Thursday, 4 November 2010

obadja commentary 3rd ed on obad 1

NEW TRANSLATIONS OF BIBLE: OBADIAH. A Study of These Edomite-PETRAN Traditions of Music and Scientific Lore of OBADIAH, Musician-prophet in the Temple of Jerusalem


Third Edition of October 2010.
EDITIONS Pasi Pohjala

Second Edition, June 2010.
Third Edition, October 2010.

COPYRIGHT © Pasi K. Pohjala October 18, 2010

This Book studies ancient Hebrew Text of Obadiah, ancient Translations and Ancient Interpretations and thus this Book strongly argues that the NEW TRANSLATION OF THE BOOK OF OBADIAH BY PASI K. POHJALA 2008 published in Verre et Bible 2 (2008) truthfully follows these ancient Translations and Interpretations and that thus it is to be scholarly seriously reckoned with. This Book also considers histories of REQEM-Petra, the ancient Nabataean capital.

Publisher’s Note:
Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this Book is accurate at the time of going to press. No responsibility for loss or damage occasioned to any person acting, or refraining from action, as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by the Editor, the Publisher or the Author.

2006 Similarities of Redaction of the Gospel According to Matthew, With Texts of Philo Alexandrinus (445pages)
2007 Divination by Bowls in Bible, Septuagint, Qumran Texts, Philo and Matthew 13:1-12. Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls in Bible Interpretations (Verre Et Bible 1) (182pages)
2008 New Translations of Bible: The Twelve Prophets, Qohelet, Chapters of Job and Many Psalms. Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. (Verre Et Bible 2) (381pages)
2009 New Translations of Bible: The Mikhtam Psalms 56-60 and 16. Stelevision. Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. (Verre Et Bible 3) (121pages)
December2009 New Translations of Bible: Book of JONAH. Huge Fish- Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. (Verre Et Bible 4) (160pages)
March2010 Habakkuk, Bacchus and ABACUS: New Translation of Qumran’s Pesher Habakkuk (1QpHab), Studying there References to Midrash BAHIR. Jesus Teaches BAHIR (1QpHab 9.11-12) (Verre et Bible 5)
June2010 New Translations of Bible: Obadiah. A Study of these Edomite-PETRAN Traditions of Music and Scientific Lore of Obadiah, musician-Prophet in the Temple of Jerusalem. Second Ed. (Verre et Bible 5) (94pages)

CH. 22 Writings of Philo of Alexandria and Book of Obadiah p.114
CH.23 Book of Obadiah and Histories from PETRA-REQEM p.120
CH. 24 QUMRAN and REQEM-Petra p.139
CH.26 SUMMARY p.179


Ackroyd, P. R.
Art. “Obadiah”. In: Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol. 5.

Bartlett, J.R.
1989 Edom and the Edomites. JSOT Supp 77.

Ben Zvi, E.
1996 A Historical-Critical Study of the Book of Obadiah. BZAW 242.
1997 A Deuteronomistic Redaction in/among “The Twelve”? A Contribution from the standpoint of the books of Micah, Zephaniah and Obadiah. In: SBL Seminar Papers 36.

Browning, I.
1989 Petra. Third Ed. London.

Crawford, G. A.
2003 Petra and the Nabataeans: a bibliography.

Denis, A-M.
Concordance Grecque des Pseudepigraphes d’Ancien Testament.

Dicou, B.
1994 Edom, Israel’s Brother and Antagonist. JSOT Supp 169.

Dillon, J.- Winston, D.
1983 Two Treatises of Philo of Alexandria: a Commentary on De Gigantibus and Quod Deus sit Immutabilis. Scholars Press.

Elmgren, S. G. (ed.)
1864-66 Georg August Wallins reseanteckningar fran Orienten Aren 1843-1849. Dagbok och bref. J. C. Frenckell. Helsinki.

Fitzmyer, J. A.
2000 art. “Nabataean”. In: Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, vol. 2. OUP.

Forder, A.
1923 Petra: Perea: Phoenicia. London.

Golb, N.
1967 The Music of Obadiah the Proselyte and his Conversion. JJS 18.

Gutwirth, E.
1981 Obadiah the Proselyte. In: Genizah Fragments 2.

Hackl, U., Hanna, J., Schneider, C.
2003 Quellen zur Geschichte der Nabataer. Textsammlung mit Ubersetzung und Kommentar. Freiburg und Gottingen.

Healey, J. F.
1996 Art. “Bostra”. In: Oxford Classical Dictionay. Third Ed.
1996 Art. “Petra”. In: Oxford Classical Dictionary. Third Ed.
2001 The Religion of the Nabataeans. Brill.
2005 Art. “Nabatean Religion”. In: Encyclopedia of Religion. Second Edition.

Hopfner, Th.
1917-1924 Griechisch-Agyptischer Offenbarungszauber. Studien zu Palaeographie und Papyruskunde. Heft 21. Wessley (Hrsg.). H. Haessel Verlag. Lepizig.

Jeremias, J.
2006 Zur Theologie Obadjas: die Auslegung von Jer 49, 7-16 durch Obadja. Im: Die Unwiderstehliche Wahrheit.

Kasher, A.
1988 Jews, Idumaeans and Ancient Arabs. Tubingen.

De Laborde, L.
1838 Journey through Arabia Petraea, to Mount Sinai, and the excavated city of Petra, the Edom of the prophecies. John Murray. London.

Levy, U.
1999 The Lost Civilization of Petra. Edinburgh.

Lindner, M. (Hrsg.)
1980 Petra und das Konigreich der Nabataer. Abhandlungen der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nurnberg 35.

Markoe, G.(ed.)
2003 Petra Rediscovered. Lost City of the Nabataeans. Thames& Hudson. London.

McKenzie, J.
1990 The Architecture of Petra. British Academy Monographs in Archaeology 1. Oxford.

Millar, F.
1981 The Roman Empire and its Neighbours. London.
1993 The Roman Near East 31 BC-AD 337. HUP.

Murray, M. A.
1939 Petra: the Rock City of Edom.

Negev, A.
1977 The Nabateans and the Provincia Arabia. In: ANRW 2.8.
1986 Nabataean Archaeology Today. New York University Press.
2003 The Negev and the Nabataeans. In: Petra Rediscovered. Lost City of the Nabataeans.

Nitzan, B.
1994 Qumran Prayer and Religious Poetry. Brill.

Pohjala, Pasi K.
2008 New Translations of Bible: the Twelve Prophets, Qohelet, Chapters of Job and Many Psalms. Bible Describes Magnified Visions from Glass Bowls. Verre et Bible 2. Paris.

Raabe, P. R.
2007 Obadiah. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Anchor Bible 24D. Doubleday.

Roth, M. T. (ed.)
1997 Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. SBL Writings from the Ancient World. Vol. 6. Atlanta.

Sawyer, J.F. (ed.)
1983 Midian, Moab and Edom. JSOT Supp 24.

Starcky, J.
1966 art. Petra et la Nabatene. In: Supplement au Dictionnaire de la Bible. Vol. 7. Paris.

Wallin, Georg August
1854 Narrative of a Journey from Cairo to Medina and Mecca by Suez, Araba, Tawila, al-Jauf, Jubba, Hail and Nejd in 1845. In: Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. Vol 24.

Whitehouse, O. C.
1913 The Book of Baruch. In: The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT. – R. H. Charles (ed.). Oxford.

Zayadine, F.
1980 Die Gotter der Nabataer. Im: Petra und das Konigreich der Nabataer (Lindner, M. (hrsg.)). Pp. 108-118.
2003 The Nabataean Gods and their Sanctuaries. In: Petra Rediscovered. Lost City of the Nabataeans (Markoe, G. (ed.)). Pp. 57-64.


NEW, Modernised Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of OBADIAH 1-2
“vision of Obadiah, in the strength (KH) of the lamp-vessel (AM, NR) of God, in this place (AJ) of visual appearances (demut): hearken, hearken (SMY) the stretching (NN), these multitudes (MAT) from God, there is visual form (zura) appearing in cavity of waters (GJM) that the Luach instrument magnified (QM)- it was so magnified (NQM) in the increasing (YL) by God (JH) with the salt-of what-ness (MLH MH)”.

COMMENTARY, BY Pasi K. Pohjala 2010 The Biblical Book of Obadiah is very concise Book in the canonical Bible consisting of merely 21 verses. The Ancient Interpreters of Bible only seldom make references to Obadiah and quote texts of Obadiah as Scriptural prooftexts. Thus for the modern Readers might appear somewhat surprising that such seemingly minor Book has been included in the canonical Bible and sufficiently much preserved in the tradition thus to be well known and included in the canonical Bible. (Readers might, of course, read more of the problems of defining the canonical writings and the ancient Jewish practise of defining important Biblical books of Torah, Neviim and Ketuvim). Surely there have therefore existed very specific reasons for continuing the ancient tradition of Book of Obadiah. Readers commencing reading this concise Book of Obadiah thus encounter the name Obadiah, in Hebrew written YBDJH that in current comprehension often is rendered denoting worship of Deity (YHWH); importantly already in the beginning of this Book of Obadiah in the Obad 1 is in the Hebrew Bible written words SMWYH SMYNW that emphatically writes of the word SMY. Thus attentive Readers discover in this concise Book in its very beginning the specific idea of YBD, the Avoda denoting the worship of H’, and emphatically written SMY that unmistakably here contains tradition of the SHEMA, the ancient (and modern) very central statement of Jewish faith. Attentive Readers thus straightforward discover the Book of Obadiah beginning with statement of Avoda of God and some tradition concerning the SHEMA! Thus this concise Book of Obadiah is straightforwardly discovered to write some important ancient traditions concerning Worship and SHEMA, and this gives to this Book of Obadiah special important status! Meticulous and detailed study of the Book of Obadiah, its ancient translations and its interpretations in Midrash and Halachot further make clear the importance of this Book of Obadiah to Ancient Interpreters. Research on the Book of Obadiah emphasises usually its connections to Jeremiah 49, and also the Obad 1 finds there very near parallel
Textual detail is that MT Jer 49:14 writes SMYTJ whereas MT Obad 1 writes SMYNW (see also in BHS) and interestingly the Masora Magna does NOT comment this clearly important textual detail even if finding parallels in Obad 1 to the SLH word, this possibly because of the clear connection of these words to the very important SMY traditions. These texts thus emphasise the SMY, both writing of the SMWYH word in Hebrew. The Greek translations write here the AKOEN EKOUSA (LXX Jer 30:8) and importantly ALSO the LXX Obad 1 thus writing of AKOEN EKOUSA, the plural only in few Mss supported, these Greek translations thus emphasising this parallel. Ancient attestation of these Hebrew words in MurXII is, however, not completely well preserved (see also Biblia Qumranica 3B). The LXX Jer 30:8 continues with KAI AGGELOUS EIS ETHNE APESTEILEN SUNAKHTHETE (this for Hebrew HTQBZW) and Obad 1 writing KAI PERIOKHEN EIS TA ETHNE EKSAPESTEILEN ANASTETE- later, however, translate Aquilas and Symmachus here similarly with AGGELIAN and AGGELOUS thus similarly to LXX Jer 30:8. Very importantly, the LXX Jer 30:8 translating this SHEMA text chooses the word SUNAKHTHETE of the Greek SUN-AGO that is so well also currently known in the word Synagogue. It is important that this detail connects in this Greek translation of SHEMA text these words to some form of SUN-AGO gathering! Furthermore, the Greek translations write here of AKOEN EKOUSA PARA KURIOU (such PARA substantially supported in ancient Greek Mss- see ed. Gottingensia) where ancient Readers fluent in Hebrew and Greek surely found easily the letters SAPARA with consonants SPR, thus clearly for these ancient Readers referring to the very important Hebrew SPR denoting ancient Scribes (Soferim) in the Rabbinical culture, also this detail emphasising connection of this text to ancient Rabbinical culture. (Also here it is important to notice their having been fluent also in Greek language). Further, the Jer 49:20 continues the prophesy of Edom, writing in Hebrew Bible of LKN SMYW YZT-H’ ASR JYZ AL ADWM WMHSWTJW ASR HSB AL JSBJ TJMN; the Greek translations write thus in LXX Jer 30:14 DIA TOUTO AKOUSATE BOULEN KURIOU EN EBOULEUSATO EPI TEN IDOUMAIAN KAI LOGISMON AUTOU ON ELOGISATO EPI TOUS KATOIKOUNTAS TAIMAN. The LXX Jer 30:14 thus specifies such AKOUO with LOGISMOS and BOULE. Importantly, these words are thus emphatically connected with Edom and Theman; these places are also very central for the whole Book of Obadiah. Further notorious specifying of such AKOE and AKOUO here in the prophesy of Edom in LXX Jer 30 is written in LXX Jer 30:15
These writings of Jer 49:21 thus further specify such voices and hearing, specifying that divine roaring was heard in the sea (and the Hebrew text here specifies hearing such divine roaring in JM SWP, Jam Suf). Thus the clear parallel of Jer 49:14 to this SMY Shema statement in Obadiah 1 provides much thinking concerning specific meaning of such emphatic statement of SMWYH SMYNW commencing the Book of Obadiah.

Attentive Readers thus continuing the study of Book of Obadiah further compare these readings with the Targumic translation of Obadiah. There is attested (ed. Sperber)
Importantly, thus Targumic translation writes for the Hebrew words SMWYH SMYNW the BSWRA SMYNA, this importantly also because Greek translations follow the twice writing of the AKOUO words, Hebrew twice writing the SMY words here. The BSWRA thus is important word in this Targumic translation, and this word usually means “good news, tidings” (Jastrow 198-9)- Readers notice here especially that Tanakh translates here “We have received tidings from the LORD” thus probably specifying the Hebrew SMWYH more following such Targumic translation tradition BSWRA. Targum thus can be comprehended writing of hearing good tidings from Lord and describing sending of envoys. However, attentive Readers here make many important further questions concerning this Targumic translation. Firstly is noticed this Targumic writing of LADWM BSWRA, because the Book of Obadiah often writes of Edom (and is among Biblical Books specifically recognised to be especially concerned to write of Edom)- here can be recognised specific reference to ancient important trade centre Bosra located north of the important Nabataean capital Petra, this Bosra located in the important trade route from Petra towards Damascus. Thus these Targumic words LADWM BSWRA easily are found to contain specific reference to these places Edom and Bosra, famous and well known in the time of tradition of Targumic translation of Book of Obadiah. In later times, Bosra was located along the very important Trajan’s road leading towards Damascus and Palmyra and thus the city of Bosra was very well known for merchants and travellers. This writing of Bosra emphasises connection of Book of Obadiah to Edom (and Nabataean culture and to the culture of Petra). Furthermore, the BSWRA unmistakably recalls Readers to consider the SJR bowls, thus emphasising such “hearing” SMY having occurred with help of SJR bowls; notoriously, this is the central idea of LXX Jer 30:15 KAI KRAUGE SOU EN THALASSE EKOUSTHE, the LXX Jer 30 (=Jer 49 in the Hebrew Bible) containing the already noticed exact parallel to the Obad 1 SMWYH SMYNW in Jer 49:14 writing SMWYH SMYTJ. Attentive Readers thus considering such reading of word BSWRH with the SJR word for bowls find much further grounds for such comprehending in the Concordance Ed. A. Houtman to the Targum XII (I,166) because BSR words in the Targums of the XII Prophets only here in Obad 1 translate SMWYH but usually BSR words in Targums of the XII Prophets translate BWZ and BZH words of Hebrew Bible- and specifically, such BJZ words often describe different VESSELS and DISHES (see also Jastrow 152). These considerations of the important SMWYH SMYNW in Hebrew Bible and BSWRA SMYNA in Targumic translation thus emphasise such “hearing” SMY having occurred with help of vessels and bowls SJR, this substantially similar to comprehension in Jer 49:21 (the LXX Jer 30:15 writing of KRAUGE SOU EN THALASSE EKOUSTHE) because of Jeremiah here writing BJM and EN THALASSE. This SMY in THIS CONTEXT of Obadiah 1 is thus substantially connected to hearing by means of vessels and bowls; and this text of Edom is specifically in Targumic translation connected to the ancient centre Bosra north of Petra.

Attentive Readers thus further considering the Obadiah 1 further consider the name of Obadiah, in Hebrew Bible written YBDJH, similarly in the Targum (YWBDJH) that emphatically thus refer to the cult of H’, the AVODA. Importantly, the Greek translations of Book of Obadiah write this name in forms ORASIS ABDIOU or OBDEIOU or ABDEIAS and in some resembling letters (see esp. the ed. Gottingensia for these names). Attentive Readers thus find that for Greek speakers was known a liquid measure TO BADION, dim. of measures called BADOS or BATOS- especially, the liquid measure BATOS is the Hebrew liquid measure BATH. (Furthermore, O BATOS denotes also some fish, probably some kind of skate (see L-S 311)). (Importantly, Greek Bible describes Moses’ vision in Exodus 3:2 OFTHE DE AUTO AGGELOS KURIOU EN FLOGI PUROS EK TOU BATOU KAI ORA OTI O BATOS KAIETAI PURI O DE BATOS OU KATEKAIETO, this text being better known for modern Readers to describe vision in the “bush”. Attentive Readers surely refer such descriptions also to writings in the PGM. In the New Testament Greek, also Luke 16:6 thus writes of containers of oil). Thus the Greek rendering of the title of this Book of Obadiah in words ORASIS ABDIOU unmistakably lead Readers fluent in Greek to consider visions seen in some liquid measures and bowls (BADOS, BATOS). This is, very importantly, substantially in agreement with the Targumic translation of BSWRA referring to SJR bowls and vessels and also in agreement with the Greek tradition of translating Jer 49:21 with the KRAUGE SOU EN THALASSE EKOUSTHE (in LXX Jer 30:15= Hebrew Bible Jer 49:21 that writes of the Jam-Suf). Thus the ancient Translations of Book of Obadiah very specifically describe visions from bowls and containers, and this ancient clear and unmistakable emphasising is now followed in the here written translation of Obadiah 1.

Further important details of the ancient Translations contributing to this comprehension of the Obadiah 1 are easily found. The Targumic translation writes of the WAJZGD BYMMJA SLJH for the Hebrew bible writing of the ZJR BGWJM SLH. The Targumic translating of AJZGD does notice “messenger, runner” being sent (see Jastrow 46), but this word AJZGD clearly refers to the famous words of glass and crystal, the ZGJTA noticing glass and crystal vessels and the ZGWGJTA noticing generally glass and crystal. Thus Targumic translation unmistakably here describes some occurrences with help of glass and crystal vessels and bowls; for example, seeing Zurot visions of divine messengers (angels, Gr. AGGELOI) can so be described. In this text notable is especially that Hebrew Bible writes of ZJR (also Isaiah 18 and Prov 13, clearly referring to ZWR Zurot) and that this is translated in Targum with AJZGD. Importantly, the Greek here writes PERIOKHEN EIS TA ETHNE EKSAPESTEILEN, the word PERIOKHE (of PERIEKHO) noticing “containing, enclosing” and also “compass, circumference” (see L-S 1381) thus continuing the words discussing containers and containment, especially the word TO BADION for measures that so clearly is included in Greek forms of name of Obadiah. Importantly, later translations of Aquilas and Symmachus DO write here of AGGELOUS and AGGELIAN that can refer to “angels” and “visual zura-forms seen of angels” thus for the Hebrew word ZJR clearly referring to ZURA-visual forms. Notable textual detail is also that attentive reading of these Targumic words notice here the AJZGDBYMMJA actually containing the letters of YBD when read backwards, thus referring to the very name of Obadiah, this Targumic connection of ZGWGJT crystal bowls and name YBD can interestingly parallel also the clear Greek traditions of rendering name Obadiah in word ABDIAS that clearly contains the word BADION denoting certain measures in Bible.

Although the SMY word thus is very emphatically written in the beginning of this Obadiah 1 in the statement of SMWYH SMYNW, in the Hebrew Bible there can not easily be found further references to SHEMA writing in the Book of Obadiah. However, attentive Readers easily find in the Targumic translation of Book of Obadiah further interesting references to writings concerning SHEMA traditions. Targumic translating of Obad 5 contains also words
Attentive Readers of this translation find here written consonants SMA thus obviously referring to the emphatically written SHEMA tradition commencing the Obadiah 1. Importantly, these letters SMA are here contained in word MSARJN that more specifically refers to MSR, one very central idea of Tradition (cf. also to currently known word “Masoretic tradition”). This clearly emphasises connection of writing of SHEMA to Rabbinical culture in this Targumic translation; notably, such reference to SHEMA can not be discovered in the Hebrew words writing here of HLWA JSAJRW. Also can be noticed that YWLLN is by Theodotian translated KALAMEMATA, also this referring to details of Scribal culture (cf. LXX Psalm 44:2 GLOSSA MOU KALAMOS GRAMMATEOS OKSUGAPHOU). Furthermore, another clear reference to SHEMA traditions in the Targumic translation can easily be found in translation of Obadiah 14 writing of
Also in these words are letters SMA contained, these words thus clearly referring to SMA and SHEMA traditions. Importantly, also this statement writes of MSRTA thus noticing of the MSR. Thus it is found that the Targumic translation of Obadiah 14 and Obadiah 5 clearly refer to SMA of the SHEMA traditions and they BOTH write of MSR: these Targumic statements thus clearly connect the SHEMA traditions with MSR traditions (and to “Masoretic”).

Further very important ancient attestation of Obadiah traditions can be found in the Qumran manuscripts. The current research recognises occurrence of name Obadiah in Qumran manuscripts in the 4Q380, one of Qumran Pseudepigraphic Psalms. Because the name Obadiah writes the word YBD that is very usual in Hebrew Bible and in Hebrew writings thereafter, there might be found (easily) further occurrences of the specific name Obadiah in the Qumran manuscripts with further considering the transliterations of some letters. However, the current study is devoted to writing commentary on the Book of Obadiah and therefore such project of reconsidering some words in these Qumran writings cannot here be undertaken. Such project of seriously considering possibilities of finding name Obadiah in Qumran writings would be, of course, also fundamentally interesting especially remembering that the neighbouring Nabataean kingdom (whose capital was the famous Petra) was ruled by kings OBODAS I (93-85 BCE), OBODAS II (62-56 or 47 BCE?) and OBODAS III (30-9 BCE) among other kings of the Nabataean kingdom. Regrettably little is known of ancient culture of Petra and Nabataean kingdom (a brief summary of current scholarly consensus of that Forschungslage is found e.g. in article “Nabataeans” by David F. Graf in the Anchor Bible Dictionary; but that research is difficult and theories are numerous). For the current study of Obadiah 1 the attestation of 4Q380 is actually of much importance, because the SHEMA tradition also there is clearly noticed in this only fragmentarily preserved Psalm, the 1.1.7-8 writing
Then the 1.2.8 writes of THLH LYBDJH
Thus this Psalm 4Q380 writes of the Tehilla-Praise of Obadiah especially noticing the SHEMA tradition in words WJSMYW KL THLT. Also these preserved words of this Qumranic Psalm thus connect Obadiah with Shema traditions, writing of Tehilla-Praise of Obadiah. Thus it is important to seriously consider the comparisons of this Psalm with Psalm 106 of Hebrew Bible, thus emphasised by the Editor of these Qumranic Psalms, Eileen Schuller. Especially, these quoted words are in the Psalm 106 clearly compared with 106:2 writing
Also in these words MJ JMLL written in 4Q380 and Psalm 106:2 are considerable the reading of MAJ, waters, thus finding that WATERS are telling of greatness of H’, they make heard all of His praise; notoriously, this reading of MJ is similar to Jeremiah 49:21 whose Greek translation in LXX Jer 30:15 writes of EN THALASSE EKOUSTHE.

The current study notices the currently scholarly consensus that this Book of Obadiah is especially concerned with Edom and Edomites. The current scholarly consensus is in this study further considered especially questioning HOW the Book of Obadiah is concerned with Edom and Edomites. The current consensus comprehends the Book of Obadiah to be specifically critical against Edom and Edomites and their culture, the Book of Obadiah being a prophecy of warning and doom uttered against ungodly Edomites. Thus the current study does accept the widespread scholarly consensus that the Book of Obadiah is somehow concerned with Edom and Edomite culture, but the current study rather finds the Book of Obadiah being an ancient document originating from Edomite-Nabataean thought and representing Edomite-Nabataean culture, religion and prophesy. This finding will be amply in this study motivated with meticulous study of Book of Obadiah, its ancient Translations and its interpretations by Ancient Interpreters. This change of view of Book of Obadiah is, of course, considerable change with regard to current scholarly study and therefore this finding shall be especially well and detailed motivated in the current study and Translation. This finding of Book of Obadiah being ancient literary document that originates from culture and religion of Edomite-Nabataean culture also challenges current widespread scholarly opinion maintaining lack of preserved literary documents from Nabataean-Edomite culture, this scholarly opinion maintaining that evidence of Nabataean-Edomite culture is currently found in some literary notices from surrounding cultures (that is, in writings of Greek and Latin authors) and in numerous Nabataean inscriptions that have been found and identified and published for scholarly community; even some recent research projects have successfully deciphered some Nabataean written scrolls that were badly destroyed in some events of fire, these mostly containing texts of administration. The current scholarly study of Nabataean religion and culture thus is in the current Forschungslage seriously hindered in attempts of studying Nabataean-Edomite culture because of currently widespread complained lack of securely identified Nabataean documents. For every Reader such complaint seems, of course, truly questionable when considering the widespread importance of ancient Nabataean trade Empire in the ancient world, especially during their heyday during the times of neighbouring Seleucid and Ptolemaic Empires. The current study thus will present substantial and, so the Author Pasi K. Pohjala firmly is convinced, a good and convincing scholarly argumentation with empiristic method for identifying the Book of Obadiah preserved in Bible as a Book originating from Nabataean-Edomite culture, religion and prophesy. This study will argue for this comprehension with reference to detailed empiristic study of Book of Obadiah, its ancient Translations and its comprehensions by Ancient Interpreters. Thus this study is encouraging Readers to themselves read the texts, intepretations and to believe the evidence of Ancient texts, thus following method of empiristic reading of Ancient Texts, or Historisch-Kritische Schule. The evidence will be thus found in simply empirically observable details. One Chapter of this Book is devoted to noticing that indeed, Hebrew Bible surprisingly often writes of Nabataean ancient capital REQEM. This observation is simple, but this observation is of fundamental character. First is thus noticed that ancient Aramaic name of Nabataean capital was REQEM, also this fact even in many current important studies less noticed, the Greek name PETRA of their capital more usually acknowledged. Usually modern Bible translations render references to REQEM in text by some descriptions of empty, idle or vain people or group, thus in many statements writing easily detected humbug- but straightforward reading of such texts in Hebrew Bible easily reveals that usually texts writing RQM in Hebrew Bible are actually talking about people and groups coming from REQEM, describing REQEMITE people and their doings. This is truly simply found usually in texts of Hebrew Bible writing of RQM, and this reveals interesting notices how Hebrew Bible describes contacts between Judah, Jerusalem, their dignitaries and some Reqemite people. For example, thus will be simply noticed presence of REQEMITE people in festivities of bringing the Ark to City of David, this bringing after Ark’s residing in house of Oved-Edom (also THIS name is notorious). Generally will numerous such contacts between Judah, Israel, Jerusalem and their dignitaries be noticed in Hebrew Bible. These notices will then be continued noticing numerous such positive contacts, often Reqemite being cooperating with Maccabees, in times of Maccabees, amply recorded in the Books of Maccabees, these especially commented in modern detailed scholarly study of Aryeh Kasher. Amply will be noticed also notices in Babylonian Talmud, especially the beginning of Gittin writing numerous considerations of geography of Israel, there often noticing also neighbouring REQEM, in these writings clearly noticing the existence of notable community of Rabbinical Jewish people in this REQEM. A whole Chapter thus is in the current study devoted to such ancient attestations of often positive contacts with the neighbouring REQEM and REQEMITE people, thus attested in Jewish literature of Hebrew Bible and in numerous Second Temple writings. The current task of studying the Book of Obadiah being in Hebrew Bible recorded document of ancient Nabataean-Edomite culture thus is substantially in this study supported noticing that Hebrew Bible and other ancient Jewish literature actually does surprisingly often positively notice REQEM and people of REQEM. The provenance of Biblical Book of Obadiah in Nabataean-Edomite culture and religion will be in this study argued with numerous arguments.
FIRST, the Book of Obadiah begins with words HZWN YBDJH. The prophet Obadiah is thus clearly identified in the Book of Obadiah. Now it is also important to notice that in the important times of transmission of the writings of Hebrew Bible, much during the heyday of Nabataean trade empire occurring after Alexander and before annexation, many well known kings of Nabataean empire had name OBODAS. Also well known in ancient times was Nabataean religious centre Oboda in the Negev. For the ancient audience well knowing these then famous facts, proposing comprehending of Book of Obadiah to be wholesale condemnation of Edomite-Nabataean people and culture would surely have been unthinkable, this prophesy being uttered in the name of Obadiah, similar to name of many Nabataean kings. The Book of Obadiah being currently scholarly acknowledged much considering Edom and Edomites, name of prophet Obadiah being similar to many kings OBODAS of neighbouring Nabataean Empire, this attests rather clear positive connection of Book of Obadiah with Nabataean culture, especially with Nabataean religion and prophesy. Thus this study finds also worth emphasising the existence of the ancient Nabataean religious centre Oboda in Negev, situated some fifty miles north-west from Petra-REQEM, thus half-way towards Jerusalem; especially its location not towards eastern Nabataean regions but half-way from Petra towards Jerusalem should be especially important for emphasising their ancient co-operation.
SECOND, the Book of Obadiah often notices letters that contain name EDOM. The Hebrew Bible writes in Obad 1 HZWN YBDJH KH AMR ADNJ JHWH LADWM where is name OBADIAH and ADWM, also referring to name EDOM (and AJ-DWM, place of demut similitude visions) noticed. The Book of Obadiah thus is certainly connected to EDOM and EDOMITES, their culture and religion. Thus is importantly found v.8 noticing Edomite wisdom and Edomite wise, writing of HKMJM MADWM. This detail is concerned especially with noticing ancient Edom and Nabataean trade empire being geographical neighbour of Judah-Israel and Jerusalem, and noticing that too often are relations with neighbouring countries characterised by conflicts and rivalry. Conflicts and rivalry is thus often found in current scholarly literature as important motivation for comprehending book of Obadiah being harsh condemnation of Edom and Edomite culture, included in Hebrew Bible. This scholarly Vorverstandnis emphasising conflicts and rivalry between Judah-Israel and Edom-Nabatea is, however, only half-truth: many times of important co-operation between Judahites, Israelites and people from Edom-Nabataea are well attested. Especially, famously were Maccabees much co-operating with Nabataean rulers- this occurring in important times of transmission of Biblical writings, this well and undeniably attested in Books of Maccabees. The current study also finds even more ancient attestation of ancient co-operation between Judah-Israel and Edomites (Nabataeans) reading in Hebrew Bible RQM words to denote ancient Nabataean capital REQEM and REQEMITES; even David’s co-operation with REQEMITES thus is easily found described in Hebrew Bible.
THIRD, ancient Greek translations notice in v.19-21 METOIKESIA IEROUSALEM, thus locating in Jerusalem an ancient settlement of REQEMITE people. This is, very importantly, usual meaning of Greek METOIKESIA in ancient Greek texts; this statement is not writing here, importantly, the AIKHMALOSIA. This is, importantly, in the ancient Greek translations contrasted with KATOIKEIN written in Obad 2-10, the KATOIKEIN denoting often more established habitation in native regions than the METOIKEIN. Reading METOIKEIN in Book of Obadiah with its truly USUAL acknowledged lexicographical meaning as a word denoting settling and settlements in foreign regions and cities easily tells to Greek Readers the Book of Obadiah here describing their settlement in Jerusalem, similar to widespread and often in literature described practise of settlements in Greek world. (Alas, modern translations rather comprehend the Book of Obadiah more wholly describing involuntary movements, exile and captivity through coercion). Importantly, Greek translations locate such KATOIKEIN and KATOIKIA to PETRA (the Nabataean capital), the Obad 3 writing EPERE SE KATASKENOUNTA EN TAIS OPAIS TON PETRON HUPSON KATOIKIAN AUTOU. This detail of KATOIKEIN and METOIKEIN in Greek translations much support finding the native location of these people in Nabataean capital PETRA, also comprehending their having founded a settlement in Jerusalem, in Greek translations of Book of Obadiah this noticed with then usual Greek terminology. The Hebrew Bible writes here, importantly, SKNJ BHGWJ SLY where SKN often notices stable dwelling and inhabitation.
FOURTH, also Targumic translation specifically identify also this writing to areas of then important cities of ancient Edomite areas. Thus is in translation of Obad 1-2 in Targum much noticed BOSRA, then important trade centre and administrative centre of ancient Edomite areas, that was in later Roman times more developed and thus became more central in these ancient Edomite areas. Thus writes Obad 1 LADWM BSWRA SMYNA where is thus reference to name BOSRA (although often “good tidings” here read, also motivated) importantly connected with notice of “Edom”; and also another mention of BSJR is in Obad 1 written in Targumic translation. Rabbinical Midrashim also preserve teachings of Rabbis identified coming from BOSRA and their having in their teachings quoted statements of Obadiah.
FIFTH, ancient Targumic translations of Book of Obadiah specifically notice visual appearances of Nabataean deities, DHUSHARA, SHAI EL QAUM and QAUS, Targumic translations thus notoriously recording ancient practises of Nabataean religion for visual divination where visions of DHUSHARA, SHAI EL QAUM and QAUS were in divination seen. This notices positive and mythical description of these visions of DHUSHARA, QAUS and SHAI EL QAUM, and thus much attests that Book of Obadiah was ancient compreheded to originated from religion of Nabataeans.
SIXTH, numerous parallels of Book of Obadiah with Book of Ezekiel are clearly found in this study. Clearly are Greek translations of Book of Obadiah and Book of Ezekiel also intrinsically connected, both writing several Greek words that otherwise are only rarely in Greek Bible attested. Especially Ezekiel 30-32 writing of Edomite GIBBORIM (giants) write notably many parallels with Book of Obadiah, especially Obadiah 8-9 where are Edomite GIBBORIM and their Hakham wisdom noticed. (Also Targumic translation of Obadiah especially emphasises Edomite GIBBORIM. Also the parallel in Jeremiah 49:7-22 that writes parallels to numerous statements in Obadiah concludes with noticing emphatically Edomite GIANTS GIBBORIM; the idea of EDOMITE GIBBORIM thus is truly central topic for comprehending Book of Obadiah). Numerous parallels also with Ezekiel 35 are in this study established, the Ezekiel 35 being ancient important prophesy concerning SEIR, in Edomite areas (important reference is, of course, Deut 1-2). Numerous parallels attest specifically parallels of Greek translations of Obadiah and Ezekiel. Especially important is found that Book of Ezekiel in Hebrew Bible often notices word YBT, a word otherwise rarely in Hebrew Bible written, usually comprehended to refer to uppermost branches of tree, also such mentions of YBT in Ezekiel being important for clarifying some statements in Book of Obadiah. A special Chapter of this Study aims at clarifying YBT words in Ezekiel 31, its ancient quotations in Matt 13:31-32 (comparing with discussion of election in Romans 11:17-21 writing of KLADOS).
SEVENTH, readers of ancient Midrashim easily notice the surprising fact that statements of Book of Obadiah are usually commented with comparisons from Book of Daniel. Almost one third of quotations from Book of Obadiah are thus in Midrashim commented with comparisons with Book of Daniel This is a truly notorious tendency in ancient Midrashim- Daniel was known to be seer par excellence in ancient Jewish culture, thus are numerous writings from Book of Obadiah positively commented often with comparisons with very important and reputed ancient prophetic Seer, Daniel. These texts attest writings concerning seeing and visions (cf. HZWN YBDJH) rather than being condemnations of Edom and Edomites. Thus are, importantly, numerous statements from Book of Obadiah positively commented with comparisons with Book of Daniel, this attesting fundamentally positive comprehension of ancient interpreters of Book of Obadiah, this book thus unmistakably being reckoned among important literature of prophetic VISIONS.
EIGHT, name OBADIAH itself contains many important and positive references to ancient Jewish prophecy. Amply is in ancient Midrashim attested identifying the prophet Obadiah with the OBADIAH, manager of royal household of king AHAB, who rescued prophets in time of wrath, thus recorded in 1 Kings 18. Importantly, also Babli attests this identifying of prophet Obadiah with this manager noticed in 1 Kings 18, this emphasising positively role of Obadiah. We remember also that the Ark was residing in the house of OVED-EDOM before its being brought to City of David, also group of REQEMITES then were participating in these festivities for this important bringing of Ark, thus attested in 2 Sam 6. Notorious is also how Book of Ruth notices David’s grandfather Oved having been born to Naomi (or the Moabitess Ruth).
NINTH, well known is currently in scholarly discussions traditions of Obadiah, a sacral musician. Notably, a special session was devoted to discussion of sacral music of Obadiah in the Fourth World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem (1965); but this study tradition currently recognises such Obadiah having been rather medieval convert to Judaism, thus interpreting some notorious manuscripts preserved in Cairo Genizah. The current study, rather, straightforwardly recognises that Obadiah is in Hebrew Bible well noticed among descendants of famous choirmaster JEDUTHUN of Temple of Jerusalem. The 1 Chron 16:37-42 notices bringing of Ark to Temple and Oved-Edom’s having there officiated- the Oved Edom is here noticed as descendant of Jeduthun. Also 1 Chron 9:16 notices in Temple officiating musician Ovadja, descendant of Jeduthun, thus also Neh 11:17. The descendants of famous choirmaster Jeduthun especially are noticed among famous ancient Temple musicians, thus in 1 Chron 16:42, 25:1-3, 2Chron 29:14 and Neh 11:17. (However, any detailed study of those Obadiah Mss. in Cairo Genizah is in the current study not done). Thus is established in the current study existence of ancient family of Temple musicians, many of whom had name of OBADIAH, being descendants of that famous choirmaster JEDUTHUN. Therefore it is important that three Old Testament Psalms are ascribed in Hebrew Bible to this JEDUTHUN (or his tradition and his family), the Psalms 39, 62 and 77, and they attest connection to Edomite culture. Finding this group/family of musicians-prophets in Temple of Jerusalem especially clarifies the context of formation and preserving of traditions in this Book, “Book of Obadiah”.
TENTH, it is well recognised that Jeremiah 49:7-22 write notably many close parallels to statements in Book of Obadiah. This is amply noticed also in ancient Rabbinical Masora whose results were in the current study much noticed. Thus it is very important to notice that this writing in prophesy of Jeremiah 49 begins with referring to Edomite Wisdom and Wise, writing in Jeremiah 49:7 that LADWM KH AMR JHWH ZBAWT HAJN YWD HKKMH BTJMN ABDH YZH MBNJM NSRHH HKMTM where clearly is HKMH Wisdom emphasised noticing thus Edom. Also 49:20 emphasises Edom and thoughts and counsels, AL ADWM WMHSBWTJW ASR HSB; and this parallel concludes in Jeremiah 49:22 with emphatic reference to Edomite GIBBORIM, writing of GBWRJ ADWM. This text in Jeremiah 49 (and its Greek translation found in Jer 30) thus specifically emphasises Edomite Wise and Wisdom, and Edomite Giants GIBBORIM, this in the current study always noticed.
ELEVENTH, it is clearly attested that Philo of Alexandria writes numerous references to Book of Obadiah in his Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit. Among Philonic writings, this Book Quod Deus is notable for its writing concerning SEIR, place in Biblical history specifically connected with Edom and Edomites (especially in Deut 1-2), and this Book also much discussing wealthy and wealthy cities widely recognised in Ancient world. Importantly, this Book Quod Deus together with De Gigantibus records teachings of Philo of Alexandria specially concerned with traditions of GIANTS, the Quod Deus beginning with interpreting history of Giants in Gen 6. (This is important for ancient comprehension of Book of Obadiah; especially the Book itself emphasises writing of GIBBORIM, its parallel in Jer 49:22 concludes with emphatic notice of GIBBORIM, and also its parallel Ezekiel 30-32 specifically writes of EDOMITE GIBBORIM.) Very importantly, Philo does not here write any specific condemnation of Edom and Edomite culture; rather is important in this treatise Quod Deus writing of “royal road” (in this Edomite oriented treatise plausibly referring to their ancient famous trade route “King’s Highway” from Red Sea coast towards Palmyra, surely well known to wealthy Alexandrian Philo), this “royal road” importantly here interpreted being symbol for VIRTUE where LOGOS leads travellers (this especially echoes much doings of famous Nabataean deity SHAI EL QAUM, helper of travellers; and in this treatise Quod Deus Philo also makes some important echoes to Nabataean deity DHUSHARA).
TWELVE, importantly, the Greek translations of Book of Obadiah write this name in forms ORASIS ABDIOU or OBDEIOU or ABDEIAS and in some resembling letters (see esp. the ed. Gottingensia for these names). Attentive Readers now especially remember that for Greek speakers was known a liquid measure TO BADION, dim. of measures called BADOS or BATOS- especially, the liquid measure BATOS is the Hebrew liquid measure BATH. Furthermore, O BATOS denotes also some fish, probably some kind of skate (see L-S 311). For ancient Readers, both speakers of Hebrew and Greek and those multilingual, connection of Book of Obadiah with then usually known liquid measures was specifically clear. Thus it is truly important to remember that Book of Ezekiel often writes notorious parallels to Book of Obadiah, also their Greek translations being intrinsically connected. Importantly, Ezekiel 32:21 writes OI GIGANTES EN BATHEI BOTHROU that clearly notices large, magnified visual appearances appearing in depths of some liquid container- also the EN BATHEI BOTHROU clearly refer to Hebrew BATH measure and resemble Greek forms of name of prophet Obadiah (ORASIS ABDIOU or OBDEIOU or ABDEIAS). We especially see parallels to thoughts of GIANTS GIBBORIM in Obadiah in its parallels in Jeremiah 49, Ezekiel 30-35 and also in Philo’s Quod Deus (that commences interpreting history of GIANTS in Gen 6). This emphasises that the Book of Obadiah is specifically connected to Giants and enlargened visions appearing in water containers, thus in Edomite-REQEMITE context.

Obadiah 1 writes of HZWN and noticed the ADWM, thus referring to Edomite connections. Important attestation of Rabbinical understanding of such Edomite connection of Obadiah is found in Lamentations Rabbah 4.20-22.24-25 where the Obad 1 is quoted and Edom is much discussed. Here is interpreted Lam 4:22 that writes of TM YWNK BT ZJWN and PQD YWNK BT ADWM thus noticing Zion and Edom. Actually the Lamentations Rabbah 4.20-22.25 much writes of Edom and especially quotes the BT ADWM in Lam 4:22. Thus also this Midrash firmly places the Obadiah in Edomite context, thus quoting Obad 1 where ADWM is written. It is thus here truly important to notice that here Lamentations Rabbah 4.20-22.23 records sayings of R.Eleazar of Bozrah and R. Tanhum in name of R. Aha. These Midrashim thus write somewhat positive views concerning BT ADWM, Edom, and appreciating here record teachings of R. Eleazar of BOZRAH, in later times of Provincia Arabia that more important city in Edomite areas. Thus it is notorious that here are recorded also positively teachings of some Rabbis from Edomite BOZRAH- and even more importantly, thus is R. Tanhum connected to Rabbis working in Edomite centra- importantly especially for better understanding of Midrash Tanhuma (where also is Book of Obadiah surprisingly often quoted).

The Jeremiah 49:20 is importantly quoted in Genesis Rabbah 73:7, this being important for comprehension of the Obadiah because of close parallels in Jeremiah 49 to many statements in Obadiah. This Genesis Rabbah 73:7 interprets the Gen 30:25 that writes WJHJ KASR JLDH RHL AT JWSP. With regard to the rights of first-born and the status of first-born the Jacob, Esau, Reuben and Joseph do have very specific status that is often discussed in Talmud and Midrash. Jeremiah 49:20 constitutes an important parallel to Obadiah 1. It is now very important to notice that hereafter Midrash in 73:8 interprets the Gen 30:27-8 where is noticed appointing of certain wages. Already in this study it has been noticed that notoriously often the Old Testament legislation and narratives of histories of Patriarchs notice the SLH RQM words in discussion of appropriate wages. This Midrashic interpretation writes very important further information concerning Rabbis teaching “Obadiah-tradition”. Already was noticed in studies of Leviticus Rabbah 18:1 that this Leviticus Rabbah 18:1 records a teaching of R. Samuel b. Nahman in the name of R. ABDIMI of Haifa. This Leviticus Rabbah 18:1 thus notices that R. Samuel b. Nahman had learned some teachings from R. ABDIMI of Haifa, the name of R. ABDIMI unmistakably resembling (with vocalisations noticed) the name Obadiah. Thus it is specifically important now to notice that this Gen R 73:7 notices a teaching of R. PHINEHAS in the name of R. Samuel b. Nahman- thus noticing this teaching concerning interpreting Jer 49:20 (and also similarly notices soon hereafter Gen R 75:5 how R. PHINEHAS taught some teachings in the name of R. Samuel b. Nahman). Attentive study of Talmudim and Midrashim thus establishes easily ancient Rabbis who taught also some teachings of “Obadiah-tradition”: R. ABDIMI OF HAIFA, R. SAMUEL b. NAHMAN and R. PHINEHAS- importantly, they often find scriptural prooftexts in Book of Obadiah or in Jeremiah 49 that contains well known parallels to writings of Obadiah.

The Jeremiah 49:20 is also quoted in Genesis Rabbah 75:5 that interprets the Gen 32:5 WJZW ATM LAMR KH TAMRWN LADNJ LYSW KH ANR YBDK JYQB. Also this Midrash records a teaching of R. PHINEHAS in the name of R. SAMUEL b. NAHMAN interpreting relationship between Rachel’s descendants and Esau and thus studying Jeremiah 49:20.

The Obadiah 1 is importantly commented in Midrash Tanhuma on Leviticus 13:1, very important in this Midrashic interpretation is specifically commenting Obadiah 1 with Daniel 7:7 and Habakkuk 1:7. The Obadiah 1 is importantly commencing HZWN YBDJH that specifically notices generally the “vision of Obadiah”- thus this interpretation of Midrash Tanhuma on Lev 13:1 VERY importantly generally considers the VISION of Obadiah. Thus it is important to notice that this Midrash Tanhuma on Lev 13:1 comments Lev 13:1 ADM KJ JHJH BYWR BSRW SAT AW SPHT AW BHRT WHJH BYWR BSRW LNGY. This is, importantly, discussed in Mishnaic legislation concerning the NEGAIM. Readers easily see, that the Mishnah NEGAIM is very much concerned with observation of some visual spots and appearances and established official practises of (priestly) giving descriptions and accounts of such visual spots and appearances. . In this Midrash very central is the Habakkuk 1:7 AJM WNWRA HWA MMNW MSPTW WSATW JZA. The current Author Pasi K. Pohjala has recently published new translation and commentary on Qumran’s Pesher Habakkuk (“Habakkuk, Bacchus and Abacus: New Translation of Qumran’s Pesher Habakkuk (1QpHab) studying there references to Midrash Bahir. Jesus Teaches Bahir (1QpHab 9.11-12)” VERRE ET BIBLE 5 (March 2010, 103p.) by Pasi K. Pohjala) where is also Habakkuk 1:7 and its Qumranic interpretation commented:
“(Habakkuk Pesher 3.2-3.3, quotation of Habakkuk 1:6-7)
Because he is who says “the KS-cup magnified (QM) the visual sign (AT)..of the Shekinot being there, even if not-being there (LA-LW). The place is of waters (AJM), the place is of lamp (NR-A), it is that; from it is coming discerning (MSPT), that is: it brings to visual seeing (JZA) the visual signs (AT)”.
(Habakkuk Pesher 3.4-3.6 writes Pesher interpretation of the Hab 1:6-7)
“its interpretation, it is concerning the Kittim the vision makers whose blown vessels of similitude vision making (PH-DM) made of Aman special skill (AMT, AMNT, and TEKHNE, and also the usual Amen-words of New Testament writings) that appears magnified upon (YL) the vessel: their ideas (MHSBTM, cf. also Greek and even Platonic texts) are by means of advice of the vessel (BYZH KWL) for visions (LHRY); the vessel-understanding (BN-KL) visioning device of waters (JM, MRMH) they of bowl method (LK, lekane) produce methodically of vessels of peoples”.
(Habakkuk Pesher 3.6-3.7, quotation from Habakkuk 1:8-1:9a)” (Quoted from p.8 of VERRE ET BIBLE 5 (2010) by Pasi K. Pohjala).
Thus is easily seen that also Qumranic interpretation of this Hab 1:7 in 1QpHabakkuk emphasises LARGE, EXTENDED visions, HUGE visions and LARGE visions. It is now important to notice that here Midrash Tanhuma quotes Obadiah 1 that mostly is concerned with HZWN YBDJH, “VISION OF OBADIAH”. Thus is easily found that this Midrashic interpretation emphasises LARGENESS and HUGE EXTENSIONS of such visions of OBADIAH the prophet. Importantly, here this Midrash Tanhuma interprets Obad 1 HZWN YBDJH with Hab 1:7 AND ALSO with DANIEL 7:7. Daniel was the ancient seer par excellence, this comparison of HZWN Obadiah thus emphasises Obadiah’s good prophetic seeing. Also this Daniel 7:7 emphasises visions of huge and enormous size.

The Obadiah 1 and 18 are importantly commented in Midrash Tanhuma on Gen 32:25, the famous and very fundamental text concerning Wrestling of Jacob. It is very important to remember this very central history when studying this Midrashic interpretation that notoriously much is concerned with Elipaz the Temanite and his speech in Job 4 and neighbouring kingdoms of Israel. This Midrashic discussion is much concerned with noticing signs and seeing of signs. First is noticed request for a sign to R. Jose ben Qisma when he was walking in Tiberias with his students. Then is quoted Obad 1 that is concerned with the vision, HZWN YBDJH. This beginning with mention of R. Jose ben Qisma now is important to consider with noticing here also quoted Obadiah 18 in the conclusion. The Targumic translation of this Obadiah 18 famously refers to Nabataean deity QAUS. We thus find here in this Midrash Tanhuma on Gen 32:25 clear reference to Nabataean highest deity QAUS, and in cultic practises occurred augury and divination, seeking of signs. This specifies this Obadiah 1 and 18 in this interpretation of Midrash Tanhuma, importantly here recording a teaching of R. Samuel b Nahman that is in Midrash often seen having taught “Obadiah-traditions”. Thus it is important to notice that this Midrash Tanhuma here extensively quotes speech of Elipaz the Temanite in Job 4.

Obadiah 8 is in Midrash often commented and quoted in numerous interpretations. Also the Lamentations Rabbah quotes in 2.8-10.13 this Obadiah 8 that interprets the Lam 2:9 writing
This text contains obvious parallels noticing the ABD, Obad 8 writing of WHABDTJ, and the Obad 7b writing of AJN TBWNH BW is clearly paralleled here in AJN TWRH, remembering that often Rabbinical writings compare Wisdom and Torah. Also here noticed HZWN recalls Obad 1 so commencing this Book. Actually this Midrash notices the event of bringing the Ark to the city of David after the Ark had been several weeks in the house of Oved-Edom, told in 2 Sam 6.

New, modernised Translation by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of Obadiah v.2 and Commentary of Pasi K. Pohjala 2010 of Obadiah v.2

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