Tuesday, 15 June 2010

obadiah 3 and 4

emphasises in Obad 2 comparison of small and huge, and seeing such.

New, modernised Translation by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008, with detailed Commentary by Pasi K. Pohjala 2010 to OBADIAH v.3
“such Sidonian glass vessel (ZDN) of convex form (LB) with its strength (KH) in its hollowness (SA), such KS-cup thus produces (KN) in the clefts of that stone vessel (HG) it magnifies (MRM) the reflections (SB) in the method of lamp-vessel (AM, NR), in its convex form (LB) there are waters (MJ), they inform (JWR-Tora) of discerning (DN) in the keen seeing illumination (AR, RZ)” (Translation Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of Obadiah 3).

COMMENTARY by Pasi K. Pohjala 2010. The Obadiah 3 is famously known among Readers of Bible for its mentioning of PETRA in the Greek translations of Obadiah. Often this word Petra is comprehended to denote the ancient well known Nabataean capital Petra; but this comprehension is also much questioned and discussed. Especially, this word PETRA in the Obadiah 3 notices some special place of being, occurring or dwelling, the Greek also writing KATASKENOUNTA and KATOIKIAN here, and the Hebrew text writes here of the SKN denoting dwelling (when habitation is considered) or some special place of occurring and occurrences (cf. the famous SKK in Hebrew Bible, thus also in Jonah 4). The city PETRA was in the ancient world very important centrum for trade routes from Arabia and East towards the Mediterranean coast and Alexandria, and its flourishing time and the time of more flourishing Nabataean kingdom occurred after the reign of Alexander in the time of formation of Seleucid and Ptolemaic kingdoms after Alexander. In these circumstances the Nabataeans established strongly their reign in these areas and importantly they secured important trade routes from Arabia and Asia towards Mediterranean coast. Well known is their flourishing because of this important trade. Also important in the Nabataean history was trade of bitumen (or: asphalt) found in the southern parts of the Salt Sea, such bitumen (asphalt) trade was much contested by Egyptians and later by Romans, but in much of the time Nabataeans could secure such prosperous trade of bitumen. The Nabataean history thus includes much time of flourishing and prosperity, especially in the time that is clearly important for the writing of books currently included in the canonical Bible- the flourishing of Nabataean kingdom occurred after Alexander, thus during very important time for writing, telling and re-telling of the writings that we currently know as books of the canonical Bible. The Readers are advised to read more specialised studies concerning Petra and history of Nabataean kingdom. Reading of the Book of Obadiah easily confirms that the ancient capital Petra of the Nabataean kingdom there indeed is mentioned. The name of the prophet Obadiah is very similar to the known names of Nabataean kings OBODAS I, OBODAS II and OBODAS III. Furthermore, the Book of Obadiah especially writes of Edom and Edomites, this geographical area being mostly area of the Nabataeans. Concerning this special emphasis on Edom in the Book of Obadiah we can read, for example, words of Ehud Ben Zvi in Chapter 10 “Why was Edom singled out in Obadiah?” writing that “In the Book of Obadiah, Edom is clearly singled out among the nations for divine condemnation and judgment. In fact, Edom is the only nation explicitly named for judgment in this book. Moreover, Obadiah is the only book in the prophetic corpus that seems to consist, for the most part, of announcements of judgment against one single nation.” (1996, 230) These recent words of Ben Zvi much summarise in the current scholarly study well known fact of Book of Obadiah especially discussing situation of Edom and Edomites. In this Book of Obadiah the Greek translations write of PETRA; the reference to the Nabataean capital PETRA thus is here unmistakable! Thus identifies this geography also importantly Eusebius of Caesarea, comprehending this word PETRA in Obad 3 denoting the city PETRA. Further studies of traditions and translations of this Obad 3 make such identifying of the word PETRA occurring in this Obad 3 with name of the Nabataean capital PETRA very clear.
The Hebrew Bible here in Obad 3 writes of
The Rabbinical tradition has devotes considerable attention to these words in their minute studies of letters and words of Hebrew Bible, the Masora finds meticulously parallels to both words SKNJ AND ALSO TO word BHGWJ in this statement of Hebrew Bible. The Masora thus finds parallels for the SKNJ in Jer 49:16, Deut 33:16 and Micah 7:14; and to the word BHGWJ the Masora finds parallels in Jer 49:16 and notoriously in Song 2:14. The Rabbinical study of the text of Hebrew Bible thus devoted considerable attention to these details of Hebrew text, finding parallels to both of these words SKNJ and ALSO to the BHGWJ in the text of Hebrew Bible. The Jer 49:16 writes in the Hebrew Bible well known and often studied very close parallel, writing
These words of Jer 49:16 write well known parallel to the Obad 3, and in this Hebrew text important difference is the writing of TPLZTK and TPSJ in this Jer 49:16, the other words in this statement of Jer 49:16 writing very clear parallel to Obad 3. Greek Bible translates this text in Jer 30:10 with words E PAIGNIA SOU ENEKHEIRESEN SOU, ITAMIA KARDIAS SOU KATELUSEN TRUMALIAS PETRON, SUNELABEN ISKHUN BOUNOU HUPSELOU. Attentive Readers discover in this statement of LXX Jer 30:10 (=MT Jer 49:16) interestingly words ITAMIA KARDIAS SOU where straightforwardly are found letters R-K-M (RAKAIM) that for ancient Readers unmistakably referred to the ARAMAIC name of that Nabataean capital REQEM, its GREEK name PETRA also found in this statement of LXX Jer 30:10 in words TRUMALIAS PETRON. The city Petra was in the time of writing of these Greek translations truly famous among people of Eastern Mediterranean, the Petra being capital of the Nabataean trading empire, well known also among merchants of Alexandria. Composing Greek translation of Jer 30 thus containing unmistakable reference to the ARAMAIC name of that capital often denoted with its Greek name PETRA thus is in this Jer 30 important textual detail: this LXX Jer 30:10 thus notices the Greek name of that city PETRA and ALSO notices the ARAMAIC name of that city, RQM (Reqem). This is much emphasised because of LXX Jer 30:9 beginning with word MIKRON that also contains these letters R-K-M when read backwards. This finding of mention of the ARAMAIC name REQEM is importantly here in LXX Jer 30:9-10 written in the translation of words of BHGWJ SLY that also Obad 3 translates with PETRA; thus is here in LXX Jer 30:10 translated ZDWN LBK SKNJ BHGWJ SLY with Greek words ITAMIA KARDIAS SOU KATELUSEN TRUMALIAS PETRON. Comparison with Jer 49:16 (=LXX Jer 30:10) thus is VERY important, thus also noticed by the ancient Rabbinical scholars. Detailed comparison with the clear parallel in Jer 49 thus substantially contributes to comprehending this Obad 3 and its referring to Petra-Reqem. Comparisons following the ancient Rabbinical scholars further motivate such identifying of this Obad 3 writing specific reference to the Petra-Reqem; comparison with the details of Song 2:14 writing parallel to the Hebrew BHGWJ HSLY makes this identifying further very clear. The Song 2:14 writes in Hebrew Bible the words
Because of the special (often mysterious character) of the Song of Songs, merely some cearly observable textual details of this statement in Hebrew Bible here are noticed. The writing of BHGWJ HSLY writes here CLEAR parallel to the BHGWJ SLY in the Obad 3. Textually, in this Song 2:14 such BHGWJ HSLY is compared and specified with B...B, thus further writing of BSTR HMDRGH, and this word HMDRGH clearly contains reference to the letters R-G-M thus referring to the well known Aramaic name REQEM of the Nabataean capital now better known with its Greek name PETRA. Importantly, this statement in Hebrew Bible writes of JONA, also the Greek translations here writing of PERISTERA. Notorious is also this statement emphasising clearly SHEMA tradition (with the Hif. HSMJYNJ) and also visual appearances MRAJK with the Hif. MRAJNJ (of RAH). Notoriously this word MRAJK, here written form of MRAH with suffix of sg.2 denotes visions and visual appearances, also contains consonants R-K-M that unmistakably refer to Aramaic name REQEM of the Nabataean capital. Thus reference to name REQEM in the Hebrew Bible Song 2:14 writing words HMDRGH, MRAJK and further WMRAJK is here truly clear. Because of the truly mysterious character of the Biblical book of Song of Songs, this important statement of 2:14 can not here further be commented. Importantly, tradition of JONA and SELA is also found in Jeremiah 48:28 writing in Hebrew bible that
This writing of Jer 48:28 importantly thus connects JONA and SELA writing of SKNW BSLY, also this paralleling Obad 3 and the notorious writing of Song 2:14. Importantly, this statement is clearly addressed to Moabites, the Jer 48:1 beginning with HWJ AL NBW. The Greek Bible translates here, importantly, with words EI EN KLOPAIS SOU EURETHE, OTI EPOLEMEIS AUTON; KATELIPON TAS POLEIS KAI OKESAN EN PETRAIS OI KATOIKOUNTES MOAB, EGENESTHESAN OS PERISTERAI NOSSEOUSAI EN PETRAIS STOMATI BOTHUNOU (LXX Jer 31:27b-28, for MT Jer 48:28). Importantly, this Greek translation writes of OIKEIN, EN PETRAIS, KATOIKEIN and importantly makes comparison with doves writing concerning OS PERISTERAI where the Hebrew Bible writes of JONA. This tradition of Jer 48:28 thus clearly furthers understanding of Jer 49:16 and Song 2:14 that in the Rabbinical Masora have been emphasised containing parallels with Obad 3. The comparisons of Obad 3 writing the BHGWJ SLY following ancient Rabbinical Scholars thus find important parallels in Jer 49:16 and Song of Songs 2:14, and both of these text very clearly make reference to Petra-Reqem! The Rabbinical tradition of Masora further finds parallels in for the Hebrew SKNJ word in this Obad 3 in Jer 49:16, Deut 33:16 and Micah 7:14. Attentive reading of details of these words further much emphasises references to REQEM-Petra. The Deut 33:16 writes words SKNJ SLH and importantly begins WMRAS HRRJ-QDM where clearly consonants R-Q-D-M are written, thus referring clearly to the ancient name REQEM of Petra. Importantly, Deut 33:16 further writes words WLQDQD and the following Deut 33:17 writes WQRNJ RAM QRNJW BHM, also in these words of Hebrew Bible are the consonants R-Q-M found, emphasised because here also writing LW WQRNJ where letters R-Q-L are found (the Greek Bible interestingly here writes also of TA DEKTA TO OFTHENTI EN TO BATO). Thus comparisons with ancient Rabbinical scholarship studying the Obad 3 with parallels in Hebrew Bible much further finding here in Obad 3 unmistakable reference to city PETRA-REQEM.

Studying ancient Translations of the Obad 3 further argue for finding here reference to then truly famous Nabataean capital PETRA-REQEM. The Greek translation of Obad 3 writes here that
Here described EN TAIS OPAIS TON PETRON often is comprehended to notice dwelling in clefts of rock- and this very well describes the character of the buildings of Petra, mostly carved in stones. There are smaller habitations and larger places, even places clearly resembling sanctuaries carved in stone, these becoming more and more known after the rediscovery of Petra by Johann Ludwig Burchard in 1812 and thereafter somewhat often described, and in Paris were published detailed drawings of monuments of Petra by Leon de Laborde in 1830. Many studies have been devoted to Petra and ancient culture of Nabataeans; and currently Petra is known, among else, from the films of adventures of the famous archaeologist Indana Jones. For modern audience, the monuments of Petra have been thus recently often depicted and also this makes understandable this Greek Bible translating SE KATASKENOUNTA EN TAIS OPAIS TO PETRON describing clefts of rocks. Importantly, reference to the PETRA-REQEM is easily also found considering the Targumic translation of this Obad 3. Targumic translation of Obadiah 3 writes (ed. Sperber)
This Targumic translation writes words LNSRA DSRJ BSNJ KJPA that contain also notorious interpretation, translating the statement of Hebrew Bible writing of the BHGWJ SLY. Importantly, here is found letters DSRJ that straightforwardly is identified to refer to the name DHUSHARA, the highest deity of Nabataeans. This Targumic translation thus clearly refers to Nabataean culture and religion, noticing here unmistakably the DHUSHARA, even if in this statement making comparison with eagle/falcon that is dwelling in clefts of rock or cliff in heights (the MT more writes of such NSR in v.4). Targumic translation commences this statement with the RSY (for MT writing of ZDWN) that is found containing reference to Seir, a city also identified with Petra by some scholars. Studies of the ancient Translations of the Obadiah 3 thus further emphasise that this Obadiah 3 was by ancient writers comprehended to make reference to Petra-REQEM of Nabataeans.

Much of the current Forschungslage concerning identifying the place SLY (Sela) is summarised by Ehud Ben Zvi “On the location of Sela, see, for instance, Knauf-Belleri (1995:110); Finkelstein (1992:160-161); Lindner (1992:143-44); Bienkowski (1990; esp. pp. 91-95); Bartlett (1989: 51-52); and Hart (1986). The traditional identification of Sela with Petra (see Eusebius; cf. LXX; and Negev (NEAEHL, vol. 4:1181a)) has been generally abandoned. The tendency today is to identify Sela with Khirbet es-Sil. If so, this Sela was in the vicinity of Buseirah (bib. Bozrah), which is another city referred to in Obadiah, and most likely the capital of Edom during the later Iron II period.” (1996, 60 n.76). Importantly, Ben Zvi writes detailed study of the meanings of the word Sela in Hebrew Bible (1996, 61) finding that such Sela might refer to a rock, a place of refuge (so in 1Sam 23:25 and 2 Sam 22:2), also a place undesirable for human dwelling or a place very advantageous for human dwelling, a stronghold (so in Prov 30:26 and Isa 33:16); and Sela may occur as word-pair to HR (e.g. Isa 42:11 and 1 Kings 19:11), so also in Obadiah (see Obad 8, 9, 16, 17, 19 and 21) (Ben Zvi 1996, 61). The Book of Ehud Ben Zvi “A Historical-Critical Study of the Book of Obadiah” (1996, BZAW 242) is one recent extensive scholarly monograph of the Book of Obadiah and research concerning Book of Obadiah. (Of course, readers of Bible also remember that in numerous Psalms is written the word SLY, and in the context of Psalms meaning of word SLY is much debated; and such occurrences in the Psalms of Hebrew Bible of word SLY clearly makes study of SLY of much wider interest; and modern translations of Psalms often merely transliterate this word “Sela”. Readers easily find this word SLY “Sela” written in Psalms and might conduct further research and especially refer to numerous studies of Psalms of Hebrew Bible. Such studies of Obadiah, Sela and Psalms are also reflected in recent research tradition concerning some manuscripts of Cairo Genizah, described e.g. by Norman Golb “The Music of Obadiah the Proselyte and his Conversion” (Journal of Jewish Studies 18) and some recent studies- importantly, a special session was devoted to music of this Obadiah in the Fourth Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem (1965), pieces of this music identified in some Medieval Mss.- and the interested Reader will find many articles and studies concerning this research; importantly, this interestingly parallels the emphasising of SHEMA (hearing) tradition clearly in Obadiah 1.)

Study of the ancient traditions of parallels for Obad 3 in the Hebrew Bible and study of ancient Greek and Targumic translations of the Obad 3 thus make very clear that Obadiah 3 makes clear and unmistakable reference to the capital Petra-REQEM of the Nabataeans, this much following such comprehension by Eusebius of Caesarea and many modern scholars writing of Bible and interpretation of Book of Obadiah. Thus in the Book of Obadiah the name of the prophet Obadiah interestingly parallels the name of Nabataean kings OBODIAS I, OBODIAS II and OBODIAS III and the reference to SELA-PETRA in Obadiah 3 clearly refers to the famous and flourishing capital PETRA-REQEM of the Nabataeans. The Book of Obadiah thus describes many important details of ancient Nabataean culture and religion and culture in the Nabataean capital Petra-REQEM.

The words SKNJ BHGWJ SLY of Obadiah 3 thus have been studied in much detail and found substantial arguments for comprehending these words describing Petra-REQEM and culture and religion in Petra-REQEM. Especially thus have been studied the word SLY of Hebrew Bible. Also clearly now has been established these words referring to some place, place of dwelling or place of occurrences and appearances. Further study of the words SKNJ BHGWJ SLY thus more specify the character of this place SLY of habitation, dwelling, occurrences or appearances. Already have been studied the parallels to these words BHGWJ SLY noticed in the Rabbinical Masora. Importantl knowledge is found further considering Targumic translation of the Obad 16 where is written WJSTLYMWN that is form of word SLYM. Usually this is comprehended to notice ruin and destruction, but further knowledge is, of course, found more generally studying writing of such SLYM in the Targum of XII Prophets (Concordance A. Houtman II,294-5). Thus is found that in Hab 1:13 SLYM translates Hebrew BLY, in Hab 1:4 SLYM translates KTR and in Nah 3:11 such SLYM translates the YLM of Hebrew Bible. Clearly such words of BLY and YLM are important in context of containment and containing, and Olam containers; this much clarifies Targumic comprehension of SLYM word. Targumic translators thus emphasise important connection of Obad 3 and Obad 16- interestingly, also the Greek translators have emphasised connection of Obad 3 and Obad 16 and notoriously, they write in Obad 16 description of wine drinking on the God’s holy mountain, this emphasising currently studied comprehension of BHGWJ SLY denoting special wine cups and cups. Further parallels are, notoriously, found easily in the Hebrew Bible when the word HGJ is considered: one of the books of the Twelve Prophets is the Book of HAGGAJ, written in the Hebrew Bible with name HGJ. Even if parallels to such SKNJ BHGWJ SLY in Hebrew Bible might be merely few, even therefore following the Rabbinical and modern scholarship, the Book of prophet Haggaj clearly deserves to be here noticed already because of its writing the name of the prophet Haggaj in Hebrew with letters HGJ. The current Author Pasi K. Pohjala has already published new and modernised Translation of the Book of Haggaj (2008) where the word HGJ was studied for better comprehension of the whole book of Haggaj. This comprehension of word HGJ also now centrally contributes to understanding the Obad 3, the Obad 3 writing the notorious words SKNJ BHGWJ SLY in the Hebrew Bible. The introduction to the Book of Haggaj in the Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 writes
“The translating of the name HAGGAJ to be CRYSTAL CUP is easily motivated considering the word HWG that denotes to draw round, make a circle (like circle, vault of heavens) or vault, esp. vault of heavens, or even explicit being circle-instrument (MHWGh, this in Isaiah 44:13) (see the normal Old Testament lexica). And the similar HQ or HQQ denote bosom. Notable is that hGh denotes to moan, utter and speak, esp. in the Isaiah 8:19 hMZPZPJM WhMhGJM denoting those who observe (ZPH)-who observe in hGh method, observing in cups. Lexica know also that HGG in Syriac can be rendered phantasma vidit, somniavit (Payne Smith)! And the word NhG denotes to drive, conduct, especially giving advises to conducting and movements; and we know that lecanomancy was often practised for finding advises (see OT lexica). Thus, it is easily concluded that HGJ denotes a crystal cup, transparent like vault of heavens, and circular, being used for observations. This reading is in this Book important, because the Book of Haggaj explicit describes JESUS THE HIGH PRIEST MAKING OBSERVATIONS IN SUCH CRYSTAL CUP; obviously, this so much reminds of the Christian GOSPELS where Jesus is described having instituted the ritual of Cup (i.e. Eucharist); obviously this Book of Haggaj is therefore of special importance for providing good ideas for discussing the historical background for such Ritual of Cup, its meaning and its content. On the ground of this Book of Haggaj, we can VERY STRONGLY argue, that SEEING VISIONS IN THE CUP, making visual observations in the cup was central element also in the Ritual of Cup that was instituted by Jesus of Nazareth, in accordance with the accounts in Christian Gospels” (Pasi K. Pohjala: New Translations of Bible: The Twelve Prophets, Qohelet, Chapters of Job and many Psalms. Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls (Verre Et Bible 2, 2008), pp.210-211). Important parallels in the Book of Haggaj are thus easily found. The Hag 1:3-4 writes that WJHJ DBR H’ BJD HGJ HNBJA LAMR HYT LKM ATM LSBT BBJTJKM SPWNJM WHBJT HZH HRB. This statement of Hag 1:4 writes of LSBT (JSB) comparably to Obad 3 writing of SKN in the SKNJ BHGWJ SLY. Writing of stones and comparisons of measures is interestingly noticed in Hag 2:15-16 WYTH SJMW NA LBBKM MN HJWM HZH WMYLH MTRM SWM ABN AL ABN BHJKL JHWH MHJWTM BA AL YRMT YSRJM WHJTH YSRH BA AL HJQB LHSP HMSJM PWRH WHJTA YSRJM. Here traditions of JQB and ABN clearly echo traditions of Jacob (and Esau) and ABN or Sela stones.

Study of the text of Obadiah 3 in the Hebrew Bible and its ancient Translations and interpretations further makes clear the Obadiah 3 actually writing detailed and notorious description of specific place, describing cups and bowls being places of occurrences and appearances. The Obadiah 3 begins writing in Hebrew Bible that ZDWN LBK thus clearly writing of Sidonian glass vessels of clear glass, of convex form. The ZDWN clearly refers to the name of the famous centre Sidon of glass production (see also BDB 267-268); here Greek translations render this expression with writing of HUPEREFANIA TES KARDIAS SOU. Thus the Greek translations of this text notice the FAINEIN describing visual appearances and attentive ancient Readers found in this word HUPEREFANIA also letters referring to the Efa-measure, that is, in this word HUPEREFANIA the Greek translation refers to container and measure Efa AND refers also to FAINEIN visual appearances observed- these notices are especially important considering the ancient lectio continua where Readers truly had to ponder finding words appropriately. Greek translations thus write here for the ZDWN notices of visual appearances and notices of container- clearly the Greek translators thus have considered here Sidonian good quality glass vessels where visions were observed. The Hebrew text here writes the words ZDWN LBK that especially refers to the Hebrew word LBN that so often refers to substance white glass and white glass vessels. Such writing of white glass vessels together with name Sidon unmistakably for the ancient Readers referred to important centre of glass production, Sidon, and its high quality glass products, vessels and bowls, where visions were seen. Attentive Readers easily find that thus the word LBN IS WRITTEN in the text of Obadiah in the Hebrew Bible. Thus is written in the Obad 12 AL TSMH LBNJ JHWDH BJWM ABDM WAL TGDL PJK BJWM ZRH, and further is found written in Obad 20 that GLT HHL HZH LBNJ JSRAL. Importantly, thus in Hebrew Bible the book of Obadiah actually does write such formulas containing LBN together with name of a place, the Obad 20 writing of word LBN together with name “Israel” and the Obad 12 writing thus LBN together with name “Judah/Jehuda”. Attentive Readers thus compare the Obad 3 beginning ZDWN LBK with these statements in Obad 12 and Obad 20 and thus confirm that also this Obad 3 unmistakably writes name of place Sidon and writes also concerning LBN word. Thus is easily found with simple comparisons that Obad 3 commences with writing of Sidonian glass vessels. Targumic translations further confirm this comprehension of these words beginning Obad 3, Targumic translations here writing of RSY LBK ATYJK. These words often are comprehended describing how wickedness of hear has been deceiving them, following often written comprehension of the RSY word. However, attentive Readers remember here that the whole Book of Obadiah emphasises the SHEMA traditions, thus from the beginning of Obad 1, the Hebrew Bible writing of SMWYH SMYNW, similarly also Targumic translation writing of BSWRA SMYNA: these introductions to this Book of Obadiah clearly emphasise the word SMY and SHEMA traditions and this is truly important reading this Targumic translation of Obad 3 commencing RSY LBK ATYJK- here are exactly found letters SY commencing this statement in Targum. These letters SY connect this beginning to the emphasised SHEMA traditions of the Introduction of Obadiah in Obad 1, writing of SMY, and also the meaning of letters SY emphatically describe voices and utterances, the Shoah describing cries and crying, but SY also describing loud voices from pipes of glass blowers. Importantly, the SWA words of Hebrew Bible and Targum describe emptiness, hollow and thus describe importantly empty place that can be receptacles, containers, and bowls and vessels. Thus is easily found that also the Targumic translation here renders these words beginning Obad 3 with connecting these with glassware and glassblowing, the Targumic translation emphasising here loud voices from pipes of glass blowers and utensils of blown glass, such utensils that the ancient Sidon was very famous for in the Ancient World and thus well known also to the translators of these Targumic texts. This comprehension is much supported further studying the famous parallel of this Obad 3 in the Jeremiah 49:16 that writes in the Hebrew Bible words TPLZTK HSJA ATK ZDWN LBK. Easily this statement of Jer 49:16 is seen to closely parallel the beginning of Obad 3 although this Jer 49:16 writing of TPLZTK. Ancient Readers here easily found reference to luxurious gold-glass utensils, the PLJZA noticing gilt or bronzed and often used for describing vessels and containers (see Jastrow 1181 where also importantly reference to Arab. Falaz is found). Easily, in the word PLZ are found letters PL and ZL, these emphasising PJL bowls (cf. Greek FIALE) and ZL shadows and shadowy visions! In the Jer 49:16 such writing of PLZ much specifies writing of this text to be description of utensils and vessels.

Further comprehension of the SKNJ BHGWJ SLY thus emphasises comprehending this Obad 3 specifically being description of visions from cups and bowls. The SKN is usually comprehended from its meaning of SKN “dwell” or “inhabit”, but the SKN word importantly also denotes the Divine Shekina. Attentive Readers thus consider this statement writing SKNJ B- where thus is found the B denoting place of occurrences or place of appearances (comprehension of B denoting here instruments is less obvious). Attentive Readers thus consider here finding description of place of occurrence and appearing of the Divine Shekina. Importantly, Targumic translation of Obad 2 concludes with words BSJR AT LHDA where is noticed OT visual sign appearing in SJR cup or container- also here it is thus important to read the complete context of statements! The Greek translation here writes of KATASKENOUNTA EN TAIS OPAIS TON PETRON HUPSON KATOIKIAN AUTOU
Importantly, the Greek translations have thus attempted clearly to convey further the important letters SKN found in Hebrew Bible, writing KATASKENOUNTA that is well understandable for Greek speakers; however, for readers fluent in Greek AND Hebrew, such KATASKENOUNTA alerts of letters SKN that so famously refer to the divine Shekina. Also the specifically here written KATA-SKENEIN is clearly in this context important, because such KATA here written includes the letters ASKE and ASKOS, these Greek words denoting containers, utensils and boxes. Targumic translation here writes the notorious words DAT DMJ LNSRJA DSRJ BSNJ KJPA BRWMA. These words of Targum clearly refer to Dhushara, the important deity of Nabataeans, and importantly, these words notice similitude DAT DMJ. The Targumic translation writing here DSRJ BSNJ KJPA writes notorious details. The KJPA often denotes chambers (J 635)- but the KP words often denote different places of containing, so also noticing hands and palm of hands (see J 657). The BSNJ in Targum also notices rocks and cliffs (see J 1607) but well known usually the SNH and SNJ denotes two, twice and doubling. These words of Targum thus can be read noticing similitude with falcon that habits in clefts of cliffs in the heights; but these words of Targum more importantly can denote in writing the DAT DMJ LNSRJA DSRJ BSNJ KJPA BRWMA word in Targum that
a visual OT sign that is similitude of DHUSHARA in form of falcon, so appearing in magnifying (or doubling) utensil-container (trl. Pasi K. Pohjala 2010)
Easily thus is found in this Targumic translation description of visual appearance of Nabataean deity DHUSHARA appearing in magnifying bowl-vessel. This is, of course, importantly in Targum written interpretation of these words SKNJ BHGWJ SLY of Hebrew Bible. Clearly Targumim thus interpret such Hebrew Bible writing of Shekina interpreting this Shekina in the context of Nabataean religion, writing thus in interpretation of Nabataean deity DHUSHARA. For the history of religions it is thus very interesting to find detailed ancient attestation of name of Nabataean deity DHUSHARA so clearly an unmistakably attested here in Obad 3, thus clearly containing in Nabataean context understandable interpretation of mention of Shekina better known in the tradition of Hebrew Bible. It is thus highly important that TARGUMIC translation of this book of OBADIAH thus clearly attests knowledge of Nabataean religion, writing of Nabataean deity DHUSHARA.

Further important knowledge for comprehension of this Obad 3 is found with comparisons of Obad 16 where is explicit describes cups, appearances and drinking. The Greek Translation of Obad 16 writes words
This Greek translation of Obad 16 clearly describes wine drinking in the holy mountain of God; and notoriously, the specific idea of drinking WINE is here interpretation of the Greek translators, such words not supported in the Hebrew text. However, the Greek translation of Obad 16 thus emphatically writes description of drinking wine in God’s holy mountain. Interestingly, Greek translations write here words EPI-EPI, writing of EPIES EPI TO OROS, this textual detail of EPI-EPI here clearly emphasising connection of mountain, rocks and wine, wine-drinking; and this clearly parallels comprehension of Obad 3 writing BHGWJ SLY thus describing containers and cups of stone material. This textual detail of EPI-EPI written in Obad 16 importantly parallels Obad 3 writing Aorist of EP-AIRO stating that EPERE SE KATASKENOUNTA. The Obad 3 writing KATAKSEI is clearly echoed in Obad 16 writing PIONTAI KAI KATABESONTAI. Furthermore, Obad 3 writes of HUPSON KATOIKIAN AUTOU and Obad 16 notices EPI TO OROS. Thus it is very important to notice that Greek translators of Obadiah clearly have written in their translations of Obadiah 3 many references and parallels with Obadiah 16 where the Greek translators explicit and in detail describe wine drinking on the Holy mountain of God. Thus the Greek translators clearly have indicated that Obad 3 essentially is connected to descriptions of wine drinking in holy Mountain of God.

Thus is arrived to translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of the Obadiah 3. The text of Obadiah 3 thus describes in the context of religion in PETRA specifically magnifications seen from Sidonian cups, the Targumic translation importantly noticing manifestations of Nabataean deity DHUSHARA in these cup-visions in likeness of falcon. Thus is the current study of Obadiah 3 to be concluded with quoting Summary by Pasi Pohjala 2008 of the Book of Obadiah of Old Testament:
“3 SIDONIAN KS cup of SA blown glass, water container, RM magnifies heights, for Tora knowledge 4 FALCON seeing method (cf. Horus, Egyptian deity) in KB GLOBULE cup of jam waters magnifies to GBH heights producing bina understanding” (Pasi K. Pohjala: New Translations of Bible: The Twelve Prophets, Qohelet, Chapters of Job and many Psalms. Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls (Verre Et Bible 2, 2008), p. 204).

OBADIAH v.4 New Modernised Translation by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008, with detailed Commentary by Pasi K. Pohjala 2010
“that container vessel (AM) makes such heights (GBH) like those of Falcon (cf. Egyptian Horus): thus the vessel container (AM) makes knowledge (bina), it is globule container of waters (KBJM): there waters produce (QN cf. Qain), that is prophesy from waters (KMSM) in such illumination (AR) of that instrument (JD)- tere is prophesy of God (neum)” (Translation of Obadiah 4 by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008).
COMMENTARY The Obadiah v.4 continues the important writing of Obadiah 3 that describes the PETRA-REQEM-SELA and its culture. The division into verses being later invention and often merely disturbing the reading of text in its OWN context, also here it is truly necessary to consider the whole context of Obadiah 3-4-5 and the whole Book of Obadiah when attempting to comprehend the text we currently (following a certain although well established tradition) name the text of Obadiah 3. The Obadiah 3 writes the notorious words of culture of PETRA, writing of the SKNJ BHGWJ SLY MRWM in Hebrew Bible, this referring to the culture of cup and bowl divinations of PETRA-SELA and there appearing visual manifestations, especially comparison with the Book of Haggaj (in Hebrew written HGJ) was found to be truly central for comprehension of this Obadiah 3. The Obadiah 4 continues this writing, in Hebrew Bible writing words
Studying this text in its OWN context reveals truly notorious ideas here expressed. The foremost notorious finding in this text is that this text and translation traditions refer to names of then well known deities. The Targumic translation of this text notoriously mentions the truly famous female deity ATARSAMAIN, in many cultures better known female deity ISHTAR who was truly famous in the Ancient world and whole cult was very widespread in ancient world. The Targumic translation of Obadiah 4 thus continues naming and describing deities known in religious culture of PETRA-REQEM, the Obadiah 3 so importantly in Targumic translation describing that Nabataean deity DHUSHARA manifests in appearance like Falcon in magnifying bowls. Targumic translation thus notoriously emphasises in this Obadiah writing of many important Nabataean deities, in the Targumic translation the text currently named Obadiah 4 writing of another very important and famous deity ATARSAMAIN (ISHTAR). This writing of Obadiah 3-5 thus is truly notorious for better comprehending Nabataean religion, especially for its knowledge of many well known ancient deities and cults, undoubtedly the wide and lively Nabataean trade connections importantly thus enhancing knowledge of many ancient religions.

The Hebrew Bible writes words
Targumic Translation of these words in context of Obadiah 3-4 write
Attentive Readers in this Targumic translation of Obadiah 4 find letters ATSWJM that unmistakably denote the famous deity ATARSAMAIN, famous female deity, such selection of letters in this Targumic translation emphasised by that so is continued writing of the “stars” KWKBJA, coherently with the idea of “heavens” also echoed in the name of ATARSAMAIN. In the Nabataean religion thus was emphasised ATARSAMAIN (ISHTAR), truly famous ancient female deity. Importantly, also the Hebrew text contains letters of NKWKB where easily is seen reference to “Nekeva” word that is usual word denoting female quality and female individuals, although clear reference to ISHTAR in Hebrew text cannot be detected. Attentive Readers find further truly important details in this Targumic translation, finding the HTN words in THIS context of Obadiah 3-4 clearly emphasised: the conclusion of v.3 writes MN JHTJNNJ and v.4 concludes (notably mentioning the Divine Memra) BMJMRJ AHTJNK. Importantly, these translate Hebrew Bible writing Hifil of JRD, writing MJ JWRDNJ and AWRJDK. Notoriously, ancient Rabbinical scholars have devoted special attention to such JRD words in finding parallels in Masora to such AWRJDK in Hebrew Bible, therefore referring to 1 Sam 30:15 and the important parallel in Jeremiah 49:16. These writings of JRD-HTN thus contain some truly notorious ideas here noticed in the Targumic translation. Such words HTJ are known to denote putting down or putting to rest (J 512), but for every attentive Reader it is clear that such HTN words usually refer to some notices concerning partnership, family relations, marriage (see J 512-4 and the usual lexica), such meaning usually noticed in HTN words of Biblical Hebrew and even currently in Modern Hebrew. The Targumic translation of Obadiah 3-4 thus unmistakably refers to idea of partnership (or marriage) of DHUSHARA and ATARSAMAIN. Emphasised mentions of HTN words in Targumic translations of Obadiah 3-4 with noticing the names of ATARSAMAIN and DHUSHARA make this unmistakably clear to attentive Readers.

The Hebrew text notices prophesies writing of the AM TGBJH...NAM H’ where are the AM...NAM (Neum) words emphasised. Such writing of AM...NAM (neum) importantly in this context is continued in v.5 writing of AM GNBJM that also was found to refer to prophesy and prophets, to MG NBJM, the “magicians, prophets”. These notices thus specify reading of the AM TGBJH to contain specific references to prophesy and prophesies. Especially is notable the letters –JH that are to be compared with the name Obadiah written YBDJH also writing the JH letters referring to JH deity. This writing thus deserves special attention. The GBJH words denote uppermost heights and heights, but importantly the GB words notice generally something convex, especially ponds and cisterns for collecting water (J 203). The GB-JH or GBJH words thus refer to some descriptions of heights and uppermost heights connected with water places, water containers- such can, obviously, be created by magnification to huge heights in bowls and cups that contain water. Attentive Readers see that actually such GB words are emphasised in THIS CONTEXT of the Hebrew Bible, the v.4 writing of AM TGBJH, the v.5 writing JGNBW, further the v.7 writing of YD HGBWL and the v.9 writing of WHTW GBWRJK. These writings in Hebrew Bible thus emphasise the GB words in Obadiah 4-9, importantly writing of GBWRJK and HGBWL and GB-JH. Easily is thus comprehended that such writings of GB words here emphasise connecting water containers, bowls, and especial heights and huge measures. Importantly, such GB words in THIS context continue writing of the very important HG word in Hebrew Bible v.3 writing of SKNJ BHGWJ SLY that was seen to notice crystal cups in Petran religious culture, also the v.7 writing of HG letters in YD HGBWL. The HGWJ and GB or GB-JH thus emphasise in this Obadiah 3-4 writing of divine cups, divine crystal cups. Further important is the word AM here written. Such words can denote “if”, thus here often translated, but another very usual meaning of AM and AWM words is “mother” and “womb” (a certain kind of miraculously productive containing place “womb”). Such mention in Hebrew Bible AM GB-JH thus unmistakably refers to some places of containment, and importantly, to female productive fertility that the Targumic translation here emphasises referring to ATARSAMAIN-ISHTAR. These words are here unmistakably very well formulated and contain many very important religious references whose importance might never be understood to modern Readers; but here described ideas already contain some very substantial ideas in this Text described! The AM, especially, is here connected to prophesy and prophetic utterances, writing of NAM (neum)...AM GB-JH...AM GNBJM. (Especially it is worth here further pondering why such words AM GB-JH together here are written.)

The notorious importance of such writing of AM TGB-JH beginning this Obadiah 4 in Hebrew Bible becomes much emphasised when comparing this text with its parallel Jeremiah 49:16 (thus following ancient Rabbinical scholars), the Jer 49:16 writing
This parallel of Jer 49:16 thus writes NAM (neum) denoting the prophesy but instead of writing the word AM (that unmistakably refers to Neum) this Jer 49:16 writes of KJ word. This text also further notices the GBJH word, in this statement of Hebrew Bible this referring to the GBYH that more refers to heights, high places, hills and mountains. Small textual difference thus convey to Readers important differences of meaning- every letter of Hebrew Bible is precious- and thus the Obad 4 emphasising AM TGBJH much more emphasises containers and containment, especially the GB-JH that in the context of book of Obadiah conveys special meaning because of name YBDJH. Moreover, Readers might ponder here also reading of AMT GB-JH KNSR RWAM BNKWKB MSM QNK MSM AWRJDK NAM H’ where is rather found description of truthful seeing in Divine GB cup manifestation of “female Nekeva” in appearance of Falcon- such being prophesy of waters for zealots of God, God in such Neum prophesy from waters (MSM) bringing down (such manifestation)- such reading of course, could be supported from Targumic translation of manifestation of ATARSAMAIN-ISHTAR deity; this reading would specifically specify here manifestation of female “Nekeva”; but the found emphasising of AM GB words rather here emphasise containers and visual appearances, such AM words in this context so specifically written.

Importantly, the comparison of AWRJDK word with parallel in 1 Sam 30:15 emphasises rituals of divination and making inquiries in divination, the 30:15 writing of WJAMR ALJW DWD HTWRDNJ AL HGDWD HZH where is written Hifil of JRD, these words of David notoriously writing of AL HGDWD that contains the HG-DWD (this being important also for current reading of BHGWJ SLY in Obad 3) but is usually read of GDWD comprehended as “troops”. Importantly, in this context of 1 Sam 30 usual comprehension clearly notices making inquiries in divination and thereby finding answers, the 30:7-8 writing of divination by the device Efod (whose constitution is much discussed with various argumentation although clarity seems unattainable), writing of
This describes clearly David’s making inquiries in divination by the help of Efod (whatever the “Efod” divinatory device might be), and finding thereby answers to these questions, and this statement is usually so comprehended (see the usual translations, KJV, RSV, NRSV etc.). It is thus very important that ancient Rabbinical scholars have compared this AWRJDK in Obad 4 in Hebrew Bible with this text of 1 Samuel 30 that so clearly describes David’s making questions to H’ in divination. It is also important to notice that the 1 Sam 30 describes the catastrophe that Amaleq had raided Negev and Ziqlag and David’s reaction to this catastrophe; importantly is in Obadiah 20 also noticed NGB (Negeb). Geographical detail is also mention of “river Besor” NHL HBSWR in 1 Sam 30 that can in this context of histories concerning Negev more specifically refer to some places around Busra (cf. numerous scholarly commentaries and research on details of 1 Sam 30), this further emphasising connection of these traditions with regions of Negev and Nabataeans and thus with the Book of Obadiah so importantly writing of culture and religion of Nabataeans and PETRA-SELA. This very importantly emphasises Rabbinical understanding of Obadiah 4 to contain references to practises of divination.

Greek Bible writes here words
Greek Bible here writes of TON ASTRON that for many ancient Readers unmistakably could refer to cult of ISHTAR well known and still popular in Hellenistic times and their hugely syncretistic religions where Eastern ideas were brought to knowledge and religious practise in the Mediterranean world. This translating TON ASTRON here much emphasises Targumic translation of this statement referring to ATARSAMAIN-ISHTAR and the Hebrew text also noticing notoriously the “NKWKB Nekeva” female (deity). Also in this Greek translation notable are writing of EAN...EAN ANA where are letters of ANANA found, for many ancient Readers with knowledge of ancient Mesopotamian and Assyrian religions such letters could refer to important deity (“Ananna”) known in the syncretistic world of Hellenistic times. In the Greek translation such EAN ANA obviously refer also to v.1 writing of divination EKSAPESTEILEN ANASTETE KAI EKSANASTOMEN EP’ that translate the words SLH QWMW WNQWMH. Importantly, also the concluding v.21 such echoing writes KAI ANABESONTAI ANDRES. The beginning of this statement in Greek translation writing EAN METEORISTHES here clearly refers to META-OROS, high or “beyond limits”, and thus refers especially to Obadiah 7 EOS TON ORION EKSAPESTEILAN SE (for the YD HGBWL). Especially important here is reference to TO OROS SION in v.21, v.17, the Greek word NOSSIAN so clearly echoing letters of word SION, especially important in THIS context. Writing of the stars TON ASTRON here in the Greek translation can be compared with Baruch 3:34-6 writing
This writing of Baruch 3:34-36 writes clearly emphasising monotheistic religion. The writing concerning stars (OI ASTERES) notices EN TAIS FULAKAIS AUTON. The Greek FULASSEIN denotes many activities of watching, guarding, preserving and keeping (alas, omitting EN would here convey meaning that stars were shining to those who observed stars, such easily comprehensible reference to ancient Chaldaean culture with well recognised knowledge of astronomy). (Some similitude with such EUFRAINOMAI and EUFROSUNE can be heard in Obadiah 3 writing of HUPEREFANIA and EPERE where E-P/F-R letters are central). Especially usual meanings of such FULASSEIN easily are found contrasted with Greek translation of Obadiah 5 writing of KLEPTAI, LESTAI, EKLEPSAN and TRUGETAI, this further emphasising connection of Book of Baruch and Greek translation of Obadiah. Baruch 3:17 also writes of OI EN TOIS ORNEOIS TOU OURANOU EMPAIZONTES KAI TO ARGUSION THESAURIZONTES that so much echoes the EAN METEORISTHES OS AETOS in Obadiah 4. Further it is important to notice that Philo of Alexandria makes clear references also to this Obadiah 4 in the Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit. In the Quod Deus 167 Philo quotes the very central PARA TO OROS POREUSOMETHA, this interpreting and continuing discussion of the PARA TO OROS PARELEUSOMETHA quoted from Num 20:17-20 in Quod Deus 145 in the discussion of Edom. This is especially studied in the current study of Book of Obadiah studying the v.7 EOS TON ORION EKSAPESTEILAN SE, and in the current study of Obadiah 4 some details of Philonic interpretation are now important. In the Quod Deus 160 Philo emphasises that such road is Wisdom, and in Quod Deus 164 Philo then emphasises walking along middle path or mean
This middle path or middle road Philo comprehends here in Quod Deus 164ff. much in terms of Aristotelian ethics, virtue being mean between vices. This discussion is to be studied in study of Obadiah 7 and many parallels there established. In this discussion Philo, notoriously, also refers to many details paralleling the Greek translation of currently studied Obadiah 4. Importantly, Philo interprets in Quod Deus 167 the important statement of PARA TO OROS POREUSOMETHA with statement that TOUTESTIN HUPSELAIS KAI METEOROIS ETHOS EKHONTES ENOMILEIN DUNAMESI KAI ORIKOS EKASTA SKOPEIN
Here the words METEOROIS...DUNAMESI clearly refer to Obad 4 EAN METEORISTHES OS AETOS- notable is also similitude of Obad 4 writing of AETOS and Philo’s writing here of ETHOS. The Obad 3-4 emphasising KATAKSEI...KATAKSO (KAT-AGO) is clearly contrasting with this HUPSELAIS, and especially the Obad 3 writing of HUPSON KATOIKIAN AUTOU. Furthermore, Philo writes in Quod Deus 163 words PARA MEN TOIS PROPETOS ZOSI TO MEN THRASOS DEKSION ARISTERON DE E DEILIA where is found echo of flying (Greek PETOMAI) such echoing the OS AETOS in Obad 4 and the ARISTERON echoing the ASTER/ TON ASTRON in Obad 4. Furthermore, even if not writing in Quod Deus the NOSSIA, Philo there writes of NOSOS in 65-67, 97 and 135. Even if Quod Deus 65-67 more concretely write of NOSOS sicknesses and their cure, the Quod Deus 97 writes of such who after waking from deep sleep TON KOSMON EKSAIFNES APONOS KAI KHORIS PRAGMATEIAS OROSIN that can refer to seeing of Falcons and eagles in the high heaven, importantly such KHORIS and ORAO also echoing the METEORISTHES OS AETOS in Obad 4. These are in Quod Deus 97 contrasted with those plagued by ERIDI, ARGALEOTATE NOSO (Colson translates with word “contentiousness”). Importantly, the following Quod Deus 99 writes the quotation of Deut 1:43-44 where is SEIR mentioned, this emphasising traditions of Nabataean culture and PETRA-SELA, the Seir only here mentioned in Philonic writings. Moreover, in Quod Deus 135 Philo writes of “priest” ELEGHOS entering to soul and there curing diseases, noticing OPOS AUTEN KATHARAN IDE TEN TES PSUKHES OIKIAN KAI EI TINES EN AUTE NOSOI GEGONASIN IASETAI; in this Greek statement Philo writes of NOSOS and OIKIA, this echoing also NOSSIA denoting “nests” and thus a kind of place of habitation, thus reflecting also Obad 4. These details of Greek translation of Obadiah 4 found being echoed in Philo’s Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit, it is now notoriously important to remember that Targumic translations so clearly in Obadiah 3-4 referred to partnership of DHUSHARA and ATARSAMAIN-ISHTAR. Notoriously, in this Book Quod Deus (and, of course, elsewhere) Philo writes of such ideas, Quod Deus 5-6 especially writing of Hannah begetting Samuel from divine seed
“He finds a disciple and successor in Hannah, the gift of Wisdom of God, for the name Hannah interpreted is “her grace.” She received the divine seed and became pregnant. And when she had reached the consummation of her travail, and had brought forth the type of character which has its appointed place in God’s order, which she named Samuel, a name which being interpreted means “appointed to God,”...” (translation of Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit 5 by F. H. Colson in LCL; and more Philonic interpretations of Hannah and Shmuel in Quod Deus 10-15. Philo more writes in Quod Deus 137 of the widow noticed in 1 Kings 17, concerning that “she receives the divine impregnation, and, being filled with the seeds of virtue, bears them in her womb and is in travail with noble actions. And when she has brought them to the birth, she wins the meed of conquest” (trl. of F. H. Colson in LCL. Notoriously, here Philo notices Tamar, and this name can possibly echo for Philo such deity ATARSAMAIN. Importantly, 1 Kings 18 notices important tradition of Obadiah who was governor of house of Ahab, this emphasising further Philo’s here in Quod Deus surely having considered traditions of Obadiah and Book of Obadiah.). Interpretation of this Philonic statement of Quod Deus 5-6 is truly difficult for Philo’s here writing of EGKUMON EGENETO of Hannah’s becoming pregnant for her having received divine seed (PARADEKSAMENE THEIAS GONAS) and her then having given birth (APOKUESASA) after that travail. Clearly important is to compare this Philonic statement with traditions of Obadiah and Targumic descriptions of partnership of DHUSHARA and ATARSAMAIN-ISHTAR so emphatically described in Targumic translation of Obadiah 3-4.

OBADIAH v.5-6 New, Modernised Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008, and detailed Commentary of Pasi K. Pohjala 2010
“the vessel container (AM),

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