Tuesday, 15 June 2010

obadiah newly translated

stone. Importantly, thus Philo in this Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit does clearly write of Shabbath, religious gatherings in temples, also noticing STATUES OF DEITIES made of wood and stone in Temples, these details also paralleling the situation described in Qumran Shirim Shabbath.

Chapter 25. SUMMARY OF New, Modernised Translation of Book of Obadiah by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008, with detailed Commentary by Pasi K. Pohjala 2010

The Book of Obadiah has now been translated and detailed commented in this study. The Translation of Book of Obadiah written by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 is based on meticulous study of Hebrew Text, Targumim, Greek translation, sometimes Syriac texts and study of comments of Ancient Interpreters, especially in the Talmudic tradition. These notices are more here commented in the current detailed study of Book of Obadiah. Usual comprehension of Book of Obadiah notices this Book to be one of prophets of destruction, and often it is said that we do not find knowledge of this prophet Obadiah beyond material of this Book of Obadiah. The current study was therefore devoting special attention to name Obadiah and traditions of Obadiah in Hebrew Bible ITSELF. Always it is important to try to find some more knowledge of some enigmatic individuals of Hebrew Bible in the texts of Hebrew Bible ITSELF. Thus were noticed clearly traditions of Obadiah musician in the Temple, together with traditions of Obed-Edom being singer in the Temple, descendants of famous Jeduthun, many Psalms in the Hebrew Bible especially in their titles mentioning such Jeduthun (Psalms 39, 77 and 62), and their roles in the Temple choirs so clearly attested in the Books of Chronicles (1Chron 9:16, 16:38-42, 25:3-6, 2Chron 5:12 and 29:14). Hebrew Bible ITSELF thus clearly advises to Readers to attempt to read the Book of Obadiah at least considering the context of cult in the Temple. Mentioning of Obadiah and Obed-Edom among descendants of the famous choirmaster Jeduthun of the Temple especially thus leads to traditions of Obadiah and Obed-Edom, especially because of the ancient habit of giving names to children following the names of some of their grandparents, thus these mentions of Obadiah and Obed-Edom lead Readers to consider tradition of musician-prophets in the Temple of Jerusalem, with name Obadiah and Obed-Edom, during numerous generations. (Furthermore, we know tradition of Obadiah manager of king’s household in 1 Kings 18 where is noticed time of king Ahaz and Obadiah having helped to hide prophets of JHWH from wrath). Important tradition connecting Obadiah and Obed-Edom families with the Ark of Covenant is recorded also in 2 Samuel 6 noticing David’s bringing the Ark to City of David after the Ark had been some weeks in the house of Oved-Edom. The Oved-Edom and Obadiah people thus appear in some important traditions specifically and clearly connected with Temple and even Ark of Covenant. With this obvious notice of living of numerous Temple musicians with name Obadiah and Obed-Edom, their being descendants of famous choirmaster Jeduthun, we cannot, regrettably, probably, name any specific Obadiah-musician of this musical family, but we do have made a truly huge progress of this study: we have identified we probable CONTEXT of the Book of Obadiah. Importantly, in Cairo GENIZAH and many other Medieval Manuscripts are found traces of traditions of music of Obadiah, usually scholarly discussed in the title of music of Obadiah the Proselyte and his music; but interpretation of details of such ancient Genizah Manuscripts should be questioned because of clear Biblical tradition of Obadiah and Oved-Edom families among the Temple singers in Temple of Jerusalem and because of here studied writings of Book of Obadiah- further study of these Medieval Obadiah and music of Obadiah Manuscripts here urgently called for; and importantly, a special session of music of Obadiah (the proselyte) was included in program of Fourth World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem (1965). Moreover, readers reading the ancient texts and translations of Book of Obadiah easily find also many references to this in the Book of Obadiah itself. We find that Book of Obadiah begins with word HZWN denoting visions; but it is notorious that the first word is this HZWN- among Prophets of OT only Isaiah begins with this word; many other books of Prophets do, of course, notice this word in their introductions (so Habakkuk, Nahum, Amos, Micah), understandably thus referring to visions and visioning- but only in Obadiah and Isaiah the word HZWN it the first word of the Book. Attentive readers thus notice that Obadiah 1 emphatically write of SHEMA traditions emphasising hearing; thus is easily found that Obadiah writing HZWN also noticed to Readers of the Chazzan, the special musician well known in ancient Synagogue (see e.g. writings of L. Levine concerning ancient Synagogue). Noticing in the beginning of Obadiah thus HZH and SHEMA thus refer attentive Readers to consider very ancient traditions of SHEMA and Chazzan; also this is understandable in context of working of musicians of the Temple. Well known is in Temple and Synagogue often spoken of AVODA, this noticed also in some renderings of name Obadiah. Greek translation also notices the SYNAGOGUE, writing in Obadiah 13 TEN SUNAGOGEN AUTON, this emphasising this Book of Obadiah writing thus of Temple and religious cult in the Temple, and cult in the Synagogue. It is further noticed that the Book of Obadiah also notoriously preserves culture and traditions of eastern areas, of Reqemite-Petran areas; research always notices that the Book of Obadiah so specifically is concerned with Edom and Edomites, and Esau. These clearly local knowledge of religion and culture of Nabataeans and Petra-Reqem now are comprehended with noticing traditions of Obadiah and Oved-Edom: the choir of Jeduthun was one of the choirs of the Temple of Jerusalem, and emphasising descendants of Jeduthun being Obadiah and Oved-Edom ALSO emphasises that among these musicians and singers of Temple of Jerusalem were some families of eastern origins, originating in Edomite areas. Clearly, they could convey traditions of Eastern regions, Nabataeans and of Petra-Sela, to the Temple and cult of Temple- we know very much of religious dialogue with traditions of neighbouring countries attested in Old Testament (in positive and in critical tone). Book of Obadiah is clearly written in context of religion of Temple of Jerusalem and perpetuated by Temple musicians of Edomite origins, Jeduthun, Obadiah and especially Oved-Edom; in this Book of Obadiah these musicians clearly discuss the religious traditions of Edomite and Reqemite areas in context of religion of Temple of Jerusalem. This is notoriously clear in Targumic translations of Book of Obadiah, certainly also written by group of such religious officials from Eastern Edomite and Reqemite areas, the Targumic translation so much discussing Nabataean deities DHUSHARA, QAUS, SHAI EL QAUM, ALILAT and many other deities, their appearances and their doings. Importantly, Philo of Alexandria clearly comments this Book of Obadiah in his writing Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit in such manner that Philo clearly attests knowledge of such Reqemite translations and traditions of Book of Obadiah- so clearly Philo writes of SHAI EL QAUM and DHUSHARA and QAUS in this very intriguing book Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit, there especially quoting four Psalms (very unusual for Philo), especially quoting Psalm 62 of Jeduthun traditions. The Book of Obadiah in the Hebrew Bible is very notorious Book, attesting many religious traditions of Eastern Nabataean regions and Petra-Sela, adapted and told in the context of cult of Temple of Jerusalem, by Temple’s choristers of Edomite origins, Jeduthun and his descendants Obadiah and Oved-Edom. We remember, of course, that David HaMelekh himself had Edomite ancestors, Ruth noticed in the Book of Ruth whose conclusion so emphatically notices this Edomite Ruth being ancestor of David- and also David’s bringing Ark of Covenant from house of Oved-Edom to the city of David. Many Edomite people thus are emphatically positively noticed in context of Temple of Jerusalem and religion in Temple of Jerusalem, and Book of Obadiah is important attestation of their culture in midst of cult and music of Temple of Jerusalem.

It is well known that Nabataean trade empire was prosperous especially in the time after Alexander’s empire, Nabataeans finding their place in midst of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleudic empire. The Nabataean trade empire being prosperous and famous around Mediterranean world, their capital Petra especially enjoyed heightened prosperity and fame. Often it is told that merely few literary sources have been preserved from the Nabataean culture, this is notorious idea because of their central position in trade routes where ideas and trade were conveyed in areas near to Gulf and Mediterranean coast. Thus it was very much noticed in the current study, that also Bible might contain some references to Nabataeans and their culture, and Bible might also mention their capital Petra-Reqem. This was found understandable because Edomite culture and generally Nabataean areas being neighbours of ancient Judahite areas- usually ancient records from some culture do at least slightly mention their neighbours, writing good or bad mentions, but clearly it is to be presumed that Hebrew Bible might contain at least some references to Nabataeans and especially to their capital Petra-Reqem. Biblical studies write of neighbouring countries, including Edom and Edomites, and scholars have been studying these writings. However, interesting question are occurrences of words RQM in Hebrew Bible, the ancient ARAMAIC name of the capital of Nabataeans being REQEM, usually better known for its Greek name PETRA. In the current study was undertaken thus to examine more of writings of RQM words in Hebrew Bible. These are often comprehended to denote multicoloured fabrics and something colourful, and production of colourful clothing; but attentive Readers find many interesting details studying RQM word in Hebrew Bible. Thus were found histories in Judges 6 noticing troops from REQEM allied with Avimelekh, and Judges 11 similarly writing of troops from REQEM-Petra being allied to Jephtah. Importantly, Judges 11 also writes of ancient widespread female cult among Israelite women, honouring “daughter of Jephtah”. This deserves to be compared especially with Deut 16 writing of RQM and yearly festivals in Israel. Book of Ruth well known notices Ruth being ancient Moabite ancestor of David HaMelekh, and RQM words in Book of Ruth were found of special importance. Interesting history was found in 2 Samuel 6 writing of bringing of Ark of covenant to City of David after its being placed in house of Oved-Edom for some weeks- in the festivities accompanying bringing of Ark to City of David is noticed that David was celebrating like some REQEMITES- this 2 Samuel 6 thus interestingly connecting REQEMITES, Ark and OVED-EDOM. Importance of RQM words in context of Davidic dynasty is clearly noticed in words of Solomon upon his enthronement to succeed David HaMelekh, the 1 Kings 8:25 emphasising diligent hearkening of divine commandments guaranteeing the succession of Davidic dynasty, this VERY important statement of Davidic monarchy in 1 Kings 8:25 beginning RQ AM that UNMISTAKABLY refers to REQEM. Davidic monarchy had clearly some specific connection to REQEM and REQEMITES. (The RQ AM occurs also in Deut 15:5-6 emphasising diligent following of the divine commandments; but THIS text it not read contemporarily after SHEMA, but then is read from Deut 11). In the religion of the Temple times, the RQM words truly notoriously are written in many contexts very important to religion in Temple. Thus are written of RQJQJ MZWT MSHJM, these usually comprehended to denote some “wafers” on the table in Temple, this tradition of Mazot in these words often written, so in Exod 29, Lev 2:4 and 7:12 and Num 6:15. In midst of very sanctified rituals of Temple, are thus written of RQM Mazot! Notoriously, tradition of Deut 16:16 writes WLA JRAH AT PNJ H’ RJQM thus noticing Israelites arriving to the annual festivals, this writing notoriously RAH AT PNJ H’. Furthermore, well known (and often discussed) mentions of RQM words were found in numerous texts writing of colourful garments of High Priest, and Aharon High Priest, also these texts referring to RQM in context of discussing and legislating of the religion in Ohel Moed and Temple (Exod 28:39, 36:37 etc). Importantly, Exodus 35-36 writes of and legislates the construction of the Tabernacle and its furniture and specifically notices that Bezalel and Oholiab were specialists and skilled of doing such important works, also doing RQM (usu. Production of colourful garments and fabrics) is noticed among their special skills. Thus reading attentively Old Testament texts we find easily clear evidence of important mentions of REQEM and REQEMITES. Thus are noticed REQEMITE troops helping Jephtah and Avimelekh and even David Ha Melekh is with REQEMITES noticed in 2 Samuel 6. Davidic dynasty is connected to RQM in 1 Kings 8:25. Deut 15-16 write RQM word in writing of many divine commandments. In the traditions of Temple and Ohel Moed often RQM words are written, to denote RQM Mazot and colourful clothes of High Priest (Aaron) and other priests. These RQM words attest thus manifold religious and cultural connection of Israel and Judah with RQM Reqem, the Nabataean capital and their culture. It is especially interesting to notice that such RQM words do not appear in Hebrew Bible in contexts describing hostile attitudes and hostilities- rather such RQM words in Hebrew Bible are written in unmistakably positive and important texts concerning cult, religion, commandments and Temple. This is TRULY notorious- especially because David Ha Melekh and Davidic dynasty is noticed often in connection to RQM words.

Study of the Obadiah 1 thus noticed many details of the text and translations. The HZWN begins the Book of Obadiah, among Books of Biblical Prophets only Book of Isaiah thus beginning with word HZWN (even if the word does occur in introductions of books of Prophets). The HZWN and HZH notably, occur only here in Book of Obadiah. Targumic translation seldom writes of HZH words in Obadiah, only in v.12-13 where the HZH is notoriously connected with TBR and GBR (GIBBORIM) traditions. The Book of Obadiah much parallels many statements in Jeremiah 49, Obadiah 1 finding parallel in Jer 49:14. Interestingly, the SLH traditions are here important, and Greek translation in Jer 30 (numbering of Jeremiah in LXX has curiosities compared with MT) does write of ANGELS, understandably considering SLH sending and ambassadors, even if Greek translation of Obadiah 1 is not attested to write of ANGELS, writing of PERIOKHEN...EKSAPESTEILEN. However, the Ed. Gottingensia notices that Symmachus does translate also here in Obadiah 1 with AGGELOUS (or AGGELIAN), and Aquila translating AGGELEIAN, these being understandable translations of SLH statements. Writing of Zurot appearances and AT visual signs are here in Obadiah 1 unmistakable, this important to notice considering these translations noticing AGGELOI. Targumic translation of Obadiah 1 unmistakably places this text to Nabataean areas, writing of AMR JWJ LADWM BSWRA SMYNA where is reference to Edom and Bushra found (and reference to bowls B-SJR), the Bushra being well known centrum of Nabataean regions in Roman times, being their administrative centre of province of Arabia, also well known and flourishing in pre-Roman times. The Hebrew Bible specifically emphasises here the SHEMA traditions and HZWN, emphasising the religion and cult. Importantly, in Qumranic Manuscripts is preserved the 4Q380, regrettably only fragmentarily, this being Psalm of Obadiah, and this text notoriously emphasising also SHEMA traditions.

Study of Obadiah 2 makes very clear the Book writing of magnified visions. The Obadiah 2 writes in Hebrew Bible HNH QTN...ATH Meod. This begins with exhortation Hinne for attentive seeing and observations, emphasising of seeing something small- and then notices that its visual sign (AT) is so much! This is unmistakable writing of producing of magnified visions, importantly written after noticing in v.1 of the SLH sending of information (and translations noticing AGGELOI). Importantly, the parallel to Obadiah 2 in Jer 49.15 does not so clearly compare small and something-much. Greek translation also notices exhortation to seeing IDOU OLIGOSTON...SFODRA HUPEREFANIA where is clearly noticed seeing (IDOU, of ORAO) aof something very tiny, contrasted with huge HUPEREFANIA; and Targumic translation notices BSJR AT that in the SJR bowl there appeared vision AT.

Study of Obadiah 3 is very important. This mentions in Hebrew bible the SLY Selah that is clear reference to Rocks, specifically to the name of Nabataean capital PETRA-REQEM, also known as Sela (referring thus even to modern consensus e.g. in “Petra” in Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names, ed. by John Everett-Heath OUP 2010) and the standard works of history of Petra-REQEM and Edomites. The Nabataean kingdom was prosperous after the time of breaking of Ptolemaic Egypt and Seleucid Empire, the Nabataeans succeeding their trade via important caravan routes, and thus their trade empire and their capital Petra-REQEM being truly famous. References to Selah and in Greek Petra here are unmistakable references to the Nabataean capital and their culture and religion. Interestingly, ancient Rabbinical scholarship finding parallels to this text (in Masora) finds Jeremiah 49:16 and Song 2:14, both texts unmistakably writing of REQEM. Importantly, this texts more specifies the visions. The text of Hebrew Bible writes of SKNJ BHGWJ SLY where are found notice of SHEKINOT appearances. The HGWJ was comprehended comparing with book of HGJ (Haggaj) of Old Testament, especially 1:3-4 and 2:15-16 where are visions and comparison of less and much so clearly noticed; and the Book of Haggaj importantly writes of cups of crystal. Thus was found notice of visual (Shekinot) appearances appearing in crystal cups. Interestingly, Targumic translation notices here manifestations of Nabataean deity DHUSHARA in likeness of FALCON in magnifying cups. The text of Obadiah 3 thus describes in the context of religion in PETRA specifically magnifications seen from Sidonian cups, the Targumic translation importantly noticing manifestations of Nabataean deity DHUSHARA in these cup-visions in likeness of falcon.

The Obadiah 4 writes truly interesting statements. Targumic translation of Obadiah 3 was found to notice visual appearance of Nabataean deity DHUSHARA in likeness of Falcon in magnifying bowl, and the Targumic translation of Obadiah 4 writes now of ATARSAMAIN-ISHTAR, famous ancient female deity (emphasised here writing of Nekeva)- and notoriously, in Targum here emphasised HTN words to attentive Readers notice nothing else but- marriage or partnership of these DHUSHARA and ATARSAMAIN-ISHTAR. Targumic translation here emphasises ATARSAMAIN appearing from/by means cups (MDWRK). The Greek translation was found to emphasise ANANA letters, these to attentive Readers unmistakably referring to Hannah- and indeed, Philo of Alexandria does write in Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit 5-15 of Hannah prophetess, her receiving divine seed, becoming pregnant and giving birth to Samuel (this being one important parallel with Obadiah and traditions of Obadiah). Philo’s writing in Quod Deus 162-167 especially was found to refer to this Greek translation, writing of METEOROIS, flying, and walking along the Middle Road (that is Philonic discussion of Aristotelian discussion of virtues being means). Writing of the Stars is somewhat seldom but clearly important for traditions of ATARSAMAIN-ISHTAR; and in literature of Jeremiah especially this was compared with Book of Baruch 3 so much writing of stars and their creator. Interesting reference to David’s practising divination with Efod was found following ancient Rabbinical scholars finding parallel in 1 Samuel 30 for the AWRJDK word, this text writing clearly of David’s practising divination with EFOD. In the Hebrew Bible was found emphasised the Neum-H’ and GB tradition (AM TGBJH) referring to bowls; this connects bowls and divine information, the GB and GBWH emphasising bowls and huge heights.

The Obadiah 5 writes further specifying of such visual appearances. This text notices MG NBJM, magicians, prophets, and their doings, Targumic translation specifying their being (also) prophets of well known deity ALILAT. In the Hebrew Bible writing of the Zurot and Demut, and BBA in this text unmistakably notice appearance of visual forms and visual reflections and visual similitudes. Targumic translation writes here importantly TWP words, the TWP referring well known to stretching, spreading and expanding, also this being work of these magicians-prophets. Hebrew text, importantly, refers here to vessels of Davidic style (SDD), this emphasising HERE the official cult of Temple. Greek translation writes of TRUGETAI that was compared with famous GOETEIA of antiquity, production of illusions, even noticing TRI-GOETEIA producing magnified visions. Philo writes in Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit often of GEINOS EDOM, “earthly Edom”, noticing these usually negatively. Importantly, Philo often there writing of this GEINOS EDOM emphasises their visual appearance and their directing the visual and visions, and their appearance with pomp and glamour. Writing of visual appearances thus is very important. These are continued with Obadiah 6 writing clearly of making inquiries and examinations HPS, the Greek translation writing clearly well defined words KATALAMBANO and EKSERUNAO; and Targumic translation writes more in words of visual revelations GLL, writing of ATGLJW MTMWRWHJ MN THWMH where Targum notices the famous THM container place. Visual appearances, visual forms and making detailed studies and observations thus are well noticed in Book of Obadiah.

Obadiah 7 is further important text. Targumic translation writes of SHAI EL QAUM, important Nabataean deity who protected the travellers, understandably very central in Nabataean trade empire whose prosperity was produced by merchants along the Nabataean trade routes, bringing from Gulf and Eastern areas merchandise and culture towards Mediterranean areas. This text importantly also writes of good comprehension and knowledge, TBWNH and in Targum SKLTNW. Gree Bible here writes of EOS TON ORION EKSAPESTEILAN SE PANTES; and Philo of Alexandria writes in Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit important traditions of SEIR and Edomites. This Book of Philo is especially devoted to writing of Edom and Edomites and their culture. Philo makes unmistakable reference to Book of Obadiah writing here of OROS traditions, commenting the Deut 1-2 of Israel’s wilderness wandering. Philo here writes of PARA TO OROS POREUSOMETHA/PARELEUSOMETHA that Philo comprehends to denote walking with knowledge, making studies and examinations, writing thus of OROS denoting definition and also “mountain”. Importantly, in Quod Deus 129 Philo writes of ORTHOS LOGOS being leader of travellers (KUBERNETE), this much echoing the Targumic writing of SHAI EL QAUM being protector and leader of travellers. Philo writes thus of walking along King’s High Road (clear reference to Nabataean very important trade route King’s Highway from coast of Red Sea towards Palmyra). This Philonic writing in Quod Deus was found to have unmistakable connections with then prosperous Nabataean culture and religion. Thus is important to read in Targumic translation of the THM depths and deep-containers MN THWMH AGLJWK KL ANS QJMK where is specifically noticed revelation of this important SHAI EL QAUM from THM deep-containers, this noticing description of lecanomancy. Indeed, the Hebrew text of Obadiah 1 begins also notoriously writing of BGWJM SLH QWMW where is echo of GB bowls and sending/appearance of SHAI EL QAUM easily heard. Moreover, Targum emphasises KL words here and even the SKLTNW here noticing cleverness contains reference to KL containers. Hebrew text also clearly emphasises KL and AN words writing of containers, KL AN...JKLW LK AN...AJN TBWNH. Importantly, Hebrew Bible begins this writing with YD HGBWL SLHWK where GB bowls and containers are connected with the GBWL limits and many other writings in Obadiah noticing GB-words (notoriously, the GIBBORIM giants) and SLH sending, and TBWNH comprehending.

Obadiah 8 is clear text writing of Wisdom and containers. Here is noticed Hokhmah, Hakhamim and Esau’s being clever in comprehension (TBWNH MHR YSW) or, especially, clever comprehension (maher) found by means of reflectors and reflected visions (the YSS often denotes reflectors and reflected visions). Also this text writes of Abyddos containers connecting this specifically with such Hohkmah, writing thus of HABDTJ HKMJM- thus are here Wisdom and containers connected. Targum noticed in v.7 how SHAI EL QAUM appears from THM deep-containers. This text writes rather ABD and Hakhamim wise, noticing thus connection of ABD deep containers and deep container observations and those who are Hakhamim wise. Greek translation importantly writes here of SOFOS and SUNESIS, emphasising good comprehension and wise, and writing of APOLO- Greek Readers surely could hear also reference to deity Apollon of Wisdom in this statement noticing SOFOS and SUNESIS. Importantly, the parallel in Jeremiah 49:7-8 begins that prophesy of Edom, and emphasises in this statement NSR Falcon traditions, ABDH YZH MBNJM NSRHH HKMTM where is found reference to sons-of-Falcon BNJM NSR. It is very important to notice that Targumic translation HERE begins comprehensive writing of giants, GIBBORIM, so much emphasised in Targumic translation of Obadiah. Here Targum translates noticing Giants-GIBBOR in whom is cleverness (KL GBR DBJH SKLNTNWTH); and importantly, Philo of Alexandria writes in the Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit clear references to Book of Obadiah, this Quod Deus beginning with much discussion of the traditions of GIANTS in Gen 6, among Philo’s works the Quod Deus and de Gigantibus writing of traditions of Giants.

Thus is importantly arrived to commenting very important text of book of Obadiah, the v.9-10, now modernly Translated in words
New Modernised Translation by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008,
with Commentary by Pasi K. Pohjala 2010
“and the hajjot of mighty size (GBR) of Teman style visions (temunot) in the water bowl (maajan) become to knowledge (KR) in the keen seeing (MHR) fire-flame, for reflections (YS) in the clearness (NQ) of the waters (TL) (10) the knowledge (MH) coming from the molten material (MS), the qualities, by Jacob style is the cup examination (KS) for the knowledge in the container Olam vessel” Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of Obadiah 9-10
The Book of Obadiah is found to write of bowls and vessels, and visions; and Book of Obadiah clearly writes of stretching and expanding. The Obadiah 9-10 now more specify how such stretched and magnified visions and bowls are productive of clever knowledge. Modern readers often talk in more modern terms that knowledge is found by help of magnified visions (especially, we see more details, thus knowing more, possibly, seeing more differences that help us to more detailed specify further the species- so writes Philo often concerning visions and knowledge). Hebrew Bible here writes of GIBBORIM and generally of giant visions GBR here written with TMN noticing Temunot, and notices AJS MHR YSW, reflections and special keenness from visions. This was compared in Jeremiah literature with Baruch 3:26 noticing OI GIGANTES and their huge stature (EUMEGETHES), and knowledge (EPISTAMENOI), this written interestingly after Baruch 3:22-24 detailed discussing search after wisdom and understanding even in extremities of earth. Philo begins the Book Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit noticing Giants and traditions of Giants, noticing also DUSERGOTATON, thus noticing surely that Nabataean DHUSHARES was comprehended to be Giant, also Philo here emphasising Giants and knowledge (Quod Deus 1-6). Targumic writing here importantly writes of GBR Gibborim and TBR words, this found often further in this Translation; and also GBR Gibborim and ZWR zurot visual forms. Targum very importantly here writes of the TWL referring to famous TJL water divination, this continuing Hebrew Bible here writing of TJL word- Targum is often found to attempt to preserve some formula comprehended specifically important.

The Obadiah 11 is truly notorious text, especially the words BJWM SBT ZRJM. Attentive Readers notice here possible reference to Shabbath and to the Seventh Day (the Z is seventh letter of Hebrew alphabet and thus can refer also to number seven and to “seventh”). This statement was discussed being reference to Shabbath traditions, here notice light and lamp (jom) possibly being specifically famous Shabbath lamp. These references to Shabbath are very understandable in traditions of Temple and synagogue and the ancient musicians of the Temple, descendants of Jeduthun; but Translation was cautious to write directly expression of Shabbat lamp here because of its notorious religious importance. Greek translation writes in v.11-14 often EPI, these words emphasising Jerusalem, Judah and synagogue, this detail noticing unmistakably Greek tradition here emphasising important religious traditions of Jerusalem and Judah. This text is clearly text noticing some form of divination and mantic, writing of GWRL in Hebrew Bible and KLEROUS in Greek Bible. Ancient Rabbinical scholarship here emphasised parallels to this v.11 writing of KAHD, this of clearly important significance, and notoriously thus were in Hebrew Scriptures found numerous texts where were mighty warriors and giants discussed, thus were found text of Goliath, mighty Hebrew warrior Simson, sons of Zeruya, and Psalm 82:7 directly thus referring to history of Giants, writing of KAHD HSRJM TPLW where is noticed Gen 6 writing of SRJM and NEFILIM. Ancient Rabbinical interpreters thus understood this Obadiah 11 especially referring to traditions of Giants Gibborim. The New and Modernised Translation renders these with noticing magnified visions in water-reflections, increases of Jerusalem-style, that appear in these seeing-instruments.

The Obadiah 12 writes of Jom and seeing, thus noticing light and seeing. Obadiah 12 commences writing of AL TRA BJWM...BJWM NKRW...BJWM ABDM...WAL TGDL; these writings of JWM jom light or illumination firstly are connected with seeing RAH, then with KR understanding and then with ABD deep containers and deep-examinations- importantly, concluding noticing GDL growing and magnifying. Thus are connected RAH seeing, Jom light and GDL magnifying, and understanding. Translations here emphasise magnifying, Targum writing of SGJ and RBRB. Importantly, Targumic translation of Obadiah only here in v.12-13 writes of HZH seeing, this importantly because Hebrew text begins with the HZWN word. Targum here write WDASGJTA LMLLA where is found MLL utterances, SGJ muchness and magnifying, and notoriously letters of ALM referring to ALM or ULAM pond of the Temple (reading TALMLLA in both directions)- once more it is important to remember this text clearly having been composed by Temple singers descendants of Jeduthun, families of Obadiah and Oved-Edom, they surely had much knowledge of traditions of the religion in the Temple. Tradition thus comprehends this statement very importantly discussing HZH seeing, even being tradition of HZH seeing in ULAM pond of the Temple of Jerusalem. And notoriously, Greek Bible here translates MEGALORREMONESES EN HEMERA where is MEGALOS written with REMA, comparing with HEMERA, this statement connecting thus HEMERA light and illumination with specially huge or extended (or boastful) utterances (MEGALOS).

Obadiah 13 continues much writing of Jom lights and illumination. This is expressed in Edomite style BJWM AJDM...BJWM AJDW...BJWM AJDW, this emphasising to attentive Readers Jom illumination and Meod muchness, and notoriously, Jom and AJD mist and vapour from waters. This text also notices of seeing of magnified visual signs TRA GM ATH, and notoriously this is in Hebrew Bible connected to TBR writing ATHBRYTW. Especially Targumic translation of Book of Obadiah is found much emphasising TBR in writing of traditions of GBR Gibborim, Giants. Thus it is notorious to find in Targumic translation of Obadiah 13-14 clear reference to Nabataean deities DHUSHARA and SHAI EL QAUM being GIANTS. That is, Targumic translation of Obadiah 13-14 describes Nabataean deities DHUSHARA and SHAI EL QAUM being GIANTS. This is truly interesting result in attentive study of Book of Obadiah and its traditions. Importantly, the text of Hebrew Bible does NOT support finding here even mentions of DHUSHARA or SHAI EL QAUM. This textual detail thus attests much of the place and culture of Targumic translation of this Book of Obadiah- these Translators had specific interest in Nabataean culture and religion and also they knew importance of traditions of Giants. Once more, we may consider the Obadiah families of singers in Temple of Jerusalem, descendants of Jeduthun and with origins in Eastern areas towards Edomite regions (or in Edomite regions), and their special knowledge of Nabataean religion and culture, and thus their emphasising also in this writing Nabataean deities DHUSHARA and SHAI EL QAUM. This text thus attests of ancient religious dialogue. (For readers of Enoch literature such notices of Nabataean deities DHUSHARA and SHAI EL QAUM having been in this Targumic translation described as Giants are, of course, of special interest, current Writer confined to read merely in Greek preserved parts of Enoch literature, and writings from Qumran).

Obadiah 14 writes then notoriously much of traditions of Lot. The Hebrew bible in Obadiah 14 often writes letters LT, in words WALTYMD and PLJTJW. Ancient Rabbinical interpreters emphasised such connection, finding parallels to this text with AL TYMD in histories of Lot, in Gen 19:17 noticing rescue of Lot. Then Gen 19:20-22 notices Lot’s rescue to smaller city there nearby, city called Zoar. Importantly, Jeremiah 49 writes many parallels to statements in Book of Obadiah, and Jer 49:18 does notice MHPKT of Sodom and Gomorrah. Greek translations of Obadiah 11-14 much write EPI-words, thus emphasising knowledge and acquiring knowledge. Obad 11 thus writes EPI statement concerning divination by lot, and Obad 13 interestingly writes thus of ME EPIDES KAI SU TEN SUNAGOGEN AUTON; and Obadiah 14 notably concludes MEDE EPISTES, thus referring to EPISTEME knowledge.

Obadiah 15 contains important words of KASR YSJT JYSH LK GMLK JSWB BRASK. Often these words are comprehended to state principle of divine retribution, numerously written in OT in different statements. (Therefore were noticed also many OT statements of SLH RQM noticing giving a due reward, thus in Exod 3:21 (NOTORIOUSLY), Gen 31, Deut 15:13 and 1 Sam 6:3 and in book of Ruth, such SLH RQM unmistakably having been famous economical principle of ancient Reqemite trade empire, legislating to give good reward.) This statement of Obad 15 was further much discussed following ancient Rabbinical scholars who emphasised OT parallels writing JYSH word. Many of these statements, of course, state divine retribution. But notoriously, many of JYSH statements rather are written in contexts describing and legislating concerning vessels of Temple. Important texts noticed by Rabbinical scholars thus were found in Num 4:26, Lev 11:32, 2 Kings 12:14, Jer 3:16f and Ezek 44:14, these texts paralleling wording of details of Obad 15 and thus discussing vessels of Temple, Kelim. Thus was also noticed that YSS words also often notice reflectors and reflected visions; so was in this statement of Obad 15 noticed subtle statement concerning vessels of Temple and their producing reflections, reflected visions.

Obadiah 16 writes of doubling and magnified visions. Every detail of Hebrew Bible being precious, notorious was found the Obad 16 clearly emphasising doubling, writing word ST and ALSO writing often letters twice- this was specifically seen emphasised when comparing with parallel in Jeremiah 49:12. This was studied noticing in Hebrew that STH often notices drinking and STJM notices number two and doubling (continuing Obad 15 writing of GML even thus referring to number three, gimel)- and indeed, magnified visions are produced in drinking vessels of glass and crystal, filled with wine. Greek translation does specifically mention wine OINON, and Targumic translation further specifies KS PWRYNWTHWN where is read echo of Egyptian cups (often made of superb crystal). Important was found that Philo of Alexandria writes in Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit 77 quotation from Psalm 74:8 POTERION EN KHEIRI KURIOU OINOU AKRATOU PLERES. Importantly, this Philonic quotation noticing divine wine cup is written in context writing clearly of visions of divine Powers. This importantly attests religious rituals of seeing magnified visions, rituals of wine cups, in Temple where musicians-prophets Obadiah and Oved-Edom (descendants of Jeduthun) were singing and prophesying.

Obadiah 17 writes of mount Zion and visions, Targum writing BTWRA DZJWN. Traditions of mount Zion are very important in whole book of Obadiah, especially concluding the book in Obadiah 21. It was emphasised that TH words of Hebrew emphasise visions and visual signs, here written of BHR ZJWN THJH PLJTH where is seen notice of TH visual signs and marks and reference to LT mysteries and to famous TJL water divination; and here written RS words are of RSS to denote visual reflections and production of visual reflections. Important were thus found traditions in 2 Samuel 6 of bringing the Ark from house of Oved-Edom to city of David and then David’s celebrating this, then also some REQEMITES attending these festivities.

Obadiah 18 writes clearly of very elevated cults of lights and lamps. The words of lights, lamps and fire-flame were here studied. Importantly, the text writes of BJT writing of houses, thus leading Readers to notice that in ancient world, extended families of rulers were also referred to “houses”, here being noticed houses of Jacob, Esaw and Joseph. It is clear that this text Obadiah 18 notices the official cult and religion of such ruling families, also Targumic translation writing of SLT that unmistakably notices rulers and their ruling. Importantly, Hebrew Bible AND Targum HERE write of QS- this word importantly refers to QAUS, Nabataean NATIONAL deity, in many known Nabataean texts connecting the QAUS with ruling family and ruler. VERY importantly, here QAUS is specifically connected to Esau, writing of BJT YSW LQS- this connects ruling house of “Esau” with QAUS, this in good accordance with QAUS being known as national deity of Nabataeans, and that Nabataeans and people of Edom often were associated with Esau (esp. Deut 1-2). The Obadiah 18 thus unmistakably writes of official cult of rulers and state. Thus were noticed presence of fire and fire-flame in official cult of these “house of Jacob”, “house of Joseph” and “house of Esau”. Greek translation was interestingly found to write of PURFOROS, these in ancient Greek world known to be priests guarding the sacred flame and carrying sacred flame in some religious festivals. Thus is in this context of discussing official religious cult and fire-flames translated SRJD in Hebrew Bible, comparably to Obad 5 writing of SDDJ LJLH, these referring more to evening times and times of shadows. Interestingly, Greek Bible here also writes of KALAME associating this with house of Esau (thus translating the LQS), and notoriously is such KALAME well noticed in construction of Menorah of Temple, the Exod 25 noticing KALAMISKOI being “branches” of the Menorah. It is important to notice that Jeduthun and his descendants with names Obadiah and Oved-Edom were officiating in Temple, being well known musicians of Temple of Jerusalem, thus these detailed statements so clearly reflect their detailed knowledge of religion in the Temple of Jerusalem.

Obadiah 19 continues writing of official religion. This text often writes of RSS and GB words, thus noticing RSS sprinklings and GB bowls and containers, these are unmistakable parts of official religion. The Obadiah 19 clearly writes of AT and notices of some places, thus emphasising production of OT visual signs and style of such production of visions in different places. Targumic translation emphasises here JTBJ and JT words, this contrasting with the BJT words emphasised in Obad 18, also this textual detail noticing here doing reflections.

Obadiah 20 writes clearly of visions. Thus was studied Hebrew Bible here writing concerning
This text was found to emphasise GL words, thus writing of the GLT and Gilead, and the HZH here unmistakably echoes the word HZWN that begins the whole book of Obadiah, such HZH word notoriously seldom written in whole book of Obadiah. Thus was found seeing of revelations emphasised in this text. This was also noticed by ancient Rabbinical scholars, ancient Masora noticing parallels to texts writing HHL; among these is written in 1 Samuel 3 history of young Samuel, and the 3:2 specifically noticing the eyes of elderly Eli, writing of YJNJ HHLW KHWT LA JWKL LRAWT WNR. This notices importantly eyes of Eli, KH strengthening (or weakening), seeing and interestingly the NR lamp, also this important for comparisons with Obadiah 18 writing of fire flame and lamps in official cult. Interestingly, was found that 1 Samuel 9:9 is quoted by Philo of Alexandria in Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit 139 to notice that prophets wer often in ancient times called SEERS. Furthermore, the HL word was studied also for its often noticing glass vessels and white glass vessels, and thus lamps- in ancient world were glass vessels often used as lamps, most filled with water for cooling and some oil film floating for nourishing the fire-flame. Greek text writes of METOIKESIA thus attesting of founding and life of new settlements (or diaspora). Importantly, thus is in Greek text written of KAI TES METOIKESIAS E ARKHE AUTE...KAI METOIKESIA IEROUSALEM EOS SEFRADA. This Greek translation clearly notices foundation and life of settlement of Nabataean or Reqemite people in Jerusalem- in other words, this METOIKESIA clearly refers to the fact that some Nabataean and Reqemite people had settled in Jerusalem, thus noticing their settlement in Jerusalem. (This terminology interestingly is compared with words in Book of Baruch, also being part of Jeremiah literature). This Book of Obadiah clearly attests of sure and native knowledge of Nabataean and Reqemite culture. The Book of Obadiah clearly is composed by some Temple musician (prophet) Obadiah in Temple of Jerusalem, his family originating from Nabataean –Reqemite areas and being descendant of famous Jerusalemite choirmaster Jeduthun.

Obadiah 21 concludes the Book of Obadiah writing important ZION traditions, these were compared with Zion traditions in Book of Baruch. Importantly, Targumic translation notices revelation, noticing how TTGLJ MLKWTA DJWJ thus writing of revelation. END OF TRANSLATION OF BOOK OF OBADIAH, AND COMMENTARY OF BOOK OF OBADIAH.


NEW TRANSLATIONS OF BIBLE: OBADIAH. A Study of These Edomite-PETRAN Traditions of Music and Scientific Lore of OBADIAH, Musician-prophet in the Temple of Jerusalem


Second Edition of June 2010
EDITIONS Pasi Pohjala

COPYRIGHT © Pasi K. Pohjala June 10, 2010

2006 Similarities of Redaction of the Gospel According to Matthew, With Texts of Philo Alexandrinus (445pages)
2007 Divination by Bowls in Bible, Septuagint, Qumran Texts, Philo and Matthew 13:1-12. Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls in Bible Interpretations (Verre Et Bible 1) (182pages)
2008 New Translations of Bible: The Twelve Prophets, Qohelet, Chapters of Job and Many Psalms. Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. (Verre Et Bible 2) (381pages)
2009 New Translations of Bible: The Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16. Stelevision. Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. (Verre Et Bible 3) (121pages)
December2009 New Translations of Bible: Book of JONAH. Huge Fish- Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. (Verre Et Bible 4) (160pages)
March2010 Habakkuk, Bacchus and ABACUS: New Translation of Qumran’s Pesher Habakkuk (1QpHab), Studying there References to Midrash BAHIR. Jesus Teaches BAHIR (1QpHab 9.11-12) (Verre et Bible 5)

CH. 22 Writings of Philo of Alexandria and Book of Obadiah p.60
CH.23 Book of Obadiah and Histories from PETRA-REQEM p.66
CH. 24 QUMRAN and REQEM-Petra p.74
CH.25 SUMMARY p.82

NEW, Modernised Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of OBADIAH 1-2
“vision of Obadiah, in the strength (KH) of the lamp-vessel (AM, NR) of God, in this place (AJ) of visual appearances (demut): hearken, hearken (SMY) the stretching (NN), these multitudes (MAT) from God, there is visual form (zura) appearing in cavity of waters (GJM) that the Luach instrument magnified (QM)- it was so magnified (NQM) in the increasing (YL) by God (JH) with the salt-of what-ness (MLH MH)”.

COMMENTARY, BY Pasi K. Pohjala 2010 The Biblical Book of Obadiah is very concise Book in the canonical Bible consisting of merely 21 verses. The Ancient Interpreters of Bible only seldom make references to Obadiah and quote texts of Obadiah as Scriptural prooftexts. Thus for the modern Readers might appear somewhat surprising that such seemingly minor Book has been included in the canonical Bible and sufficiently much preserved in the tradition thus to be well known and included in the canonical Bible.

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