-STREPO and renders with RUO now discussed HLZH, with the RUSAI form. We shall now especially remember that Septuagint translation was often read in congregations where many members were prolific speakers of Greek and Semitic languages, at least some Aramaic. This Aorist form RUSAI of the Greek RUO for such bilingual Semitic speakers denotes divine saving, especially in that He brings to R-S safe haven. Notably begins the Septuagint rendering with HUPER TEES OGODES thus rendering the BNGJNWT YL HSMNJT (Sheminit). Ancient readers found clear allusion to directing the way, AGO and ODOS, so that device compass that leads the way thus may be alluded to. For these ancient speakers this SWBH H HLZH in Psalm 6:5 and its Greek Septuagint rendering EPISTREPSON KURIE RUSAI TEN PSUKHEN MOU specifically notices how God rescues soul by bringing the soul to R-S safe haven, like compass aiding finding securely the right way to safe haven. Safe havens denoted R-S are immensely important- later in the current study is more discussed the important ancient fact that word Jerus-salem was a NOUN denoting generally safe havens, the word Jerus-salem was NOT a proper name denoting one specific city such as most of current Readers presume. Indeed, large number of still currently existing main Mediterranean harbours are monuments of this important fact: Tarsus in Turkey, Pireas the harbour of Athens in current times and in historic times, Marseille, Barcelona; and every Reader now remembers the world famous Pharos leading the way to harbour of enormously important Mediterranean Alexandria. This is importantly noticed also in the following Psalm 7 writing of the HLZ, the 7:5 noticing WAHLZH ZWRRJ RJQM where is also the HLZH word with Z-R word written. Importantly, here is clearly written of the Reqemite empire noticing the RJQM. Interestingly, Psalm 7:8 notices the SB writing that WYDT LAMJM TSWBBK WYLJH LMRWM SWBH. In the Old Testament, HLZH and SB have important connection. We read interesting details of description of larger military campaign of kings of Israel, Judah and Edom in 2 Kings 3. There write the 2 Kings 3:8-9 that WAMR AJ ZH DRK NYLH WJAMR DRK MDBR ADWM. WJLK MLK JSRAL WMLK JHWDH WMLK ADWM WJSBW DRK SBYT JMJM Here is noticed questioning the route for proceeding of their troops AJ ZH DRK NYLH, and their proceeding along this route is noticed WJSBW DRK. Questioning for the route and this SB proceeding here apparently notice how SB compass was directing their proceeding. Ancient histories of travelling of troops and armies are in the Old Testament usual episodes where description of methods and arrangements of ancient travelling are written; this is apparently part of ancient Israelite and Judahite historiography. Interesting description for current study is also in 2 Samuel 24 written. This chapter describes first how David´s commander Joab with his nearest staff went around to estimate number of male population. Their journey across these lands was truly extensive, lasting more than nine months, and they went around in Judah and in Israel. These staff were SRJ HHL designated officers; but we notice here really important detail alluding to HLZH ascribed to these officers that WYL SRJ HHL WJZA JWAB WSRJ HHL LPNJ HMLK LPQD HYM. Even if these officers are here named SRJ HHL, here mentioned SRJ HHL WJZA that is exactly the HLWZA so important in 2 Samuel 24:4. Apparently these officers SRJ HHL were also trained in navigating and directing the routes, thus reasonably SRJ HHLWJZA who knew of methods of finding routes. Concerning their travelling in northern regions, in areas of Tyr and Sidon is notably written in 2 Samuel 24:7 WJBAW DNH JYN WSBJB AL ZJDWN WJBAW MBZR ZWR We notice that in these northern regions their travelling is noticed WSBJB; and notably the Tanakh translation renders “and around to Sidon” but emphasises in comments that “meaning of Heb uncertain”. In these northern regions of Sidon and Tyre these commanders may rather have SBB travelled with compass. Notably thus commander Joab with these officers conducted in Judah and in Israel truly large travel, and their special ability to travel reliably to various locations is actually here indicated in SRJ HHL WJZA that becomes in lectio continua HHLWJZA or the specific HLWZA. The book of Neviim concludes the Hebrew Bible with prophesy of Malachi 3:23 importantly promising sending of prophet ELIJAH HNH ANKJ SLH LKM AT ALJH (Elijah) HNBJA LPNJ BWA JWM H HGDWL WHNWRA WHSJB Now we see importantly that here prophesy of Malachi promises sending of prophet ELIJAH and noticed his doing WHSJB. Noun for the HLWZA navigator now is noticed in reading backward AT ALJH and in noticing name of his prophetic follower Elisha. We also notice that Malachi 3:1 writes HNNJ SLH MLAKJ WPNH DRK LPNJ WPTAM JBWA AL HJKLW Here God promises his sending his angel who shall prepare the way before God; and this angel suddenly comes to the Temple. These formulas in Malachi 3:1 and 3:23 are apparently connected in writings of HNH ANKJ SLH…LPNJ and HNNJ SLH…LPNJ. Now God promises sending the angel before him to prepare the way; and promise of Malachi 3:23 promises sending of prophet Elijah who shall do HSJB. This doing HSJB is apparently understandable when noticed that apparently so is described use of compass for finding direction for voyages, reading direction towards north in bowl visions. Current SAB discussion thus makes quite easily understandable this doing of divine angel and prophet Elijah, preparing way by reading direction towards north in compass style bowl visioning. Now this tradition of Malachi 3:1 is very central tradition of New Testament Gospels describing work of John the Baptist. Importantly is written in Luke 7:27 how Jesus with quoting this Malachi 3:1 described the activity of John the Baptist and similarly writes Matthew 11:10; these texts quote Greek Septuagint translation of Malachi 3:1 in same words that is of much importance- often in quotations they make small but ideologically hugely important modifications, the words are IDOU EGO APOSTELLOO TON AGGELON MOU PRO PROSOOPOU SOU OS KATASKEUASEI TEN ODON SOU EMPROSTHEN SOU Here we encounter truly important questions concerning Greek Septuagint translation and the manner how Gospel tradition quotes Greek Bible translation from those traditions known to their groups, Septuagint tradition namely here writes that IDOU EGO EKSAPOSTELLOO TON AGGELON MOU KAI EPIBLEPSETAI ODON PRO PROSOOPOU SOU KAI EKSAIFNES EEKSEI EIS TON NAON EAUTOU This is in the MSS well supported (Rahlfs) and likewise is the Greek quotation in Matthew and Luke also well supported in Gospel MSS, especially we do not find in Gospel MSS variants really comparable with the apparently slightly different Greek translation of Malachi 3:1 in Septuagint tradition. Rather the Gospel tradition now has actually read the words IDOU EGO APOSTELLOO TON AGGELON MOU PRO PROSOOPOU SOU in Greek Septuagint translation of Exodus 23:20 that is now verbatim followed. And the latter part of this statement in Gospels is quoted from Greek translation of Malachi 3:1 writing of KAI EPIBLEPSETAI ODON PRO PROSOPOU SOU whereas Gospels write OS KATASKEUASEI TEN ODON SOU EMPROSTHEN SOU- this is apparently paraphrased from Malachi 3:1 and not from Exodus 23:20. These are normal and quite usual questions in study of New Testament Gospels and their manner of quoting of some Greek Bible translations. Several special studies have examined closely quotations in New Testament Gospels. Importantly, also Gospel tradition thus has read together Malachi 3 and Exodus 23:20, traditions of divine leading of their way. After these somewhat more technical details of Gospel research we now proceed to more considering some very important details of the current study. Jesus of Nazareth is in Gospels presented as having described activity of John the Baptist thus in words OS KATASKEUASEI TEN ODON SOU EMPROSTHEN SOU Often this Greek KATASKEUAZO is rendered with its usual neutral meaning denoting some style of preparing and making advance preparations. John thereby is regarded as the forerunner who thus somehow prepared the way of Jesus, e.g. by preaching sp that preaching by Jesus could find some more audience. But Greek translation of Malachi 3:1 writes EPIBLEPSETAI ODON PRO PROSOPOU SOU, and such EPIBLEPO quite concretely describes some activity of concrete seeing. Considering this tradition, John would have concretely EPIBLEPO seen and observed the way that was in front of Jesus. Notoriously the Gospels here rather write of the KATASKEUADZO; this word is not found in Exodus 23:20 and its context, so that such KATASKEUADZO clearly notices important detail. How are these activities of KATASKEUAZO and EPIBLEPO concerning “way” comparable? We now think of use of compass: through glass bowl a road indeed can be observed and seen, and especially the proper direction can be detected with observing the bowl that acts as compass, a magnetic needle floating on the water. Thus is apparently the EPIBLEPO quite appropriate, and KATASKEUAZO can denote concrete seeing through the bowl, KATA SKEUE. Importantly this is now well supported in attentive reading of Malachi 3, the 3:1 and concluding 3:23 being apparently comparable, and the 3:23 importantly emphasises that prophet Elijah is to SWB. This is now clearly seen as indicating Elijah having used bowl divination to make compass reading to see proper direction to travel. The current study so emphatically finds attested SB and SAB use of magnets and compass in Biblical tradition to indicate finding proper direction. We find thus importantly attested that Malachi 3:1 and its important New Testament quoting in Gospel tradition describe activity of John the Baptist as the forerunner of Jesus of Nazareth was- to indicate direction of the road to travel. In the developments of Christian dogma, status of Jesus the son was all-important and thus his overwhelming knowledge and insight were emphasised; presenting John the Baptist as clever specialist of directing travelling of Jesus and his followers and advising good road for travel would have been apparently much less plausible – thus such details drowned in forgetfulness in developments of Christian dogma of the Son. Also here we are profoundly wondering how life of Jesus of Nazareth was developed into the high KURIOS Christology and metaphysical philosophical speculations of the Son, ideological although ahistorical bulwark of Christian state religion. Indeed the narrations of Roman state Christian religion and exalted high KURIOS Christology operates in completely profoundly different illusory level than the original life of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the old reliable New Testament traditions. This aims not to deny the achievements of those usually Platonising speculations of Christian Fathers; but rather remind readers of their philosophical character. Also specialist of Alexandrian allegorical interpretative methods especially so magnificent in Biblical interpretations of Philo of Alexandria, the current Author Pasi K. Pohjala wishes here to alert Readers to consider specially the historical realities of Jesus of Nazareth and first followers. Apparently thus New Testament Gospels in quoting Malachi 3:1 to describe activity of John the Baptist emphasise that John was particular specialist of reliably finding the travelling way with using compass. Readers should here also seriously consider that the famous JINN were famously clear travellers both across seas and in land; Arabic Quranic traditions and interpretations and folklore of JINN are numerous. But role of John helping the travelling of Jesus of Nazareth and his followers with compass was in later discussions forgotten when the exalted special role of JESUS and KURIOS Christology were developed and accepted in the dogma. But references to Malachi 3:1 make here quite clear that concrete seeing of the road was thus indicated, especially in the 3:23 emphasised SWB activity of prophet Elijah- the SAB noticing magnets and compasses. Activity of JOHN thus helping directing travels of Jesus and his followers have thus important comparison in the famous JINNIM; also New Testament Johannine literature does more emphasise such details. Especially Second Letter of John writes much of travelling and voyages stating PERIPATOUNTES EN ALETHEIA; INA PERIPATOOME KATA TAS ENTOLAS AUTOU and writes of PLANAO, and notably writes of PROAGOON. We thus conclude that Jesus of Nazareth is presented in Gospels having described activity of forerunner John the Baptist in quoting Malachi 3:1 in statement that praises John’s clever use of compass for directing the way; and in this finds echoes to famous JINN. JERUSALEM, NOUN FOR HARBOURS AND SAFE HAVENS; CURRENT MERSA CITIES; AND QURANIC MURSAHA SAFE ANCHORAGE Seafarers found important the arrival and staying in quiet anchorage of safe havens and harbours. We find numerous important Quranic traditions of harbour and safe havens for seafarers. Sura HUD describes also history of Noah and his floating
PASI K POHJALA A Study of Biblical Navigation in Seafaring and Land Travels: Their Use of Compass and Magnet SAAB and Seeing Lighthouses MENORA, MINARET Study of Old Testament Book of MALACHI VERRE ET BIBLE TWELVE By Pasi K. Pohjala. First Edition of December 18, 2012. The current article considers ancient methods of finding direction for voyages both in seafare and in landroutes. Current Readers of course think of directing travelling with help of maps both land and sea; the even more advanced modern methods of navigating with help of satellites is of course truly recent development. For ancient people methods of navigating and other reliable methods of directing voyages on landroutes were immensely important for realisation of communication between areas, for culture, religion and commerce- well known is how the developed methods of effective communicating was fundamental for reality of ancient states and central governance. NAVIGATING WITH SAB MAGNETS; and HLZH NAVIGATORS Considerations of Hebrew SB words provide many important insights to ancient developed methods of travelling and directing voyages. In the Old Testament the history of Israel leaving from Egypt and travelling towards the Promised Land is in Jewish religion one of the most fundamentally important Biblical histories. Much of scholarly literature has been attempting to reconstruct plausibly the probable route of the people towards the Promised Land; and some scholars have debated even the historical character of such wandering. The current study avoids so difficult questions and notices rather some interesting details of how that travelling is in practical terms described. We notice that the SAB word of Hebrew notices usually to draw water (BDB 980); and many of such meanings have been already by the current Author Pasi K Pohjala studied in studying Biblical descriptions of ancient methods of irrigating and ancient quite advanced technologies of watering and irrigating- these descriptions of watering and irrigating in Biblical high technological cultures were centrally important in Pasi K. Pohjala s recent study of the Book of Joel. However, it is now of central interest that Hebrew SAB words in some contexts noticed magnets (BDB 980). In Jewish religion the TESUBA is very central idea, noticing especially moral returning towards God and divine commandments. Magnets are of course for travellers both in landroutes and in high seas immensely important because of their magical ability of indicating reliably the direction towards north. For the Readers it is needless to say that such possible knowledge of capabilities of magnets in ancient world was immensely important and therefore was a sort of secretive knowledge that was not so loud and clearly propagated to general knowledge. It is well known that in ancient Chinese culture magnets and navigating with help of compass was known, this is in current scholarly consensus well accepted knowledge. But generally scholars find first attested uses of compasses in Mediterranean navigating only in the times of Crusades and thereafter. We should well remember that ancient Arabic seafare already in pre-Islamic times practised continuous and extensive seafares across long distances, even with Chinese. Thus we proceed to notice some interesting and important details in description of travelling in the HEBREW Bible, that certainly also describes very old practises. Especially importantly we notice that use of magnets as compasses is easiest facilitated by placing appropriate magnetic indicator to float in a WATER BOWL. The current Author Pasi K Pohjala has in numerous Biblical studies published in the series Verre et Bible emphatically shown how usual practises of bowl divination, the lecanomancy, were in ancient Israel and usually noticed in the Old Testament. In water bowls, magnified visions were seen, and this has been centrally discussed and studied by Pasi K. Pohjala in previous Verre et Bible studies and translations. In the current study now we continue also noticing that bowl divination could also be performed in order to read the direction towards north in the water bowl acting as compass. In bowl divination, direction towards north is seen and also magnified visions are observed. This includes interesting notices also concerning traditions of deities, also in Hebrew Bible and translations. We consider how Israelite travelling towards the Promised Lands is described in the Deuteronomy 2, finding that “Thus, after you had remained at Kadesh all that long time, we marched back into the wilderness by the way of the Sea of Reeds, as the Lord had spoken to me, and skirted the hill country of Seir a long time (WNSB AT HR SYJR JMJM RBJM) The Lord said to me: You have been skirting this hill country long enough; now turn north (RB LKM SB AT HHR HZH PNW LKM ZPNH)” (the Tanakh translation of Deut 1:46-2:2). Here the Hebrew text writes notoriously of the SB word describing some concrete travelling and proceeding and then notices importantly turning towards north. The modern Tanakh translation well notices the currently usual main tendencies in translating this text to modern English speaking Readers. But some older and quite usual English Bible translations do interestingly here allude to idea of use of compass as aide of finding the way, formulating translation that they have compassed this mountain long enough; turn northwards. However, now we especially notice that in this very important Old Testament description of travelling the SB word is thus interestingly connected with “turning to north”. Importantly this alerts to considering that SAB word also can denote magnets; used in finding route of voyage the magnets of compass have the notorious ability to find direction towards North. It is well worth noticing that the BDB Dictionary does render some SBB words in Hebrew Bible with rendering encompass (BDB 685-686), thus alerting attentive Readers that such journeying was probably directed with using magnets and compass. In this description by Hebrew Bible the travelling of people is noticed with SB words, with WNSB AT HR and SB AT HHR HZH. This probably notices that their travelling in those hill countries was probably quite well planned and guided by use of compass to direct their travelling- so emphatically the Hebrew Bible here writes of their SB travelling in that hill country, noticing so specifically turning towards north. Here the Greek Septuagint translation writes EKUKLOSAMEN TO OROS TO SEIR HEMERAS POLLAS KAI EIPEN KURIOS PROS ME IKANOUSTHO HUMIN KUKLOUN TO OROS TOUTO, EPISTRAFETE OUN EPI BORRAN. Greek Readers find now in this Septuagint translation interestingly the HEMERAS POLLAS that unmistakably suggests to Greek Readers clear reference to the famous Hermes, the famous travelling messenger and his methods of travelling and finding the way. One important mention of KUKLOO in Hermeticum is in the Sacred Discourse of Hermes (III.3). Some mentions of Hebrew Bible clearly connect SB verbs with words denoting north and northern directions. Famous description of Israelite SB marching is the episode of Joshua 6 that describes marching around Jericho and the subsequent Israelite invasion to Jericho and their occupation of Jericho. Thus is told Let all your troops march around the city and complete one circuit of the city. Do this six days with seven priests carrying seven ram´s horns preceding the Ark. On the seventh day, march around the city seven times, with the priests blowing the horns. (Joshua 6:3-4, the Tanakh translation) WSBTM AT HYJR KL ANSJ HMLHMH HQJP HYJR PYM AHT KH TYSH SST JMJM WSBYH KHNJM JSAW SBYH SWPRWT HJBLJM LPNJ HARWN WBJWM HSBJYJ TSBW AT HYJR SBY PYMJM WHKHNJM JTQYW BSWPRWT And he (Joshua) instructed the people, Go forward, march around the city, with the vanguard marching in front of the Ark of the Lord (Joshua 6:7, the Tanakh translation) WJAMR AL HYM YBRW WSBW AT HYJR WHHLWZ JYBR LPNJ HARWN H. This episode of Jericho notices Israelite arranging of a march of larger people, or whole Israelite army. Every one recognises the enormous military dangers of such proceeding that usually is here thought. That sounding of the horns would have revealed their location to the defenders quite exactly and thus given easy opportunities for arranging ambushes and launching huge number of missiles and projectile upon thus advancing troops. We remember that city Jericho was in those ancient times flourishing and well equipped and certainly technologically militarily well advanced, equipped with then known defensive devises and well equipped defending troops. The Israelite occupation of Jericho has been historically studied with archaeological remains; and also historicity of this episode is in research much discussed. Importantly, here is advancing of troops described with the SBB word (WSBTM AT HYJR, TSBW AT HYJR). Such SB is movement of those troops with regard to the city Jericho and the arranging of troops includes the Ark. The Joshua 6:7 specifies how the HHLWZH goes in front of the Ark; and the Tanakh comprehends them as vanguards. Importantly, the LWZ notices in Biblical Hebrew to bend, turn or twist (J 696); and we notice that MLJSH notices generally some water pots, such as even used as cooking vessels (J 790). These officials of Israelite troops HHLWZ who were marching in front of thus advancing troops were officials connected with water-pots and “twisting and turning”; and they were thus directing this SBB Israelite marching around the city Jericho. In the current discussion of finding directions for voyages, we notice how these HHLWZH officials advancing in front of troops were apparently using some device water pot with “twisting and turning”; apparently they were using some form of ancient compass to facilitate this SBB advancing of the Israelite troops in this situation. (Readers certainly remember also the Halachic important HALIZAH ritual or “removing the shoe” concerning marriage). Traditions of Arabic notice the very usual verb JALA that notices different spatial movements such as roaming, wandering and roving, wandering about and moving around (176); and this Arabic JALA is in written Arabic clearly related with this HHLWZH of Hebrew and Aramaic. but in Arabic traditions the word JALABA also deserves now special notion: the JALABA in modern parlance notices to bring to the spot, to bring- and notoriously also to attract (J 153). This noun also denotes the famous rose water (JULAB). Importantly, Arabic noun HILB notices different iron devices of boats, anchors, grapnels and boat hooks (1268) so that also magnetised piece of iron used as compass needle can in some traditions have been denoted HILB The episode of marching notoriously describes how priests were operating the SWPRWT HJWBLJM, shofars of ram horns. Use of magnetic material in compass to help bring travellers to certain direction is founded on the notorious fact that the magnetic needle remarkably is always attracted towards north. Comparing the role of officials HHLWZH in Israelite SBB marching in Jericho areas thus is much enhanced noticing also current Arabic traditions of JALA wandering and more determined travelling JALABA: thee officials were apparently using some kind of compass to direct their travel. However, hereby is nothing said concerning the constitution of the Ark. This episode of march in the surroundings of Jericho thus clearly describes Old Testament tradition of use of a device of compass to direct marching. The Psalm 6 also interestingly writes HLZ together with SB verb. thus we find written in Ps 6:5 that SWBH H HLZH NPSJ HWSJYNJ LMYN HSDK