Thursday, 17 January 2013
Thus we quite much better comprehend these descriptions in Haggaj; and so have rendered to Readers of our times in English formulating that “The Kavod appearance is so magnified (GDL) in he House for Observing (HZH) in the Aaron style, the qualities that it is showing in doubles (SN) in the lamp vessel (AM,NR) of God of magnified visual signs, this place of magnifying (maqom, QM) is for observing visual sign (AT) miraculous (NS) in completeness (SLM)- that is prophesy from God of magnified visual signs” (New and Modernised Translation of Haggai 2:9 by Pasi K. Pohjala in Verre et Bible 2, 2008). Many Prayers to Mighty Typhoon in Greek Magical Papyri In the magical rituals described in Greek Magical Papyri notably many ritual prayers are said to divine Typhoon serpent. Important prayer is written in the Great Magical Papyrus IV, notably in ritual of LECANOMANCY bowl divination. Thus we read in PGM IV.154ff that “NEPHOTES TO PSAMMETICHOS, immortal king of Egypt…You will observe through bowl divination (SKEPSEE DIA LEKANEES AUTOPTOU) on whatever day or night you want, in whatever place you want, beholding the god in the water (THEOOROON TON THEON EN TOO HUDATI) and hearing a voice from the god which speaks in verses in answer to whatever you want. You will attain both the ruler of the universe and whatever you command, and he will speak on other matters which you ask about You will succeed by inquiring in this way: First, attach yourself to Helios in this manner (SUSTATHEIS PROS TON HELION TROPOO TOUTOO)…” Thus here in the PGM IV.154-170 is described ritual of bowl divination, lecanomancy, and thereby observations of appearances of the god in the waters, and hearing his answers to questions. This ritual involves importantly recitation of prayer “O Mighty TYPHON, ruler of the realm (KRATAIE TUPHOON, TEES ANOO SKEEPTOUKHIAS SKEEPTOUKHE) Above and master, god of gods, O lord ABERAMENTHOOU O dark’s disturber, thunder’s bringer, whirlwind Night-flasher (NUKTASTRAPTA), breather forth of hot and cold, Shaker of rocks, wall-trembler, boiler of The waves, disturber of the sea’s great depth (BUTHOTARAKSOKINEESE)…” (PGM IV.180-185, in Translation of E.N. O’Neil, in Ed. H.D.Betz) Thus is to Typhon prayed, noticing that Typhon in various situations brings light, in form of thunders and during night; and Typhon also disturbs the sea and boils the waves. Another ritual of bowl divination is thereafter described here in IV.224ff, ritual of bowl divination. In the bowl is poured rainwater if heavenly gods are called, or seawater if gods of earth are called, or river water if Osiris or Sarapis are called, or springwater if the dead. The PGM IV.235-242 then writes the spell spoken over that vessel, and divine name of hundred letters. This is then commented “but you are not unaware, mighty king and leader of magicians, that this is the chief name of TYPHON, at whom the ground, the depths of the sea, Hades, heaven, the sun, the moon, the visible chorus of the stars, the whole universe all tremble, the name which, when it is uttered, forcibly brings gods and daimons to it” (PGM IV.244-249, in Translation of E.N.O’Neil in Ed. Betz). Here is then also third important prayer to mighty TYPHON written, prayer said towards the rising sun: “I call you who did first control gods’ wrath You who hold royal sceptre o’er the heavens You who are midpoint of the stars above You, master TYPHON, you I call, who are The dreaded sovereign o’er the firmament… (SE KALOO TON PROOTA THEOON OPLON DIEPONTA SE TON EP’OURANIOON SKEEPTRON BASILEION EKHONTA SE TON ANOO MESON TOON ASTROON TUFOONA DUNASTEEN SE TON EPI TOO STEREOOMATI DEINON ANAKTA…) TYPHON, in hours unlawful and unmeasured, You who’ve walked on unquenched, clear-crackling fire, You who are over snows, below dark ice, You who hold sovereignty over the Moirai, I invoked you in pray’r, I call, almighty one…” (PGM IV.261-272 in Trl. E.N.O’Neil and Greek text from the Ed. of Karl Preisendanz. The Magical Papyri are in their terminology difficult and mysterious and in formulating their prayers mystical. Thus modern discussions better quite much follow the serious attempts in Ed. Karl Preisendanz and Ed. Betz to bring these very difficult and mystical texts somewhat comprehensible to readers of modern times. Readers do, of course, some own translations but public discussion better is much based on these very learned Editions.) We also here make important notices concerning cult of Asclepios. It is very important to be well knowledgeable of this ancient important and widespread religious cult, and it is likewise important to make distinctions of different rituals and cults were snake staffs and religion of snakes are mentioned; generally, in much of ancient religions snakes were positively noticed. But one important religious cult where snakes were centrally important was the cult of Asclepios. One quite comprehensive recent study is by C. Kerenyi “Asklepios. Archetypal Image of the Physician’s Existence” (1960, the Bollingen edition). It is quite worth mentioning that name Asclepios for that famous Hellenistic god of healing and medicine is notably similar with the usual Arabic TABIB (in Semitic languages the T and S often are changed so that we easily recognise how similar is name Asklepios to usual Arabic TABIB noun designating physicians. We may suppose certain, or quite much, Oriental influence; somehow similar what we notice in name Archimedes whose Principle is important for scientific study of floating objects- essentially important for designing BOATS and SHIPS- because in Greek language the name ARCHIMEDES actually means “Median Prince” (of the usual Greek verb ARKHEIN noticing ruling and reigning and ARKHEE noticing leading offices and ruling activities. Understandably, the ancient Median culture had certainly much and comprehensively studied floating objects and made more scientific theories of floating objects. The Archimedes’ Principle in purely descriptive terms notices the essential condition of any floating objects and thus is truly the fundament for successful boat construction (the famous principle noticing when a body is partly or completely immersed in a fluid the apparent loss of weight is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced). Thus such “Archimedes’ Principle” in Greek Science understandably is old Median or Babylonian tradition learned via some “Median Prince” or “Median nobleman”.) And notably the name Asclepios is in developments of Semitic languages notoriously similar to word TABIB for physicians. And important episode in the quite popular Biblical book of Tobith is finding medicine cure against eye infection, after a long search in distant travel. Many statues of Asclepios usually represent him with his snake staff. In the Greek world, the main sanctuary of Asclepios was in Epidaurus, although quite little is known of the details of the religious cult. Some notices by Pausanias emphasise that snake was considered a form of epiphany of Asclepios (II.10.3). Usually is regarded that the sacred snake of Asclepios was the coluber longissimus, quite lengthy tree snake whose head is, importantly, of brass colour. The Hebrew NAHAS word, of course, denotes both snakes and copper and brass; but specifically identifying thus the snake sacred to Asclepios should certainly be quite restricted especially to avoid too hasty comparisons with Hebrew NAHAS. The religious cult of Asclepios had interesting connections also with cult of sun. Near to city KOS in grove of Apollo Kyparissios was built temple of Asclepios, and in that temple also Helios and Hemera (Sun and Day) were worshiped. Indeed, in several inscriptions is Helios mentioned together with Asclepios, the name Helios usually there mentioned first (Kerenyi 1960, 55-56). Moreover, in Hellenistic religion, Asclepios has certain connections to sunrise “the morning song of Asklepios was incised on marble tablet in the Asklepeion at Athens “Awaken, Paieon Asklepios,” it begins and the closing words are: “Awaken and hear the hymn!” This god’s relations to the sunrise, his appearance as a kind of solar epiphany, could scarcely be made clearer” (Kerenyi 1960, 59). Indeed, also is known some medals of Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-35) from Nikaia, Asia Minor, where Asclepios is depicted on a winged snake as a sun god flaring up out of darkness (Kerenyi 1960, 99). Indeed, the cult of Asclepios could be founded where the sacred snake staff of Asclepios was present. Thus has cult of Asclepios apparent connections with solar cult and especially rituals at sunrise. It is important to remember Greek popular cult of Asclepios when considering Greek texts that consider healing or that notice snake staffs; but cult of Asclepios was, ONLY ONE widespread and popular cult where snakes and snake staff were centrally important symbols. Another very important religious cult is the cult of Hermes, and soon we make more notices of Hermes and his Caduceus snake staff that is also famous solar symbol. The cult of HERMES was (and is) of enormous religious importance and included important traditions of alchemy and cosmology, especially in Hellenistic Egypt the Hermetic religion developed intriguingly much. this is Verre et Bible of January 2013 by Pasi K Pohjala.