Monday, 28 January 2013
VERRE ET BIBLE FIFTEEN Where is Your Jerusalem? By Pasi K Pohjala January 28, 2013 (part 2/2) Jerusalem; but in this context especially the remarkable name MAHER SHALAL HAZ BAZ being MHRSLLH alerts Readers to consider also matters of harbours whose waters also are silent. In this notorious name MAHER-SHALAL-HAZ-BAZ would thus be possibly referred to harbours whose waters are silent and calm. We now consider descriptions in Ezek 36:2 HAH WBMWT YWLM LMWRSH HJTH LNW We notice here written MWRSH that vocalised is quite similar to the MURSAHA that in Surat HUD denotes a harbour; and this statement write of Bamot Olam. Usually this is rendered with “ancient high places”- but in the society of Israel and legitimate places of worship, such BAMOT had really central status- the BAMOT were anciently in Israel legitimate altars, legitimate places of worship. Marcus Jastrow concisely summarises this now really important detail “Bamah, name of the legitimate altars prior to, and of the illegitimate after, the establishment of a central sanctuary (at Shiloh) and of the Temple at Jerusalem” (Jastrow 176). However, now we in the current study are questioning the meaning of “Jerusalem” and arguing that “Jerusalem” is noun designating ancient harbours and safe anchorages, rather than being name of only one ancient city. Bamot high places are of course usually considered having been established only in hills. But now we comprehend TRANSLATION: HAA! For us were ancient BAMOT sanctuaries in Harbours! (Translation Pasi K Pohjala 2013) This statement of Ezekiel 36:2 thus increases our comprehension of the structure of old Israelite harbours MURSAHA- there was usually BAMOT “high place” sanctuary. (Hereby I am not suggesting that Bamot high places sanctuaries were located only in harbours; rather these apparently ancient lighthouse edifices were found in harbours and in important places around country for guiding travellers with their lights; more detailed discussion of importance of lighthouses and such tower edifices for ancient Israelite navigating and directing routes across land is in my recent Commentary of Book of Malachi, also in Verre et Bible series, published recently in December 2012 and rapidly becoming increasingly popular already now in beginning of year 2013! I acknowledge that I am really encouraged for Readers’ ever increasing interest and thus I, Pasi K Pohjala, pledge to powerfully and effectively continue my progressing publishing of Biblical Studies, to so much rejoicing of many Readers! With much thankfulness: apparently the VEB Verre et Bible publishing Series of my Biblical studies is increasingly becoming VIP). But HERE in Ezekiel 36:2 we find noticed ancient BAMOT sanctuaries in MURSAHA harbours. Importantly, language in this context is very clearly describing ancient harbours. Thus we read here in Ezek 36:3 JYN BJYN SMWT WSAP ATKM MSBJB LHJWTKM MWRSH LSARJT HGWJM Here is written concerning the MURSAHA and that it is placed amidst waves swallowed all around (SAP, and YN can notice wallowing); this is realistic description of a harbour place in coastal line beside swallowing waves of the high seas. This is nice description of MURSAHA harbour in ancient Israel, and notice of ancient BAMOT (sg. BAMA) sanctuary in this harbour (apparently some taller tower like edifice in the harbour, like a lighthouse); and notice how this harbour was from all sides swallowed up amidst waves. Also we read in Ezekiel 11 statement written of Jerusalem and Mursaha, reading 11:14ff that “Then the word of the Lord came to me: “O mortal, your brothers, your brothers, the men of your kindred, all of that very house of Israel (KL BJT JSRAL KLH) to whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem (JSBJ JRWSLM) say, ‘Keep far from the Lord; the land has been given as a heritage to us (LNW HJA NTNH HARZ LMWRSH)” (Tanakh translation) This is interesting statement that in the vocabulary of Ezekiel much specifies his statements concerning Israel, Jerusalem and MURSAHA. Clearly in this statement are very importantly “Jerusalem” and “MURSAHA” actually identified. Here is recorded saying of the “inhabitants of Jerusalem” maintaining that the area concerned had been given to them as MURSAHA. Importantly, MURSAHA is clearly here presented as some area or place (ARZ), it is not something abstract such as money, and “Jerusalem” is here apparently presented also as place noticing the inhabitants of “Jerusalem”. Thus is actually the meaning of “Jerusalem” explained with the term MURSAHA, that is: this statement indeed presents “Jerusalem” as old noun that designates harbours. Also is notable that this context in prophesy of Ezekiel 11-12 really specifically notices matters concerning with seafaring. This statement notices namely AHJK AHJK ANSJ GALTK, Tanakh translation noticing “your brothers, your brothers, the men of your kindred”, and the word GALTK is here especially noteworthy in THIS context of Ezekiel 11-12. Boat construction is clearly described in the following 12:3 with GL words, stating WATH BN ADM YSH LK KLJ GWLH WGLH JWMM LYJNJHM WGLJT MMQWMK; I have recently discussed also this description of old seafaring in my Commentary Nahum)). Thus is more understandable here stated “Say then: Thus said the Lord God: I have indeed removed them far among the nations and have scattered them among the countries, and I have become to them a diminished sanctity (Miqdash- “sanctuary”) in the countries whither they have gone” (Tanakh translation Ezekiel 11:16) This statement of Ezekiel 11 describes notoriously the situation of people scattered around, among different countries and different folks: God Himself has become to them small Sanctuary (AHJ LHM LEMIQDASH MYT BARZWT ASR BAW SM). With this description it is really understandable that “Jerusalem” is here in Ezek 11:14ff actually identified with the MURSAHA place (harbour or safe haven). We read some more descriptions also in Psalm 61. I have in my preceding Commentary of Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 more discussed the notorious details of vision production (MIKHTAM and Greek rendering STEELOGRAFIA) described in those Psalms. However, Psalm 61 is NOT a Mikhtam Psalm- in this Mikhtam Psalm genre are reckoned Old Testament Psalms 56-60 and 16 where the MIKHTAM is noticed; and the theme “Jerusalem” or MWRSH is in the Mikhtam Psalms not important. Furthermore, the Psalm 62 is Psalm of Jeduthun and has certain importance in the histories of Obadiah and Temple Musicians, and this Psalm 62 has been therefore somewhat discussed in my recent Commentary to Book of Obadiah. Neither Psalm 62 discusses “Jerusalem”. Now we consider some details in Psalm 61 that are clearly important for current discussion concerning MURSAHA and “Jerusalem”. Ideologically is noteworthy that in this Psalm 61 is apparently emphasised matters concerning to seafaring KJ ATH ALHJM SMYT LNDRJ NTT JRST JRAJ SMK JMJM YL JMJ MLK TWSJP SNWTJW KMW DR WDR We can read the JMJM YL JMJ being from JAM “sea” even if translations prefer to read here the JOM “day” (this is one of the famous and actually quite often occurring puns of reading Hebrew Bible). Recognising this apparent detail notices in this statement strongly matters concerning seafaring. We thus notice that NTT JRST JRAJ SMK describing how God has given JRSH HARBOUR to those who honour his name, those from Seas; and here is also noticed that God has enthroned a king over the seas. Also is worth noticing the Hebrew word TNHNJ that is form with sg.1 suffix (NJ) and formed of NH; the apparent reference to NH or NOAH clearly refers Readers to attentively here consider matters of seafaring, especially when JAM seas clearly here are discussed. Actually quite nice description of piers is here alluded to in writing of “ends of the earth” in the meaning that quite concretely indeed piers of harbours are “ends of earth”; here Psalm 61:3 writes of MQZH HARZ. This sentences namely also notices TWP floating, and the BBZWR notices also such places that are surrounded by bars, such as balconies (or piers, see Jastrow 183). Thus are in this Psalm 61 interestingly noticed seas and harbours JRSH. Important seafaring traditions are written in Isaiah 33-34, and we now notice first Isa 33:21 and 34:1 stating “for there the Lord in his greatness shall be for us like a region of rivers, of broad streams, where no floating vessel can sail and no mighty craft can travel (BL TLK BW ANJ SWT WZJ ADJR LA JYBRNW) - their ropes are slack, they cannot steady the sockets of their masts, they cannot spread a sail…approach, O nations, and listen, give heed O peoples! Let the earth and those in it hear, the world (WMLAH TBL) and what it brings forth” (the Tanakh translation). Here is the TBL importantly written in description of floating vessels. The Isa 33:8 also emphasises words of rising, QWM and RWM and the 33:10 notices TEBEL here in Isaiah. And in this discussion Isaiah writes of Jerusalem in words “Your eyes shall behold Jerusalem as a secure homestead (YJNJK TRJAJNH JRWSLM NWH SANN) A tent not to be transported, whose pegs shall never be pulled up, and none of whose ropes shall break” (Tanakh translation) Readers comprehend that thus is Jerusalem here connected to NOAH traditions, thus to the Biblical traditions of seafaring, in writing of this NWH; and the SANN also refers to the ANJH noun, usual word in Hebrew for ships and boats. What is, then, such notable tent AHL edifice? Apparently here is described a tent like edifice where boat was resting (NH) in the landing place, and this harbour place with this boatshed tent edifice is here called “Jerusalem”. Also in important seafaring description in Ezekiel 27 we find interesting references to floating. The Ezekiel 27:28 writes namely in Hebrew Bible that LQWL ZYQT HBLJK JRYSW MGRSWT In the current Study we here below shall more notice these emphasised RS words JRYSW MGRSWT, that they are important words of seafaring life that describe how boats are in anchorage tossing and shaking much (RYS), so well known for every sailor, and the MGRSWT noticing the safe anchorages and safe harbours (cf. Mursaha in Surat HUD and Mersa coastal harbour cities- for more discussion, see below). Here we notice LQWL ZYQT HBLJK where also THB is written, somewhat appropriately with word HBL noticing these captains, they apparently being important for keeping boats and ships afloat. Below we shall comment the SYR word of tossing and shaking with “Following the Tanakh translation we then question HOW such isles and islands might tremble or quake? Obvious answer of course is that they look somehow like seen from a boat- seen from the quaking boat the islands indeed seem quite much trembling (even if the islands themselves are strong and stable), the quaking and tossing of those islands is caused by the quaking of place of observer, that the islands are Also in Haggaj 2:6-7 is important detail that RYS words in Old Testament notice Harbours and safe havens; thus “Jerusalem” is not name for one city but old noun for safe harbours. We study now details of Haggaj 2:6-7, especially the Hebrew RYS word; and thus we comment that very large and important question of Old Testament study, namely question concerning meaning of the numerous RYS words in Hebrew Bible. We shall notice that often also these RYS words importantly notice anchorage, safe havens and safe harbours. In Quran we remember the Sura HUD where the safe anchorage is noticed MURSAHA. Thus we even more consider that quite big question of Biblical research, to what extent Old Testament and especially Apocrypha of Old Testament describe reality of ancient maritime empire. Of course Readers much consider that mostly Old Testament describes events in ancient times in the area that we currently know as Palestine (or Israel), and many happenings generally in regions of modern areas of Jordania, Syria, Egypt and especially Lebanon. But we shall see that notoriously much Old Testament describes reality of such regime and rule that was a naval trade empire, stretching from East to West. Thus one important detail is that we notice reality typical of such naval empires- and thus are questions of harbours and safe havens of very big importance. The current writer Pasi K Pohjala also recently has discussed previously question of distant ancient trade settlements and trade voyages between these trade stations in discussing writings of the GOLA in Old Testament. Usually is GOLA seen as quite hapless and unhappy exile, and pious are looking forward to divine help to gather together pious from such utterly wretched situation. But I have recently put forward important argumentation in the tradition that comprehends such GOLA rather as description of reality of maritime trade empire whose trade posts and trade settlements are located in distant areas and much of activity of that regime is concerning the successful voyages between these settlements, so that trade, commerce and cultural exchange are reality. Now we more study the question of HARBOURS in Old Testament, studying RYS words in Old Testament Now we more study the question of HARBOURS in Old Testament, studying RYS words in Old Testament, also in Haggaj 2:6-7. We notice the currently understood usual lexical meanings of RYS words (and some similar words) in Hebrew Bible. Marcus Jastrow translates RYS with “to tremble, be in commotion, rage” and the Hifil as “to shake, disturb”. And Marcus Jastrow notices the noun RYS with “commotion, earthquake” (p. 1489). Everyone who has been in a boat or travelled in a smaller ship well knows how much these are shaking and are trembling. Boats and ships in anchorage especially much are shaking and are in disturbance. And the BDB (that is fundamentally continuing and developing the Gesenius) notices the RYS “quake, shake” and “tremble, quake, toss rage (of sea)” (BDB 950). It is now really important to notice that the BDB that is based on Gesenius and is thereby developed during generations of Biblical scholars here indeed notices RYS ALSO as “toss, rage (of sea)”. this important notice of RYS having circumstance in seafaring and seas is now noticed as actually quite usual in Old Testament, so that RYS quite often notices trembling and quaking on seas, amidst waves, and importantly, also in the situation that boat or ship is anchored in a harbour. In the Ezekiel 27:28 we read LQWL ZYQT HBLK JRYSW MGRSWT “at the outcry of your pilots the billows shall heave” (Tanakh) Thus is noticed a kind of strong cry from captains and that then in MGRSWT areas shall be quaking. The RYS word is here explicit describing situation of seafaring, and thus it is in these widely received translations such as Tanakh rendered. The Septuagint tradition indeed translates here the HBL as KUBERNEETAI. And description of circumstances of harbours and naval affairs is important also in Ezekiel 26:15 that in Hebrew Bible states of TYRE that KH AMR ADNJ JHWH LZWR HLA MQWL MPLTK BANQ HLL BHRG HRG BTWKK JRYSW HAJJM “Thus said the Lord God to Tyre: The coastlands shall quake at the sound of your downfall, when the wounded groan, when slaughter is rife within you” (Tanakh) The word AJJM also may be translated as islands or isles (see BDB)- thus is noticed the RYS doing and AJJM isles and islands that clearly thus specifies RYS being importantly relevant also in context of maritime culture and seafaring. Following the Tanakh translation we then question HOW such isles and islands might tremble or quake? Obvious answer of course is that they look somehow like seen from a boat- seen from the quaking boat the islands indeed seem quite much trembling (even if the islands themselves are strong and stable), the quaking and tossing of those islands is caused by the quaking of place of observer, that the islands are seen from a boat or ship that is in midst of sea quaking and tossing. And thus Ezekiel 26:18 concludes that YTH JHRDW HAJN JWM MPLTK WNBHLW HAJJM ASR BJM MZATK “now shall the coastlands tremble on the day of your downfall and the coastlands by the sea be terrified at your end” (Tanakh). Also interesting notices are in the following prophecy concerning Tyre in Ezekiel 27 where the 27:4-5 notice “your frontiers were on the high seas, your builders perfected your beauty. From cypress trees of Senir they fashioned your planks;they took a cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for you” (Tanakh) BLB JMJM GBWLJK BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM MSNJR BNW LK AT KL LHTJM ARZ MLBNWN LQHW LYSWT TRN YLJK This prophesy is concerning Tyre, the important ancient naval centrum. Appropriately thus is noticed BLB JMJM GBWLJK, that the frontiers of Tyre were on seas. And then we notice in Hebrew stated BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM and ask what, then, is this BRWSJM. Preceding words BLB JMJM GBWLJK refer clearly to situation or place beside high sea, that is, harbour. Thus we now render this BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM so that this statement refers to RWS HARBOUR, thus rendering that “your builders perfected your beauty IN THE HARBOUR”. Of course, this is really appropriate description of that ancient famous flourishing Tyre, appraisal of that magnificent beautiful harbour of Tyre. Now the BDB translating tradition, of course, does render this BRS as denoting cypress or fir (BDB 141) but there also acknowledging that the specific meaning of BRS root is, however, unknown. We notice that even if BRS in some statement indeed notices cypress or fir trees, attentive Readers of Hebrew Bible shall specifically notice the B-RS where the meaning of noun RS (or RYS) is central; THUS reading now B-RS we indeed find reference here to the RS harbour and can thus render here IN THE HARBOUR. This is of course specially appropriate because this statement immediately before writes of place being the frontier beside the high seas- and harbour is exactly such place, built by builders. Then this statement continues noticing that plank structures in that harbour were of planks from Senir; and structures of poles and masts were of poles of cedar trees. We now observe here in Ezekiel 27:4-5 written BLB JMJM GBWLJK BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM we notice that apparently here is written of area beside the coast, so that the RWS here designates the harbour of Tyre, that truly famous ancient naval centrum, Thus we compare this apparent statement with writing in the Ezekiel 27:28-29 that LQWL ZYQT HBLJK JRYSW MGRSWT WJRDW MANJWTJHM KL TPSJ MSWT MLHJM KL HBLJ HJM AL HARZ JYMDW Here is described clearly how seamen and captains come to land from their ships. Apparently that area MGRSWT where this happens is usually designated as “harbour”, and I thus present slightly emended form of Tanakh translation (emendation in capital letters) “At the outcry of your pilots TREMBLE THE HARBOURS (MIGROSOT) and all the oarsmen and mariners, all pilots of the sea, shall come down from their ships And stand on the ground” (Ezekiel 27:28-29) Apparently coming to land from ships occurs in harbours: thus in this statement we have really obvious description of harbour MIGRASA in this prophesy concerning Tyre. We have now noticed in numerous Old Testament writings that the R-S word MURSAHA indeed in many statements there refers to harbours and safe anchorages. Now we consider some writings of word MGRS (Migrash) that is in Old Testament quite often and well defined part of many cities, word used in apparently well defined meaning in Old Testament. This word is in current translation tradition usually rendered as “common-land” or “open land” (BDB 177), but apparently this tradition more reflects considerations of cities located inlands. However, when we realise that some (or many) cities noticed in Old Testament may have actually been located in coastal areas, Readers surely ask how Biblical statements might then tell of the harbour of such coastal cities. Answer is now that current Bible translation much less considers questions of harbours because of the assumption that there described cities were inland cities. Here noticed quite many descriptions of RS words and Mursaha words noticing apparently harbours, also constructed and developed harbours, importantly lead Readers to consider that actually the MIGRAS city part noticed in Old Testament may have been in some (or in many texts) the HARBOUR of that city. We shall now see that indeed some MIGRASH statements in Old Testament clearly are descriptions of HARBOURS of cities. Thus we consider more statements in Old Testament. We consider more statements in Isaiah 57. There are RS words mentioned interestingly in Isaiah 57:20 writing “the wicked are like the troubled sea which cannot rest; whose waters toss up mire and mud. There is no safety, said my God, for the wicked” (Tanakh) Thus we consider this statement in Hebrew Bible writing that BWRA NWB SPTJM SLWM SLWM LRHWQ WLQRWB AMR JHWH WRPATJW WHRSYJM KJM NGRS KJ HSQT LA JWKL WJGRSW MJMJW RPS WTJT (57:19-20) This statement in Hebrew Bible writes of GRS (of form NGRS) and RSYJM, and the modern translation clearly acknowledges that indeed here is written concerning seafaring and sailing and seas. We easily notice that RS words noticing harbours and anchorages in Hebrew Bible are there quite usually written clearly in this meaning, in many statements and in many books of Hebrew Bible. This is especially important to notice; merely some occurrences could still be regarded as belonging to style and special vocabulary of a particular book or prophesy. Merely some scattered examples of RS words designating harbours and anchorages and safe havens could also be thought as occurring for merely referring to suspect practises of older cultures or cultures surrounding, presented thus mostly for purpose of criticism. Thus the task in the current study was to show that RS words designating harbours and anchorages in Hebrew Bible indeed occur in many books and by many authors and prophesies, AND that these RS words thus describe and name the OWN culture and practises of the culture and religion of these writers and prophets. With this argumentation we then described to the Readers that indeed in Hebrew Bible RS words in many statements and in many descriptions and prophesies do occur as positive description of the culture of these prophets and the Biblical religion. This is to say, in these statements the prophets and writers thus were describing everyday life of their societies and practises of their culture and religion, their OWN practises of seafare and harbours, anchorages and safe havens. We now especially remember that the region of Palestine was from the times ancient indeed very famous for their seafaring. Tyre and Sidon little north of the area of modern Palestine were in ancient world enormously famous for their seafaring, their seafaring in the whole Mediterranean region and even beyond. Remember well that the famous ancient sea god in Hellenistic world is POSEIDON whose name unmistakably to everyone referred to SIDON, that enormous centrum of ancient seafaring; and worth is remembering that POSEIDON actually had established status as one patron of ancient polis ATHENS. Ancient Phoenicians were very important seafaring people, their naval trade empire was in Eastern Mediterranean from time ancient very important, and old Egyptians often employed specialist Phoenician captains, seamen and ship builders for their endeavours in Mediterranean naval trade. This regarded, where have all the seamen gone in modern Bibles- this question is essential for really many versions of modern Bible understanding, as well in Christian Bible translations, as in the modern Tanakh project “the Tanakh is an entirely original translation of the Holy Scriptures into contemporary English, based on the Masoretic- the traditional Hebrew- text. It is the culmination of three decades of collaboration by academic scholars and rabbis representing the three largest branches of organised Judaism in America. Not since the third century B.C.E, when seventy-two elders of the tribes of Israel created the Greek translation of Scriptures, known as the Septuagint, has such a broad-based committee of Jewish scholars produced a major Bible translation.” (Tanakh translation, The Jewish Publication Society). The Tanakh project indeed is monumental and the representants thoroughly learned. Alas, we questioned their translation already considering word BHR or B-Har, because famously is BAHARI in Arabic language the “sea”. And so on. Also their use of word “Jewish” is completely unacceptable, because Rabbinic Judaism was ONLY ONE of the branches of ancient Judaism, well known in ancient literature also groups of Sadducees and generally temple Priests, Zealots, general people or the Am Ha Aretz; and importantly we remember that early Christianity and followers of Jesus of Nazareth indeed were one important and growing group of ancient Jews. Maintaining that Rabbinical party is and was well established branch of ancient Judaism well is in accordance with reality; but simply appropriating the title “Jew” only to those who are or were of Rabbinical party is thorough perversion of truth and enormous humbug. These questions are in modern Bible research of course well known; and worthy reading and contemplating for these questions are also letters of Paul, former Rabbi who was educated in school of R. Gamaliel. We can thus conclude this study: indeed Old Testament often writes of MURSAHA and MEGRASA harbours and indeed some Old Testament statements very clearly identify “Jerusalem” as noun designating safe harbour. But we remember that actually many statements in Old Testament where “Jerusalem” is mentioned are actually somewhat vague and unspecified in their descriptions so that in reading many Old Testament statements mentioning “Jerusalem” we really should attentively consider if that particular statement actually describes a “safe harbour, Jerusalem”. Old Testament records many histories of ancient naval empire where overseas trade and travelling were important actions. END OF VERRE ET BIBLE FIFTEEN.