Tuesday, 15 June 2010

obadiah 1 and 2

NEW TRANSLATIONS OF BIBLE: OBADIAH. A Study of These Edomite-PETRAN Traditions of Music and Scientific Lore of OBADIAH, Musician-prophet in the Temple of Jerusalem


Second Edition of June 2010
EDITIONS Pasi Pohjala

COPYRIGHT © Pasi K. Pohjala June 10, 2010

2006 Similarities of Redaction of the Gospel According to Matthew, With Texts of Philo Alexandrinus (445pages)
2007 Divination by Bowls in Bible, Septuagint, Qumran Texts, Philo and Matthew 13:1-12. Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls in Bible Interpretations (Verre Et Bible 1) (182pages)
2008 New Translations of Bible: The Twelve Prophets, Qohelet, Chapters of Job and Many Psalms. Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. (Verre Et Bible 2) (381pages)
2009 New Translations of Bible: The Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16. Stelevision. Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. (Verre Et Bible 3) (121pages)
December2009 New Translations of Bible: Book of JONAH. Huge Fish- Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. (Verre Et Bible 4) (160pages)
March2010 Habakkuk, Bacchus and ABACUS: New Translation of Qumran’s Pesher Habakkuk (1QpHab), Studying there References to Midrash BAHIR. Jesus Teaches BAHIR (1QpHab 9.11-12) (Verre et Bible 5)

CH. 22 Writings of Philo of Alexandria and Book of Obadiah p.60
CH.23 Book of Obadiah and Histories from PETRA-REQEM p.66
CH. 24 QUMRAN and REQEM-Petra p.74
CH.25 SUMMARY p.82

NEW, Modernised Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of OBADIAH 1-2
“vision of Obadiah, in the strength (KH) of the lamp-vessel (AM, NR) of God, in this place (AJ) of visual appearances (demut): hearken, hearken (SMY) the stretching (NN), these multitudes (MAT) from God, there is visual form (zura) appearing in cavity of waters (GJM) that the Luach instrument magnified (QM)- it was so magnified (NQM) in the increasing (YL) by God (JH) with the salt-of what-ness (MLH MH)”.

COMMENTARY, BY Pasi K. Pohjala 2010 The Biblical Book of Obadiah is very concise Book in the canonical Bible consisting of merely 21 verses. The Ancient Interpreters of Bible only seldom make references to Obadiah and quote texts of Obadiah as Scriptural prooftexts. Thus for the modern Readers might appear somewhat surprising that such seemingly minor Book has been included in the canonical Bible and sufficiently much preserved in the tradition thus to be well known and included in the canonical Bible. (Readers might, of course, read more of the problems of defining the canonical writings and the ancient Jewish practise of defining important Biblical books of Torah, Neviim and Ketuvim). Surely there have therefore existed very specific reasons for continuing the ancient tradition of Book of Obadiah. Readers commencing reading this concise Book of Obadiah thus encounter the name Obadiah, in Hebrew written YBDJH that in current comprehension often is rendered denoting worship of Deity (YHWH); importantly already in the beginning of this Book of Obadiah in the Obad 1 is in the Hebrew Bible written words SMWYH SMYNW that emphatically writes of the word SMY. Thus attentive Readers discover in this concise Book in its very beginning the specific idea of YBD, the Avoda denoting the worship of H’, and emphatically written SMY that unmistakably here contains tradition of the SHEMA, the ancient (and modern) very central statement of Jewish faith. Attentive Readers thus straightforward discover the Book of Obadiah beginning with statement of Avoda of God and some tradition concerning the SHEMA! Thus this concise Book of Obadiah is straightforwardly discovered to write some important ancient traditions concerning Worship and SHEMA, and this gives to this Book of Obadiah special important status! Meticulous and detailed study of the Book of Obadiah, its ancient translations and its interpretations in Midrash and Halachot further make clear the importance of this Book of Obadiah to Ancient Interpreters. Research on the Book of Obadiah emphasises usually its connections to Jeremiah 49, and also the Obad 1 finds there very near parallel
Textual detail is that MT Jer 49:14 writes SMYTJ whereas MT Obad 1 writes SMYNW (see also in BHS) and interestingly the Masora Magna does NOT comment this clearly important textual detail even if finding parallels in Obad 1 to the SLH word, this possibly because of the clear connection of these words to the very important SMY traditions. These texts thus emphasise the SMY, both writing of the SMWYH word in Hebrew. The Greek translations write here the AKOEN EKOUSA (LXX Jer 30:8) and importantly ALSO the LXX Obad 1 thus writing of AKOEN EKOUSA, the plural only in few Mss supported, these Greek translations thus emphasising this parallel. Ancient attestation of these Hebrew words in MurXII is, however, not completely well preserved (see also Biblia Qumranica 3B). The LXX Jer 30:8 continues with KAI AGGELOUS EIS ETHNE APESTEILEN SUNAKHTHETE (this for Hebrew HTQBZW) and Obad 1 writing KAI PERIOKHEN EIS TA ETHNE EKSAPESTEILEN ANASTETE- later, however, translate Aquilas and Symmachus here similarly with AGGELIAN and AGGELOUS thus similarly to LXX Jer 30:8. Very importantly, the LXX Jer 30:8 translating this SHEMA text chooses the word SUNAKHTHETE of the Greek SUN-AGO that is so well also currently known in the word Synagogue. It is important that this detail connects in this Greek translation of SHEMA text these words to some form of SUN-AGO gathering! Furthermore, the Greek translations write here of AKOEN EKOUSA PARA KURIOU (such PARA substantially supported in ancient Greek Mss- see ed. Gottingensia) where ancient Readers fluent in Hebrew and Greek surely found easily the letters SAPARA with consonants SPR, thus clearly for these ancient Readers referring to the very important Hebrew SPR denoting ancient Scribes (Soferim) in the Rabbinical culture, also this detail emphasising connection of this text to ancient Rabbinical culture. (Also here it is important to notice their having been fluent also in Greek language). Further, the Jer 49:20 continues the prophesy of Edom, writing in Hebrew Bible of LKN SMYW YZT-H’ ASR JYZ AL ADWM WMHSWTJW ASR HSB AL JSBJ TJMN; the Greek translations write thus in LXX Jer 30:14 DIA TOUTO AKOUSATE BOULEN KURIOU EN EBOULEUSATO EPI TEN IDOUMAIAN KAI LOGISMON AUTOU ON ELOGISATO EPI TOUS KATOIKOUNTAS TAIMAN. The LXX Jer 30:14 thus specifies such AKOUO with LOGISMOS and BOULE. Importantly, these words are thus emphatically connected with Edom and Theman; these places are also very central for the whole Book of Obadiah. Further notorious specifying of such AKOE and AKOUO here in the prophesy of Edom in LXX Jer 30 is written in LXX Jer 30:15
These writings of Jer 49:21 thus further specify such voices and hearing, specifying that divine roaring was heard in the sea (and the Hebrew text here specifies hearing such divine roaring in JM SWP, Jam Suf). Thus the clear parallel of Jer 49:14 to this SMY Shema statement in Obadiah 1 provides much thinking concerning specific meaning of such emphatic statement of SMWYH SMYNW commencing the Book of Obadiah.

Attentive Readers thus continuing the study of Book of Obadiah further compare these readings with the Targumic translation of Obadiah. There is attested (ed. Sperber)
Importantly, thus Targumic translation writes for the Hebrew words SMWYH SMYNW the BSWRA SMYNA, this importantly also because Greek translations follow the twice writing of the AKOUO words, Hebrew twice writing the SMY words here. The BSWRA thus is important word in this Targumic translation, and this word usually means “good news, tidings” (Jastrow 198-9)- Readers notice here especially that Tanakh translates here “We have received tidings from the LORD” thus probably specifying the Hebrew SMWYH more following such Targumic translation tradition BSWRA. Targum thus can be comprehended writing of hearing good tidings from Lord and describing sending of envoys. However, attentive Readers here make many important further questions concerning this Targumic translation. Firstly is noticed this Targumic writing of LADWM BSWRA, because the Book of Obadiah often writes of Edom (and is among Biblical Books specifically recognised to be especially concerned to write of Edom)- here can be recognised specific reference to ancient important trade centre Bosra located north of the important Nabataean capital Petra, this Bosra located in the important trade route from Petra towards Damascus. Thus these Targumic words LADWM BSWRA easily are found to contain specific reference to these places Edom and Bosra, famous and well known in the time of tradition of Targumic translation of Book of Obadiah. In later times, Bosra was located along the very important Trajan’s road leading towards Damascus and Palmyra and thus the city of Bosra was very well known for merchants and travellers. This writing of Bosra emphasises connection of Book of Obadiah to Edom (and Nabataean culture and to the culture of Petra). Furthermore, the BSWRA unmistakably recalls Readers to consider the SJR bowls, thus emphasising such “hearing” SMY having occurred with help of SJR bowls; notoriously, this is the central idea of LXX Jer 30:15 KAI KRAUGE SOU EN THALASSE EKOUSTHE, the LXX Jer 30 (=Jer 49 in the Hebrew Bible) containing the already noticed exact parallel to the Obad 1 SMWYH SMYNW in Jer 49:14 writing SMWYH SMYTJ. Attentive Readers thus considering such reading of word BSWRH with the SJR word for bowls find much further grounds for such comprehending in the Concordance Ed. A. Houtman to the Targum XII (I,166) because BSR words in the Targums of the XII Prophets only here in Obad 1 translate SMWYH but usually BSR words in Targums of the XII Prophets translate BWZ and BZH words of Hebrew Bible- and specifically, such BJZ words often describe different VESSELS and DISHES (see also Jastrow 152). These considerations of the important SMWYH SMYNW in Hebrew Bible and BSWRA SMYNA in Targumic translation thus emphasise such “hearing” SMY having occurred with help of vessels and bowls SJR, this substantially similar to comprehension in Jer 49:21 (the LXX Jer 30:15 writing of KRAUGE SOU EN THALASSE EKOUSTHE) because of Jeremiah here writing BJM and EN THALASSE. This SMY in THIS CONTEXT of Obadiah 1 is thus substantially connected to hearing by means of vessels and bowls; and this text of Edom is specifically in Targumic translation connected to the ancient centre Bosra north of Petra.

Attentive Readers thus further considering the Obadiah 1 further consider the name of Obadiah, in Hebrew Bible written YBDJH, similarly in the Targum (YWBDJH) that emphatically thus refer to the cult of H’, the AVODA. Importantly, the Greek translations of Book of Obadiah write this name in forms ORASIS ABDIOU or OBDEIOU or ABDEIAS and in some resembling letters (see esp. the ed. Gottingensia for these names). Attentive Readers thus find that for Greek speakers was known a liquid measure TO BADION, dim. of measures called BADOS or BATOS- especially, the liquid measure BATOS is the Hebrew liquid measure BATH. (Furthermore, O BATOS denotes also some fish, probably some kind of skate (see L-S 311)). (Importantly, Greek Bible describes Moses’ vision in Exodus 3:2 OFTHE DE AUTO AGGELOS KURIOU EN FLOGI PUROS EK TOU BATOU KAI ORA OTI O BATOS KAIETAI PURI O DE BATOS OU KATEKAIETO, this text being better known for modern Readers to describe vision in the “bush”. Attentive Readers surely refer such descriptions also to writings in the PGM. In the New Testament Greek, also Luke 16:6 thus writes of containers of oil). Thus the Greek rendering of the title of this Book of Obadiah in words ORASIS ABDIOU unmistakably lead Readers fluent in Greek to consider visions seen in some liquid measures and bowls (BADOS, BATOS). This is, very importantly, substantially in agreement with the Targumic translation of BSWRA referring to SJR bowls and vessels and also in agreement with the Greek tradition of translating Jer 49:21 with the KRAUGE SOU EN THALASSE EKOUSTHE (in LXX Jer 30:15= Hebrew Bible Jer 49:21 that writes of the Jam-Suf). Thus the ancient Translations of Book of Obadiah very specifically describe visions from bowls and containers, and this ancient clear and unmistakable emphasising is now followed in the here written translation of Obadiah 1.

Further important details of the ancient Translations contributing to this comprehension of the Obadiah 1 are easily found. The Targumic translation writes of the WAJZGD BYMMJA SLJH for the Hebrew bible writing of the ZJR BGWJM SLH. The Targumic translating of AJZGD does notice “messenger, runner” being sent (see Jastrow 46), but this word AJZGD clearly refers to the famous words of glass and crystal, the ZGJTA noticing glass and crystal vessels and the ZGWGJTA noticing generally glass and crystal. Thus Targumic translation unmistakably here describes some occurrences with help of glass and crystal vessels and bowls; for example, seeing Zurot visions of divine messengers (angels, Gr. AGGELOI) can so be described. In this text notable is especially that Hebrew Bible writes of ZJR (also Isaiah 18 and Prov 13, clearly referring to ZWR Zurot) and that this is translated in Targum with AJZGD. Importantly, the Greek here writes PERIOKHEN EIS TA ETHNE EKSAPESTEILEN, the word PERIOKHE (of PERIEKHO) noticing “containing, enclosing” and also “compass, circumference” (see L-S 1381) thus continuing the words discussing containers and containment, especially the word TO BADION for measures that so clearly is included in Greek forms of name of Obadiah. Importantly, later translations of Aquilas and Symmachus DO write here of AGGELOUS and AGGELIAN that can refer to “angels” and “visual zura-forms seen of angels” thus for the Hebrew word ZJR clearly referring to ZURA-visual forms. Notable textual detail is also that attentive reading of these Targumic words notice here the AJZGDBYMMJA actually containing the letters of YBD when read backwards, thus referring to the very name of Obadiah, this Targumic connection of ZGWGJT crystal bowls and name YBD can interestingly parallel also the clear Greek traditions of rendering name Obadiah in word ABDIAS that clearly contains the word BADION denoting certain measures in Bible.

Although the SMY word thus is very emphatically written in the beginning of this Obadiah 1 in the statement of SMWYH SMYNW, in the Hebrew Bible there can not easily be found further references to SHEMA writing in the Book of Obadiah. However, attentive Readers easily find in the Targumic translation of Book of Obadiah further interesting references to writings concerning SHEMA traditions. Targumic translating of Obad 5 contains also words
Attentive Readers of this translation find here written consonants SMA thus obviously referring to the emphatically written SHEMA tradition commencing the Obadiah 1. Importantly, these letters SMA are here contained in word MSARJN that more specifically refers to MSR, one very central idea of Tradition (cf. also to currently known word “Masoretic tradition”). This clearly emphasises connection of writing of SHEMA to Rabbinical culture in this Targumic translation; notably, such reference to SHEMA can not be discovered in the Hebrew words writing here of HLWA JSAJRW. Also can be noticed that YWLLN is by Theodotian translated KALAMEMATA, also this referring to details of Scribal culture (cf. LXX Psalm 44:2 GLOSSA MOU KALAMOS GRAMMATEOS OKSUGAPHOU). Furthermore, another clear reference to SHEMA traditions in the Targumic translation can easily be found in translation of Obadiah 14 writing of
Also in these words are letters SMA contained, these words thus clearly referring to SMA and SHEMA traditions. Importantly, also this statement writes of MSRTA thus noticing of the MSR. Thus it is found that the Targumic translation of Obadiah 14 and Obadiah 5 clearly refer to SMA of the SHEMA traditions and they BOTH write of MSR: these Targumic statements thus clearly connect the SHEMA traditions with MSR traditions (and to “Masoretic”).

Further very important ancient attestation of Obadiah traditions can be found in the Qumran manuscripts. The current research recognises occurrence of name Obadiah in Qumran manuscripts in the 4Q380, one of Qumran Pseudepigraphic Psalms. Because the name Obadiah writes the word YBD that is very usual in Hebrew Bible and in Hebrew writings thereafter, there might be found (easily) further occurrences of the specific name Obadiah in the Qumran manuscripts with further considering the transliterations of some letters. However, the current study is devoted to writing commentary on the Book of Obadiah and therefore such project of reconsidering some words in these Qumran writings cannot here be undertaken. Such project of seriously considering possibilities of finding name Obadiah in Qumran writings would be, of course, also fundamentally interesting especially remembering that the neighbouring Nabataean kingdom (whose capital was the famous Petra) was ruled by kings OBODAS I (93-85 BCE), OBODAS II (62-56 or 47 BCE?) and OBODAS III (30-9 BCE) among other kings of the Nabataean kingdom. Regrettably little is known of ancient culture of Petra and Nabataean kingdom (a brief summary of current scholarly consensus of that Forschungslage is found e.g. in article “Nabataeans” by David F. Graf in the Anchor Bible Dictionary; but that research is difficult and theories are numerous). For the current study of Obadiah 1 the attestation of 4Q380 is actually of much importance, because the SHEMA tradition also there is clearly noticed in this only fragmentarily preserved Psalm, the 1.1.7-8 writing
Then the 1.2.8 writes of THLH LYBDJH
Thus this Psalm 4Q380 writes of the Tehilla-Praise of Obadiah especially noticing the SHEMA tradition in words WJSMYW KL THLT. Also these preserved words of this Qumranic Psalm thus connect Obadiah with Shema traditions, writing of Tehilla-Praise of Obadiah. Thus it is important to seriously consider the comparisons of this Psalm with Psalm 106 of Hebrew Bible, thus emphasised by the Editor of these Qumranic Psalms, Eileen Schuller. Especially, these quoted words are in the Psalm 106 clearly compared with 106:2 writing
Also in these words MJ JMLL written in 4Q380 and Psalm 106:2 are considerable the reading of MAJ, waters, thus finding that WATERS are telling of greatness of H’, they make heard all of His praise; notoriously, this reading of MJ is similar to Jeremiah 49:21 whose Greek translation in LXX Jer 30:15 writes of EN THALASSE EKOUSTHE.

New, modernised Translation by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of Obadiah v.2 and Commentary of Pasi K. Pohjala 2010 of Obadiah v.2
“Observe! What is small (QTN) is stretched (NN) in the cavity of waters (GJM) and in that is visual sign (AT) in multitudes (meod)” (Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of Obadiah 2).

COMMENTARY The Obadiah v.2 writes in the Hebrew Bible words
Attentive Readers of this text straightforwardly find the comparison of words QTN and MAD, thus finding comparison of some ideas concerning small, being few in number or small in magnitude, and the MAD clearly describing some aspects of muchness, something numerous or something of great magnitude. Importantly, this Obadiah v.2 begins with writing the HNH that notices exhortation for observing and attentive seeing and devoting attention. Thus this Obadiah v.2 even if being somewhat concise statement in the Book of Obadiah contains important notice, exhorting to attention and attentive observing – and therefore clearly noticing comparison of QTN and MAD. This detail in the Book of Obadiah is further emphasised making comparison of this Obadiah 2 with its parallel in the Jeremiah 49, where the parallel is found in Jeremiah 49:15 that in Hebrew Bible writes words KJ HNH QTN NTTJK BGWJM BZWJ BADM. Thus these words of Jeremiah 49:15 clearly write very close parallel to the Obadiah 2 in Hebrew Bible- but these statements are also very importantly different. Both statements begin with HNH QTN, but only Obad 2 writes here the MAD referring to numerousness and muchness, the Jer 49:15 writing there word BADM. Furthermore, the Obad 2 concludes with stating of ATH MAD and the Jer 49:15 concludes with writing of the BADM after word BZWJ. Such writing of ATH MAD in Obad 2 thus deserves much attention of Readers. Ancient Readers especially considered these very similarly sounding words AT and MAD and considered how is meod connected with OT signs, the OT visual signs. The MAD is contrasted with the beginning QTN describing few in number and smaller in magnitude, and both expressions importantly also are connected to ideas of visions and visual expressions, the HNH QTN emphasising visions and visual observations with the HNH, and the ATH MAD also noticing visions and visual signs writing of AT word denoting the OT visions and visual signs. Obadiah 2 thus is concise statement but contains very important details, thus writing of visions and visual observing and contrasts with emphasis QTN and MAD words. These details of Obad 2 in Hebrew Bible are especially clearly emphasised when comparing this Obad 2 with its parallel in Jeremiah 49:15. For comprehension of this statement of Obad 2 is further important to notice that the BWZ and BZH words of Hebrew often denote vessels, utensils and dishes.

The Greek translations of the Obadiah 2 emphasise writing of descriptions of small together with writing of exhortations for observing and attention, writing
These readings are in Greek Mss. well attested, and the beginning of the IDOU OLIGOSTON emphasises exhortation of seeing and “very small, smallest” writing thus of OLIGOS. Thus Greek translation writes of seeing and observation of something very small and very few in number. However, Greek translation continues writing of ETIMOMENOS where Hebrew Bible writes of the MAD, the Hebrew thus more emphatically writing contrast of small and large. The Greek text thus can be comprehended “You, see! The very smallest- this I gave for You (cf. dat and acc); among peoples You are thus very honoured!” Importantly, Greek readers especially when reading lectio continua here considered surely also these words writing of ETIMOMENOS that contains words ETI and ENOS, the ETI noticing “something further, something beyond” and the gen. ENOS noticing how from something numerically one such “something-more” might originate. (Alas, the recognisable “omen” is more usually attested in Latin to describe omens of augury and divination, similar Greek words “usually” used in more concrete contexts; but finding in this text Obad 2 Greek word ETIMOMENOS containing Greek ETI, ENOS and “omen” is clearly important). Importantly, in the Mss. of Greek Bible this ETIMOMENOS is well attested, this emphasising the importance of this word in Obad 2. This comprehension of LXX Obad 2 thus more exhorts people to see and observe what is smallest and few in number- and for this special ability given by deity, the people are thus among nations very much honoured. Especially, this comprehension of this Greek text of Obadiah 2 is much in accordance with very widely in the Ancient World known reputation of Israel for their special ability of seeing. This comprehension of Obad 2 is clearly much grounded in the Hebrew Bible with special emphasis here comparing QTN and MAD and making exhortation to seeing and observing. Importantly, these statements are written in Obadiah 2 immediately after the beginning of the Book of Obadiah, the Obad 1 writing so emphatically of SHEMA traditions describing hearing, writing of SMWYH SMYNW MAT H’ WZJR BGWJM SLH. This introduction of Obadiah thus emphatically writes of SHEMA traditions of attentive observation and attentive hearing and hearkening, and this is now clearly in the Obad 2 continued with emphatically beginning HNH that exhorts to attentive observation, attentive hearing and attentive seeing, so emphasised in Greek translation emphatically here writing of IDOU! Thus Book of Obadiah so clearly here writes of observation and attentive observing. Translations further contain here in Obad 2 very notorious details. The Syriac translation here commences writing of HA ZYWRA JHBTK where the ZYWRA generally denotes something small, little, and importantly, these words also in many texts describe reducing and diminishing. Importantly, in such selection of word attentive Readers easily find also echo of the name of Seir in Edom. Furthermore, Targumic translations of Obadiah 2 contain very important details, writing
Importantly, the word HLS written in Targumic translations often is used in contexts of divination, the HLS denoting smooth stones, casting a lot, and to round (J 474). Thus is one important context of such HLS the divination by means of casting a lot, and noticing the small stones then cast. Writing THIS word HLS Targumic translations thus do notice something small, something that was with special attention observed in the divination by means of casting lots. Targumic translation here thus unmistakably writes description of divination. The famous LHS denoting “whispering, charm” (see J 704, BDB 538) essentially often describing approved although secretive rituals of mantic and divination thus is clearly here echoed in Targumic translation, and attentive Readers surely considered also this LHS because of reading HLS in v.2 and SLH in v.1, the LHS containing another permutation of Hebrew letters and so centrally writing of rituals of divination and mantic. (Some times ancient texts did not explicit write some words thought to be secretive or to be concealed but merely made clear references to such central and well known words in writings- in this Targumic translation of Obad 1-2 the VERY important LHS word MIGHT thus be referred to in Targum because of so clearly writing of HLS in Obad 2 (this differently from MT words) and SLH in Obad 1 (this following the MT words), such POSSIBLE indirect reference to LHS word in Obad 1-2 in Targumic translation thus clearly of special interest because of here writing of SHEMA tradition in Obad 1-2 describing hearing and hearkening.) Furthermore, Targumic translations of Obad 2 further emphasise context of divination and mantic and divination by casting lots, writing of the HA HLS JHBTK...BSJR AT LHDA. The word HLS thus very well known is often written in contexts of casting lots and divination by means of lots, and following such contexts and ideas, the Targum here writes the BSJR; clearly, such word BSJR in THIS context thus unmistakably notices some cup, urn, vessel or bowl in the rituals of casting lots, thus writing of SJR utensils! The Readers of Targum thus considered this writing of BSJR AT, finding here notice that OT sign occurs in divination in SJR utensil or bowl. This is found straightforwardly in this statement finding the words BSJR AT TL LHDA, the TL surely in this Targumic translation considered by attentive Readers although in Mss written AT LHDA: the TL denotes bowl-divination, very appropriately after here noticing the BSJR describing occurrences in bowl SJR. Importantly, the Targumic translation of Obad 3 further specify thus seen OT visual sign in bowls (considering TIL bowl divination) - the Targum of Obad 3 noticing that in bowls thus was seen visual appearance of the DHUSHARA (Nabataean deity) in form of Falcon appearing in magnifying bowl (Targum of Obad 3 thus writing of DAT DMJ LNSRA DSRJ BSNJ KJPA BRWMA- this also writes of OT visual sign resembling (demut) Falcon, appearance of DHUSHARA (Nabataean Deity) appearing in magnifying bowl container). Targum here also writes of Hidot riddles, thus emphasising such signs or omens or visual signs for foreseeing having appeared to the participants of rituals of divination to be riddles and of enigmatic character. Furthermore, in THIS context of Obadiah 1-2 in Targum such writing of BSJR AT is of very central importance, in writing of the SHEMA tradition, because thus commences the Obad 1 writing of SHEMA with words
Thus Targumic texts translate here in Obadiah 2 the important SHEMA tradition in Hebrew Bible writing of SMWYH SMYNW where thus the BSWRA is importantly translating the Hebrew Bible writing emphatically of SMWYH thus emphasising SHEMA tradition. Thus Targumic translation in Obad 1-2 especially emphasises such connection of SHEMA tradition of Obad 1 with Obad 2 describing HLS JHBTK- and this further emphasises considerations of the famous LHS in Targumic texts writing of HLS and SLH in Obad 1-2. Thus is straightforwardly with clear and easy argumentation and study of Obad 2 arrived to the Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008. This statement of Obad 2 thus clearly describes divination and prophesies, and the Hebrew Bible here emphasises in Obad 2 comparison of small and huge, and seeing such.

New, modernised Translation by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008, with detailed Commentary by Pasi K. Pohjala 2010 to OBADIAH v.3

No comments: