Tuesday, 18 December 2012

JERUSALEM, NOUN FOR HARBOURS AND SAFE HAVENS; CURRENT MERSA CITIES; AND QURANIC MURSAHA SAFE ANCHORAGE Seafarers found important the arrival and staying in quiet anchorage of safe havens and harbours. We find numerous important Quranic traditions of harbour and safe havens for seafarers. Sura HUD describes also history of Noah and his floating rescue and arrival to safe haven. However, the episode of Hebrew Bible telling histories of Noah and Ark are of such detail more silent; thus the Quranic tradition of histories of Noah now deserves some more attention. Sura HUD 11:41 writes: And he (Nuh/Noah) said: “Embark therein: in the Name of Allah will be its (moving) course and its (resting) anchorage. Surely, my Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (interpretation: M. M. Khan) The Quranic word MURSAHA here writes of such anchorage of that Ark of Noah. Also in modern Arabic language verb RASA notices to be steady, stable and firm (393) and the derived noun MARSAN (pl. MARASIN) notices anchorage. And several cities are called MERSA combined with some specifying names or nouns; and the peaceful greeting SALAM is in Arabic and Islamic culture truly usual. We notice thus such important traditions of anchorages, safe havens and even cities. Also is of interest how the Sura HUD describes Noah coming to land from the Ark after coming to this anchorage, the Sura HUD notices in 11:48 that: It was said: “O Nuh (Noah)! Come down (from the ship) with peace from Us and blessings on you and on the people who are with you (interpretation: M. M. Khan – Muhammad T. Al-Hilali) Thus are Noah and his companions arriving to land greeted with the SALAM greeting, wishing him and his companions Peace. We thus notice that in this Sura HUD is noticed how Noah ´s ark arrives at safe anchorage MURSAHA and upon landing Noah and his companions are greeted with the SALAM wish for peace upon them. Reading here the MURSAHA and SALAM together we now importantly notice similarity with the name JERUS-SALEM, the JERUSALEM. Readers now readily also refer to numerous famous Mediterranean harbours, such as Pireas, ancient Greek harbour of Athens whose naval empire was especially high esteemed, the harbour Pireas being still in our times one of busiest Mediterranean harbours. Important ancient hub is also Tarsus of Turkey, important area with harbour connecting there to many landroutes. Readers remember also in Western Mediterranean still important harbours Marseille and Barcelona (especially here is echoed R-S and C-L-N thus similarly to Jerus-salem). Jerus-salem is noun for safe havens, both along landroutes and safe havens as safe anchorages; the Jerus-salem is not proper noun designating one specific geographic place or city as currently is often considered. We thus understand that special emphasising of holiness and status one city Jerusalem located in current Israel thus is unnecessary and without historical motivation; rather we encounter in Bible episodes and histories concerning numerous safe anchorages and harbours and numerous safe havens for travelling along landroutes. Much motivations of emphasising holy status of one city Jerusalem, that located in current Israel, can be traced back to developments of Christianity as Roman state religion: this Christianity was presented as fulfilment of Old Testament prophesies so that the Old Testament God had to be properly recognised. Emphasising the increasingly powerful status of Roman imperial administration and Bishop of Rome with Christian histories were enhanced by references to somewhat similar very centralised Old Testament religious cult in the supposed ONE holy city, Jerusalem. Emphasising the churchly power of Bishop of Rome and attempts to centralise churchly power to Rome were also legitimised by attempts to refer to imagined history of centralised cult of the Old Testament God in the ONE Holy city Jerusalem. We become liberated from these misrepresentations in recognising that Jerus-salem is noun designating generally numerous safe harbours and safe havens in sea and land travel! We consider now also concisely the prominent Old Testament episode of Ark of Noah, merely those details that are in the current discussion clearly important. We notice that Genesis 8:4 states WTNH HTBH BHDS HSBJYJ BSBYH YSR JWM LHDS YL HRJ ARRT (Ararat) This mysterious statement of landing of the Ark of Noah is rendered in Tanakh in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat (Tanakh translation of Gen 8:4) Numerous speculations and archaeological expeditions have been conducted to plausibly identify this mysterious mountainous area where the Ark may have set ashore. However, important indication is the name ARARAT. Quite typical feature of Semitic languages is vacillation of letters T and S; this feature quite often is noticed in comparisons of Hebrew and Aramaic expressions. Especially, this mythological description of voyage of the Ark of Noah certainly reflects very ancient traditions; and important comparisons have been made with Gilgamesh. Now we notice in this expression of Hebrew Bible this name ARARAT designating the place where Ark landed- noticing simply the S/T vacillation we recognise ARARAS- notably, this is similar to here discussed Quranic notice in Sura HUD 11:41 that the Ark rested on MURSAHA anchorage – these are formed of the R-S or RAS roots. We emphasise now strongly that this result of finding ARARAS word in the usually attested ARARAT word in Hebrew Bible Genesis 8:4 is done with the very usual and standard followed method of recognising vacillation of S and T letters in Hebrew and Aramaic versions of words. We thus can conclude great similarity of designating the coming to rest of Ark of Noah in Genesis 8:4 where ARARAT is written, with Quranic notice in SURA HUD 11:41 where is noticed Ark coming to MURSAHA anchorage. And these both emphasise recognising Jerus-salem being designation of safe havens, anchorages and harbours. We simply notice here ARARAT and ARARAS and MURSAHA anchorage; and so are the traditions of Hebrew Bible and Quran notoriously comparable. Some considerations of writings of name Ararat in Hebrew Bible and ancient translations increasingly emphasise these understandings. Jeremiah 51:27 notices Appoint nations against her, Assemble kingdoms against her- Ararat, Minni and Ashkenaz (Tanakh) Greek Septuagint translation here attests ancient considerations concerning such vacillation of letters S and T, writing that PARAGGEILATE EP AUTEN BASILEIAIS ARARAT PAR EMOU KAI TOIS ASKANAZAIOIS (Septuagint; the ancient vacillating spelling of names, usually seen also in ancient Greek Bible translations, is attested also in Cod Alexandrinus writing ARARETH, the ARARAT following the usually well recognised L). In this ancient Greek statement is the plural dative written in BASILEIAIS and TOIS ASKANAZAIOIS and the S ending now alerts Readers to consider also such for the ARARAT word; this clearly attests notices of speculating of ARARAS, thus similarly with here already discussed. Notably here prophesy of Jeremiah 51 (the Chapter 28 in Septuagint) does notice Jerusalem in discussing sea, the LXX Jer 28: 35-36 noticing IEROUSALEM DIA TOUTO LEGEI KURIOS IDOU EGO KRINO… KAI EREMOSO TEN THALASSAN AUTES KAI KSERANO Here is noticed Jerusalem and THALASSA sea. The KSERANO notices concerning KSERA dry land and EREMOS notices dry wilderness and generally notices withdrawal; we find here in this statement of LXX Jeremias 28:35-36 notice of Jerusalem, and reference to coming to dry land (KSERANO) and withdrawal EREMOO to dry areas, echoing also coming to harbour from sailing. NAVIGATION WITH SIGNALS AND COMPASS Old Testament clearly attests ancient developed knowledge of navigating with compass, magnetic needle indicating there direction towards north. Placed in water bowl, such magnetic needle operates quite in manner of current compass. Bowl divination thus included also reading direction towards north by observing floating magnetic needle in bowl. We notice that for ancient Arabic and Mediterranean seafare use of compass was certainly especially effective when geography of important regions is more considered. Glimpse on map alerts easily that the direction of Red Sea is along quite straight direction from northeast to southeast: thus use of compass in ancient Arabic seafare in Red Sea was certainly recognised to be especially effective. And Mediterranean coastal line from shores of Gaza and ancient naval hubs of Sinai towards shores of ancient Ugarit and southern Turkey is quite directed along southwest towards northeast. Sailing in such seas between havens located in such coasts was remarkably effectively aided by use of compass. We remember that from times ancient, Egyptian rulers practised also extensive Mediterranean seafare, often with Phoenician sailors and captains. Sailors truly were living difficult life: sailing along coastal line with coast in sight could be comprehended preferable because in high sea an ancient ship is quite diminutive and quite lost among wind and waves. However, sailing near coastal line with coast visible included the truly horrible danger of shipwreck in underwater rocks that are so numerous nearer to coastal line- especially navigating with ancient ships amidst furore of winds and storms was never so precise that currently engine driven ships precisely guided with gps satellite technology do achieve. Use of compass thus could liberate ancient sailors from sailing dangerously near to coastal line where numerous underwater rocks hampered voyages. And use of compass in sailing in the Red Sea and along Levantine coastal line was specially effective for their being thus straight directed. SONG OF SEA: PRAISE OF SAILING OF MERKAVOT NAVAL SHIPS For comprehending better Old Testament it is notoriously important to recognise that usually ships are called MERKAVOT in Arabic seafare. Indeed, the Arabic word MERKAVA is one of the most usual Arabic words denoting ships. This is straightforward noticed, and for comprehension of Hebrew Bible this Arabic MERKAVA tradition is notoriously apt and important. It is noteworthy that in Rabbinic Judaism MERKAVA mysticism is one important feature of mystical speculation; and ancient Jewish literature of MERKAVA mysticism is quite large. We remember of course, that large Rabbinical Jewish populations flourished in ancient Arabic speaking areas, also in times of Islam, and most of them quite well knew much Arabic language, so that then usual word MERKAVA designating ships in ancient Arabic seafare was to them known. Currently, however, reading of RKB (rakaba) verb and MERKABA noun in reading Hebrew Bible and Aramaic translations and interpretations is concentrating noticing events of dry land. Readers recognise currently usual tenets of verb RAKABA that so is noticed mounting and riding a horse, chariot or war chariot; and noun MERKABA designates chariots. Readers straightforwardly find this current consensus represented in important lexica. But also is famous episode concerning the Sea in Old Testament the episode of Exodus where Israel travelled amidst the Sea of Reeds (Exodus 14-15). Readers well remember the usual comprehension of this central Old Testament event: folk Israel were liberated from Egypt and came to the shore of Sea of Reeds, pursued by troops of Pharaoh. Miraculously, then God opened the route to Israel amidst the Sea- Israel was walking across the sea as if on dry ground; but waves came back and drowned Pharaoh´s troos pursuing Israelites. These are the main tenets of episode of rescue of Israel across Sea of Reeds. This is famous Old Testament episode concerning sea, the Sea of Reeds. The Exodus 15 the famous Song of the Sea that Israelites sang after being thus miraculously divinely rescued. Here writes Exodus 15:4-5 that The Lord, the Warrior- Lord is His name! Pharaoh´s chariots (MERKAVOT) and his army He has cast into the sea; And the pick of his officers are drowned in the Sea of Reeds. The deeps covered them; They went down into the depths like a stone. (Tanakh translation) Pharaoh´s chariots, MERKAVOT, drowned in the Sea of Reeds according to this currently usual reading. Of course, chariots MERKAVOT are designed for land battles, and this currently quite usual reading notices situation where such chariots drown in seas. However, recognising Arabic usual tenet that MERKABA noun designates ships, dramatically changes reading of this episode. MERKAVOT SHIPS of course are appropriate vehicles of transportation across a sea. We read in Hebrew Bible this description that H AJS MLHMH H SMW MRKBT PRYH WHJLW JRH BJM WMBHR SLSJW TBYW BJM SWP In the Hebrew Bible these words in the song of the Sea are truly notorious: here are MERKAVOT noticed and verb TBY is written, this especially referring to Biblical seafare, because the Ark of Noah in Hebrew Bible is called the TEBA. We find thus straightforwardly here interesting description that God carried Pharaoh´s MERKAVOT warships with their troops on sea, and Pharaoh´s troops thus sailed (TBYW, cf. TEBA the name of Ark of Noah) on the Sea of Reeds!! Readers with reading Hebrew knowledge are strongly encouraged to take in front of them this text written in Hebrew, preferably unvocalised consonantal writing, and nothing else than that, and some time seriously contemplate the meaning of those consonants that convey to us these so important ancient traditions. Considering usual Arabic word MERKAVA that usually designates different ships thus brings to Readers ability to quite naturally comprehend this tradition of Sea of Reeds- there are described sailing of Pharaoh´s warships and troops across the Sea of Reeds in MERKAVA warships. Importantly, large Rabbinically oriented ancient Jewish communities were living in Arabic speaking areas, and for them this interpretation was, of course, evident. Greek Septuagint translation of these descriptions of the Song of the Sea are also notorious and important. Greek translation of Exodus 15:1 reads TOTE EESEN MOUSES KAI OI HUIOI ISRAEL TEN OODEEN TAUTEN TO THEO (dat) KAI EIPAN LEGONTES AISOOMEN TO KURIO (dat) ENDOKSOOS GAR DEDOKSASTAI HIPPON KAI ANABATEEN ERRIPSEN EIS THALASSAN Here this Greek Septuagint tradition translates the Hebrew ASJRH LH KJ GAH GAH (gao gaa) SWS WRKBW RMH BJM Already we noticed here 15:4 writing of MERKAVOT PHARAOH in Hebrew Bible in the statement that MRKBT

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