Tuesday, 18 December 2012
However, also these venues as religious buildings did undergo development and some refurbishing, according to affluence of there worshipping Jewish community AND also to reflect some quite purely religiously motivated changes. Stated simply, we really have to consider that some or most of now known “Ancient Synagogues” EARLIER were Jewish Temples, properly equipped and furnished for such religious Jewish Temple rituals- even in Temple of geographical site Jerusalem was larger and more famous. There were apparently MANY TEMPLES IN ANCIENT TEMPLE JUDAISM. Also history of many ancient Christian Churches is in archaeological excavations much in detail studied and scholarly scrupulously examined and discussed. Many ancient Christian Church buildings show notorious and lengthy developments in different times of history- and many of these ancient Christian Churches probably were JEWISH TEMPLES before their religious communities turned to Christianity and the ancient Churches were somewhat refurbished in accordance with Christian religious rituals. Stated shortly, we really have to consider also the notorious detail that some ancient Christian Churches are REFURBISHED JEWISH TEMPLES and some ancient Christian Churches were new buildings built upon the site of older Jewish Temple of that place. Stated simply, many ancient Synagogues and many ancient Christian Churches probably were JEWISH TEMPLES, of Temple Judaism, although somewhat refurbished and re-developed. Much worth consideration is the detail that currently the temple in city Jerusalem is Muslim MOSQUE AL AQSA, and especially Prophet Muhammad’s night time journey to heaven is in that tradition commemorated; relevant Arabic word is the qasa and qasw (901) that in more general parlance notices to be far away, to go far away, to be remote, distant and to take far away and to send far away; even meanings of exploration of utmost and far distant thus are relevant (901; Aramaic language and Biblical Hebrew consider many such meanings of utmost distances and utmost parts with QJZ words (eg. J 1366f)). Slightly different the Arabic gasaq indeed notices dark of night and twilight before nightfall (788) and gasa verb generally notices to come and in many meanings to be dark, coming of darkness and to be veiled and cover with veil (790). (And in modern Arabic parlance, noun qassa designates various Christian clergy , also thus connecting to specific modern religious language (892)). Considering the name AL-AQSA is notoriously important because the Semitic root KNS designates religious gathering, so that in Semitic parlance Synagogues usually are named BEIT HA KNESSET (the usually spoken name SYNAGOGUE is the Greek noun, form of SYN-AGO verb that notices gathering together also in more normal and civic circumstances). In Aramaic, the KNS verb generally notices to collect and gather; and some forms specifically notice gathering to assemblies, and specifically gathering to assemblies in Synagogues (J 650); and thus formed noun KNESSET notices generally gatherings, communities, congregations and congregations of worshippers, specifically congregations in synagogues (J 650). Notably, the name of the famous Mosque al-Aqsa is apparently notably similar with the Semitic KNS that notices gathering and coming together of congregations- in circumstances of Rabbinical Judaism, congregations of synagogues. The Muslim tradition of al-Aqsa specifically commemorates the night time journey of Prophet Muhammad; and we notice that the KNS gathering so centrally involves notion of travelling- because for congregation coming together, it is necessary that the members therefore make at least some travel to the specific venue where the gathering takes place, such as Synagogue. The Arabic qasa and qasw words so specifically notice to be far away, to be far removed, to send far away (901) so that in KNS gathering and congregating involved actual travelling is more in the Arabic qasa and qasw noticed- and usual wearing of Tallith in BET HA KNESSET gathering is interestingly reflected in meanings of Arabic gasa, noticing coming and veiling, and coming of darkness and twilight (790); bright lights such as sun light are also with Arabic gazala noticed (788). Thus it is seriously worth comparing Muslim Al-Aqsa tradition with Aramaic and Hebrew KNS and KNESSET tradition- both importantly consider specific TRAVELS. We remember especially that much of the practise of Rabbinic Judaism has developed and continued in mostly Arabic speaking regions, so that such comparisons have important cultural and societal references. This includes much profound and more developed ponderings. We notice now in this Special Laws 1 by Philo of Alexandria that this treatise much interprets legislations concerning temple worship. We now notice that in THIS BOOK Special Laws 1 Philo of Alexandria does write also concerning one temple, in Spec 1:66-70. Special Laws 1:69 writes “And we have the surest proof of this in what actually happens. Countless multitudes from countless cities come, some over land, others over sea, from east and west and north and south at every feast. They take the temple for their port as a general haven and safe refuge from the bustle and great turmoil of life, and there they seek to find calm weather, and, released from the cares whose yoke has been heavy upon them from their earliest years, to enjoy a brief breathing-space in scenes of genial cheerfulness” (Translation of Colson in LCL). This description, however, does allow existence of numerous temples of this style. Importantly, Spec 1.67 writes that PROUNOESE D’ OOS OUTE POLLAKHOTI OUT EN TAUTO (dat) POLLA KATASKEUASTHESETAI HIERA, DIKAIOOSAS, EPEIDEE EIS ESTIN O THEOS KAI HIERON EN EINAI MONON We notice that the EIS ESTIN O THEOS regards His unity numerically and qualitatively, so that it is motivated to read with regard to QUALITY the KAI HIERON EN EINAI MONON; thus we find Philo emphasising that the TempleS should be of ONE TYPE or of ONE STYLE this reflecting the absolute oneness of Deity (modern Readers may compare this, for example, modern brand management where exactly similar details are produced in stores or venues of a certain brand, worldwide). It is thus not at all necessary to read this statement as referring to numerical oneness- it is thus actually exceeding and overinterpretation to attempt to find in this HIERON EN EINAI MONON statement that there is numerically only ONE temple. The OUTE POLLAKHOTI OUT EN TAUTO POLLA thus emphasise the uniqueness of the STYLE of these Temples- a genuine style Temple should not be composition of cultural influences from various countries and many local cultural tenets- but a genuine style of Temple should be of ONE STYLE. Here described oneness of Jewish Temple thus describes oneness of the STYLE of the Temple; but thus is clearly allowed existence of numerous such Jewish Temples in numerous places! It is quite worth to seriously consider now these details of English translation by C.D.Yonge of Spec 1:67 “He moreover foresaw that there could not be any great number of temples built either in many different places, or in the same place, thinking it fitting that as God is one, his temple also should be one” (translation by C.D.Yonge; modern Edition of David M Scholer). It is important to seriously comprehend that the name Jerusalem appears in writings of Philo of Alexandria very seldom indeed; once in De Somniis 2 and six times in Legatio ad Gaium (the Philo Index). Especially, name Jerusalem does not appear at all in this treatise Special Laws 1 that so detailed interprets legislation concerning religion and cult of the Jewish Temple. This important detail of total silence concerning geographical place Jerusalem in this lengthy and detailed and enormously notable treatise Special Laws 1 actually emphasises much that Philo is here writing of a ONENESS OF STYLE OF THEN MANY JEWISH TEMPLES; in the Special Laws 1 Philo does NOT argue that there existed only numerically ONE genuine Jewish Temple (the Temple of Jerusalem). Well known, there existed a large number of well established Jewish Synagogues around ancient Mediterranean world and in ancient Near East; these Jewish religious cult places apparently have also their developments- currently these are discussed in the category of Ancient Synagogues, and ancient Churches. This practically reflects party politics in ancient Jewish culture; the party of Pharisees was merely one party of those many parties of ancient Jewish culture and religion, even if we currently talking of Jews mostly then refer to Rabbinical Jews- but that restriction is truly very profound mistake. Early Christianity, followers of Jesus, was important ancient Jewish religious movement. We remember that ancient Hellenistic Alexandria was then enormous hub of commerce and transportation and culture in Eastern Mediterranean, and there lived very large Jewish population, some of whom were very wealthy and among the highest echelons of that society. Thus is here quite understandable that here Philo of Alexandria notices EIS TO HIERON KATAIROUSIN OIA TINA KOINON HUPODROMON KAI KATAGOOGEEN ASFALEE POLUPRAGMONOS KAI TARAKHODESTATOU BIOU ZETOUNTES EUDIAN HEUREIN “They take the temple for their port as a general haven and safe refuge from the bustle and great turmoil of life, and there they seek to find calm weather” (translation Colson in LCL) This Philonic statement of the Temple thus emphasises that the Temples were, especially, SAFE HAVENS. This is actually much the meaning of “Jerusalem” when considered as noun- safe have, safe anchorage. There were in ancient world MANY Jewish Temples, MANY JERUSALEMS, MANY SAFE HAVENS AND SAFE ANCHORAGES AND HARBOURS. It is in context of Jewish religiosity thus unnecessary and misleading to ascribe to the city currently regarded as the Jerusalem that special status and to devote large resources to uphold such imagined special status of that city. In the moments of history, such special status of city Jerusalem of current Israel, has motivated e.g. crusades or western military occupation of large areas of Palestine mostly for purpose of controlling some lucrative trade routes; and current overwhelming support to Zionist state until recently attempted also to create western-oriented military stronghold to guard the strategically important Suez channel, also centrally important East West trade route. But in Jewish religiosity there were MANY JERUSALEMS, there were NUMEROUS TEMPLES, so that referring to supposed uniqueness of Jerusalem and supposing that Jewish Temple only existed in Jerusalem is historically religiously gravely misleading, much attempt to religiously somehow haphazardly legitimise Zionist militarist occupation of Palestine and casting ancient Palestinians to refugees. Importantly, this also would liberate Jewish religion from being subservient to colonialist and imperialist projects as appearing strangely often as their some ideological legitimating. The attempts to legitimise Zionist occupation and exploitation with supposing uniqueness of Land of Israel and supposing uniqueness for one of Temples, located in city currently named Jerusalem, is ideological grave error that is coming to ceasing in liberating history and life in our times by telling truth. Zionist occupation of ancient Palestine is completely without religious foundation, because in ancient Jewish religion, there existed MANY JERUSALEMS and MANY JEWISH TEMPLES. Rather, centrally important is the TALMUD TORAH and AVODAT H’. GREEK ATRAPOS DESCRIBING ROUTES DEPICTED AND INDICATED BY LIGHT OF LIGHTHOUSE Philo of Alexandria writes in his quite extensive writings several notices concerning seafare, especially many woeful descriptions of serious difficulties and usually life threatening dangers of ancient sea travel, being tossed amidst roaring waves and stormy winds. Philo writes of these details many times also in allegorical writings, such exceeding difficulties and dangers depicting human life in uncertainty and errors and moral errors, whereas virtuous life is compared with sailing in favourable winds and better weather, and with arrival to safe haven. In the Special Laws 4:155 Philo writes interesting and apparently quite realistic and concrete description of successful ancient navigation in high seas with help of reading stars KAI MALLON HE OUK HEETTON TOON KATA GEEN HODOON TAS KATA THALATTAN ATRAPOUS EPISTAMENOS EK TES AKRIBOUS THEAS TOON OURANIOON What do we read here? The TAS KATA THALATTAN ATRAPOUS notices sea routes; here they are compared with land roads; Philo states that these sea routes should actually be known by method of good observing even much better than land roads. We now more question of the style of that observing, THEAOMAI. We read here of ATRAPOUS; but we now notice ASTRA POUS (of ASTEER, star)- writing of ASTRA POUS notices a star like light that is upon some pedestal or edifice- that is, ASTRA POUS veiled refers to some lighthouses whose bright light indeed is so much like stars. Every seafarer so well knows how these lighthouses indeed upon waters indicate a safe sea route (in current practise clear light indicating the safe passage and red and green lights indicating being almost on the safe passage although little deviated). This signal light system very effectively depicts the safe passage for seafarers approaching certain coastal line or harbour. Knowledge to read these lights of lighthouses is still fundamental part of navigating, even in our times when gps navigating recently is becoming more and more usual. We remember that the lighthouse of PHAROS in front of harbour of Alexandria was in ancient world famous, regarded usually as one of the wonders of ancient words, so that this well educated Philo of Alexandria thus certainly knew of then practised main methods of safely bringing ships to harbour with help of light from a lighthouse (coloured glass was also in their times well known, as well as white really transparent glass, so that even in their times they could make lighthouse lights quite similar with currently used arrangement of green-white-red lights). Philo was well educated and his knowledge and practise of methods of Bible interpretation is notorious, thus we well can be sure that Philo writing of this ATRAPOUS considered also permutation of letters yielding PAROS, thus clearly referring to PHAROS the famous ancient Alexandrian lighthouse, whose signal light indeed upon waters projects a safe path for sailing; sailing towards his home arbour Alexandria Philo may have in some calm night times observed the visual reflection of lighthouse light from the surface of still sea, a truly beautiful vision for any seafarer, and hallowed indication of safe route towards the harbour (and from little more distance beautifully visible with ancient telescope). The Special Laws 4:155 writing of TAS KATA THALATTAN ATRAPOUS EPISTAMENOS EK TES AKRIBOUS THEAS is beautiful and so descriptive for navigating ship or vessel towards harbour with observing signal lights of lighthouse, such as the famous PHAROS lighthouse of Alexandria. Philo of Alexandria indeed writes this ATRAPOS noun to describe such paths and ways that are set and indicated by divine designs and commands. Biblical really famous traveller was of course Abraham, and his life episodes and travels are by Philo so notoriously interestingly interpreted in De Migratione Abrahami, or The Migration of Abraham, one of Philo’s most consummate allegorical interpretations. Readers may be noticed that this treatise is also often quite difficult because of the notorious philosophical allegorical interpretation that Philo here is writing. But we find here important and well understandable short notices concerning the noun ATRAPOS. Philo writes namely in Migr 127-129 interesting notice of Abraham’s travel ALONG ATRAPOS, and for the current research now is especially notable that Philo here clearly comprehends that such ATRAPOS path or road is such way that God with his advice and commandments indicates to travellers. Thus Philo here interprets the fundamental LEKH LEKH episode of Abraham’s travel in Genesis 12, here now specifically noticing HOW Abraham travelled, interpreting so Genesis 12:4 EPOREUTHE ABRAAM KATHAPER ELALESEN AUTO (dat) KURIOS Here Philonic MSS follow now reconstructed Septuagint tradition; and this statement describes that Abraham so travelled according to that what God told to him; for the current discussion now is centrally important this Greek KATHAPER ELALESEN because it specifies the manner HOW Abraham travelled, according to that what God spoke to him. Somewhat typically to this philosophical treatise De Migratione, Philo then quotes the very famous Stoic maxim TO AKOLOUTHOOS TE FUSEI ZEEN where the Stoic FUSIS idea comes forward and reminds even more deep developments of moral philosophy. BUT HERE we ONLY notice that here Philo discusses Abraham’s travelling so that this travelling was not mere voyaging but it was travelling guided by divine speech- THIS specifies here the ATRAPOS GINETAI DE, OTAN O NOUS EIS TEEN ARETEES ATRAPON ELTHOON KAT’ IKHNOS ORTHOU LOGOU BAINEE KAI EPEETAI THEOO Specifically, journeying along the path (ATRAPOS) of Virtue happens when Mind walks in the Path of Right Reason (ORTHOS LOGOS), and follows god. This statement is much of Stoic moral philosophy, specifically ORTHOS LOGOS and also such HEPOMAI being here concepts distinctively of quite usual Stoic discussions. Our current discussion now notices that such walking along this ATRAPOS is particularly and specifically guided by divine commandments. Philo emphasises thus directed and guided walking of ATRAPOS once more here quoting EPOREUTHE GAR, KATHA ELALESEN AUTO (dat) THEOS. Philo so emphasises here also TOUTO DE ESTI TOIOUTON OOS LALEI O TEOS LALEI DE PAGKALOOS KAI EPAINETOOS, OUTOOS O SPOUDAIOS HEKASTA DRA TEEN ATRAPON EUTHUNOON AMEMPTOOS TOU BIOU The life in divine guidance is here emphasised with OOS LALEI O THEOS…OUTOOS O SPOUDAIOS HEKASTA DRA and thus this good man makes straight his paths (ATRAPOS), following divine guidance (OOS…OUTOOS). Specifically in THIS context of De Migratione Philo clearly does compare Virtue with shining light, and shining sparks, writing in Migr 123 SPINTHER GAR KAI HO BRAKHUTATOS ENTUFOMENOS HOTAN KATAPNEUSTHEIS ZOOPURETHE MEGALEN EKSAPTEI PURAN KAI TO BRAKHUTATON OUN ARETES, HOTAN ELPISI KRESTAIS HUPOTHALPOMENON ANALAMPSE Philo here specifically in THIS context compares ARETE Virtue with sparks- even smallest sparks when awoken to fire with some breath, produces huge fire; so also even smallest (remnant) of virtue enlivened SHINES FORTH (ANALAMPSE). Virtue thus is in THIS context of Migr 123 specifically presented as LIGHT GIVING, SHINING FORTH (ANALAMPSE), in comparison with sparks that properly breathed upon still kindle even huge fires. This important detail in Migr 123 noticing LIGHT GIVING VIRTUE now specifies much also Philo’s writing of EIS TEEN ARETEES ATRAPON ELTHOON in Migr 128- LIGHT OF VIRTUE DEPICTS TO TRAVELLER THE PROPER PATH, something as if the LIGHT OF LIGHT-HOUSE depicts to sailors. Writing this beautiful and philosophically especially developed interpretation in De Migratione, Philo of Alexandria certainly contemplated also those evening moments when he was arriving at the Alexandrian harbour in the ship so securely guided by the light of the ancient famous PHAROS lighthouse. Every sailor so strictly tries to keep to the proper route indicated by the light of lighthouse, without deviating to right or left- and this is specifically by Philo indicated in writing of ATRAPOS in Migr 140 in words SPOUDAZETO D’ O NOUS MEE MONON ANENDOTOOS KAI EUTONOOS HEPESTHAI THEOO (dat), ALLA KAI TEEN EUTHEIAN ATRAPON HIENAI PROS MEEDETERA NEUOON, MEETE TA DEKSIA MEETE TA EUOONUMA We clearly find that Philo of Alexandria here interprets the ATRAPOS path of travelling of Abraham especially referring to circumstances of seafare and navigating. Actually notoriously interesting comparison to the comparison of virtue with sparks in Philo’s Migratione 123 is found in New Testament Epistle of James. Notoriously, there the discussion is explicit considering seafare and methods of directing ships.