Saturday, 8 December 2012
Pasi K Pohjala December 8, 2012 Beginning of Study of ancient navigation and use of compass. Verre et Bible. The current article considers ancient methods of finding direction for voyages both in seafare and in landroutes. Current Readers of course think of directing travelling with help of maps both land and sea; the even more advanced modern methods of navigating with help of satellites is of course truly recent development. For ancient people methods of navigating and other reliable methods of directing voyages on landroutes were immensely important for realisation of communication between areas, for culture, religion and commerce- well known is how the developed methods of effective communicating was fundamental for reality of ancient states and central governance. Considerations of Hebrew SB words provide many important insights to ancient developed methods of travelling and directing voyages. In the Old Testament the history of Israel leaving from Egypt and travelling towards the Promised Land is in Jewish religion one of the most fundamentally important Biblical histories. Much of scholarly literature has been attempting to reconstruct plausibly the probable route of the people towards the Promised Land; and some scholars have debated even the historical character of such wandering. The current study avoids so difficult questions and notices rather some interesting details of how that travelling is in practical terms described. We notice that the SAB word of Hebrew notices usually to draw water (BDB 980); and many of such meanings have been already by the current Author Pasi K Pohjala studied in studying Biblical descriptions of ancient methods of irrigating and ancient quite advanced technologies of watering and irrigating- these descriptions of watering and irrigating in Biblical high technological cultures were centrally important in Pasi K. Pohjala s recent study of the Book of Joel. However, it is now of central interest that Hebrew SAB words in some contexts noticed magnets (BDB 980). In Jewish religion the TESUBA is very central idea, noticing especially moral returning towards God and divine commandments. Magnets are of course for travellers both in landroutes and in high seas immensely important because of their magical ability of indicating reliably the direction towards north. For the Readers it is needless to say that such possible knowledge of capabilities of magnets in ancient world was immensely important and therefore was a sort of secretive knowledge that was not so loud and clearly propagated to general knowledge. It is well known that in ancient Chinese culture magnets and navigating with help of compass was known, this is in current scholarly consensus well accepted knowledge. But generally scholars find first attested uses of compasses in Mediterranean navigating only in the times of Crusades and thereafter. We should well remember that ancient Arabic seafare already in pre-Islamic times practised continuous and extensive seafares across long distances, even with Chinese. Thus we proceed to notice some interesting and important details in description of travelling in the HEBREW Bible, that certainly also describes very old practises. Especially importantly we notice that use of magnets as compasses is easiest facilitated by placing appropriate magnetic indicator to float in a WATER BOWL. The current Author Pasi K Pohjala has in numerous Biblical studies published in the series Verre et Bible emphatically shown how usual practises of bowl divination, the lecanomancy, were in ancient Israel and usually noticed in the Old Testament. In water bowls, magnified visions were seen, and this has been centrally discussed and studied by Pasi K. Pohjala in previous Verre et Bible studies and translations. In the current study now we continue also noticing that bowl divination could also be performed in order to read the direction towards north in the water bowl acting as compass. In bowl divination, direction towards north is seen and also magnified visions are observed. This includes interesting notices also concerning traditions of deities, also in Hebrew Bible and translations. We consider how Israelite travelling towards the Promised Lands is described in the Deuteronomy 2, finding that “Thus, after you had remained at Kadesh all that long time, we marched back into the wilderness by the way of the Sea of Reeds, as the Lord had spoken to me, and skirted the hill country of Seir a long time (WNSB AT HR SYJR JMJM RBJM) The Lord said to me: You have been skirting this hill country long enough; now turn north (RB LKM SB AT HHR HZH PNW LKM ZPNH)” (the Tanakh translation of Deut 1:46-2:2). Here the Hebrew text writes notoriously of the SB word describing some concrete travelling and proceeding and then notices importantly turning towards north. The modern Tanakh translation well notices the currently usual main tendencies in translating this text to modern English speaking Readers. But some older and quite usual English Bible translations do interestingly here allude to idea of use of compass as aide of finding the way, formulating translation that they have compassed this mountain long enough; turn northwards. However, now we especially notice that in this very important Old Testament description of travelling the SB word is thus interestingly connected with “turning to north”. Importantly this alerts to considering that SAB word also can denote magnets; used in finding route of voyage the magnets of compass have the notorious ability to find direction towards North. It is well worth noticing that the BDB Dictionary does render some SBB words in Hebrew Bible with rendering encompass (BDB 685-686), thus alerting attentive Readers that such journeying was probably directed with using magnets and compass. In this description by Hebrew Bible the travelling of people is noticed with SB words, with WNSB AT HR and SB AT HHR HZH. This probably notices that their travelling in those hill countries was probably quite well planned and guided by use of compass to direct their travelling- so emphatically the Hebrew Bible here writes of their SB travelling in that hill country, noticing so specifically turning towards north. Here the Greek Septuagint translation writes EKUKLOSAMEN TO OROS TO SEIR HEMERAS POLLAS KAI EIPEN KURIOS PROS ME IKANOUSTHO HUMIN KUKLOUN TO OROS TOUTO, EPISTRAFETE OUN EPI BORRAN. Greek Readers find now in this Septuagint translation interestingly the HEMERAS POLLAS that unmistakably suggests to Greek Readers clear reference to the famous Hermes, the famous travelling messenger and his methods of travelling and finding the way. One important mention of KUKLOO in Hermeticum is in the Sacred Discourse of Hermes (III.3). Some mentions of Hebrew Bible clearly connect SB verbs with words denoting north and northern directions. Famous description of Israelite SB marching is the episode of Joshua 6 that describes marching around Jericho and the subsequent Israelite invasion to Jericho and their occupation of Jericho. Thus is told Let all your troops march around the city and complete one circuit of the city. Do this six days with seven priests carrying seven ram´s horns preceding the Ark. On the seventh day, march around the city seven times, with the priests blowing the horns. (Joshua 6:3-4, the Tanakh translation) WSBTM AT HYJR KL ANSJ HMLHMH HQJP HYJR PYM AHT KH TYSH SST JMJM WSBYH KHNJM JSAW SBYH SWPRWT HJBLJM LPNJ HARWN WBJWM HSBJYJ TSBW AT HYJR SBY PYMJM WHKHNJM JTQYW BSWPRWT And he (Joshua) instructed the people, Go forward, march around the city, with the vanguard marching in front of the Ark of the Lord (Joshua 6:7, the Tanakh translation) WJAMR AL HYM YBRW WSBW AT HYJR WHHLWZ JYBR LPNJ HARWN H. This episode of Jericho notices Israelite arranging of a march of larger people, or whole Israelite army. Every one recognises the enormous military dangers of such proceeding that usually is here thought. That sounding of the horns would have revealed their location to the defenders quite exactly and thus given easy opportunities for arranging ambushes and launching huge number of missiles and projectile upon thus advancing troops. We remember that city Jericho was in those ancient times flourishing and well equipped and certainly technologically militarily well advanced, equipped with then known defensive devises and well equipped defending troops. The Israelite occupation of Jericho has been historically studied with archaeological remains; and also historicity of this episode is in research much discussed. Importantly, here is advancing of troops described with the SBB word (WSBTM AT HYJR, TSBW AT HYJR). Such SB is movement of those troops with regard to the city Jericho and the arranging of troops includes the Ark. The Joshua 6:7 specifies how the HHLWZH goes in front of the Ark; and the Tanakh comprehends them as vanguards. Importantly, the LWZ notices in Biblical Hebrew to bend, turn or twist (J 696); and we notice that MLJSH notices generally some water pots, such as even used as cooking vessels (J 790). These officials of Israelite troops HHLWZ who were marching in front of thus advancing troops were officials connected with water-pots and “twisting and turning”; and they were thus directing this SBB Israelite marching around the city Jericho. In the current discussion of finding directions for voyages, we notice how these HHLWZH officials advancing in front of troops were apparently using some device water pot with “twisting and turning”; apparently they were using some form of ancient compass to facilitate this SBB advancing of the Israelite troops in this situation. (Readers certainly remember also the Halachic important HALIZAH ritual or “removing the shoe” concerning marriage). Traditions of Arabic notice the very usual verb JALA that notices different spatial movements such as roaming, wandering and roving, wandering about and moving around (176); and this Arabic JALA is in written Arabic clearly related with this HHLWZH of Hebrew and Aramaic. but in Arabic traditions the word JALABA also deserves now special notion: the JALABA in modern parlance notices to bring to the spot, to bring- and notoriously also to attract (J 153). This noun also denotes the famous rose water (JULAB). Importantly, Arabic noun HILB notices different iron devices of boats, anchors, grapnels and boat hooks (1268) so that also magnetised piece of iron used as compass needle can in some traditions have been denoted HILB The episode of marching notoriously describes how priests were operating the SWPRWT HJWBLJM, shofars of ram horns. Use of magnetic material in compass to help bring travellers to certain direction is founded on the notorious fact that the magnetic needle remarkably is always attracted towards north. Comparing the role of officials HHLWZH in Israelite SBB marching in Jericho areas thus is much enhanced noticing also current Arabic traditions of JALA wandering and more determined travelling JALABA: thee officials were apparently using some kind of compass to direct their travel. However, hereby is nothing said concerning the constitution of the Ark. This episode of march in the surroundings of Jericho thus clearly describes Old Testament tradition of use of a device of compass to direct marching. The Psalm 6 also interestingly writes HLZ together with SB verb. thus we find written in Ps 6:5 that SWBH H HLZH NPSJ HWSJYNJ LMYN HSDK Interestingly here is written of SWBH and Tetragrammaton, and the HLZH. Tanakh now renders: Lord, turn! Rescure me! Deliver as befits Your faithfulness. We find interesting traditions also in the Greek Septuagint translation where is rendered that EPISTREPSON KURIE RUSAI TEN PSUKHEN MOU SOOSON ME ENEKEN TOU ELEOUS SOU Greek translation here writes of the EPI-STREPO and renders with RUO now discussed HLZH, with the RUSAI form. We shall now especially remember that Septuagint translation was often read in congregations where many members were prolific speakers of Greek and Semitic languages, at least some Aramaic. This Aorist form RUSAI of the Greek RUO for such bilingual Semitic speakers denotes divine saving, especially in that He brings to R-S safe haven. Notably begins the Septuagint rendering with HUPER TEES OGODES thus rendering the BNGJNWT YL HSMNJT (Sheminit). Ancient readers found clear allusion to directing the way, AGO and ODOS, so that device compass that leads the way thus may be alluded to. For these ancient speakers this SWBH H HLZH in Psalm 6:5 and its Greek Septuagint rendering EPISTREPSON KURIE RUSAI TEN PSUKHEN MOU specifically notices how God rescues soul by bringing the soul to R-S safe haven, like compass aiding finding securely the right way to safe haven. Safe havens denoted R-S are immensely important- later in the current study is more discussed the important ancient fact that word Jerus-salem was a NOUN denoting generally safe havens, the word Jerus-salem was NOT a proper name denoting one specific city such as most of current Readers presume. Indeed, large number of still currently existing main Mediterranean harbours are monuments of this important fact: Tarsus in Turkey, Pireas the harbour of Athens in current times and in historic times, Marseille, Barcelona; and every Reader now remembers the world famous Pharos leading the way to harbour of enormously important Mediterranean Alexandria. This is importantly noticed also in the following Psalm 7 writing of the HLZ, the 7:5 noticing WAHLZH ZWRRJ RJQM where is also the HLZH word with Z-R word written. Importantly, here is clearly written of the Reqemite empire noticing the RJQM. Interestingly, Psalm 7:8 notices the SB writing that WYDT LAMJM TSWBBK WYLJH LMRWM SWBH. In the Old Testament, HLZH and SB have important connection. We read interesting details of description of larger military campaign of kings of Israel, Judah and Edom in 2 Kings 3. There write the 2 Kings 3:8-9 that WAMR AJ ZH DRK NYLH WJAMR DRK MDBR ADWM. WJLK MLK JSRAL WMLK JHWDH WMLK ADWM WJSBW DRK SBYT JMJM Here is noticed questioning the route for proceeding of their troops AJ ZH DRK NYLH, and their proceeding along this route is noticed WJSBW DRK. Questioning for the route and this SB proceeding here apparently notice how SB compass was directing their proceeding.