Thursday, 4 November 2010

obadiah 21 new commentary 3rd ed

OBADIAH v.20 New, modernised Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008, with detailed Commentary by Pasi K. Pohjala 2010
“and the revelations (GL) of the glass vessel (HL) in observations (HZ) occurs in white glass vessels of Israel, in style of prosucing (KN) for eye-sight (YNJM), something like Assurians: that magnifies (YD) the visual form (zura) of smaller, like Zarpat style, such revelations in Jerusalem, to extremities (SP) in Separd style; they sprinkle (RSS) and there is visual sign (AT) revelation for the obserbing of heights (HN, GBH)” Translation by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008 of Obadiah 20.
COMMENTARY In the Hebrew Bible the Obadiah 20 writes words
This statement of Obadiah 20 thus writes of many names of places, noticing Jerusalem, Israel, SPRD, ZRPT and NGB. Attentive Readers find that this statement of Obadiah 20 centrally writes of the WGLT...WGLT, the meaning of this GLT thus to be pondered for comprehending this statement. Readers find that Targumic translation here follows writing of WGLWT...WGLWT, this emphasising the importance of this word in this context. Clearly is to be considered therefore the important “galut” referring to scattering and diaspora; but attentive Readers of Targumi translation consider that this Translation concludes in v.21 noticing WTTGLJ MLKWTA DJWJ YL KL JTBJ ARYA where such TTGLJ rather is to be comprehended denoting revelation and such reign being revealed (according to very usual meaning of GLL words), this Targumic translation thus alerting Readers to consider such GLL words of revelation also here in v.20 writing of WGLT...WGLT. Readers find thus further in THIS context of Obadiah that the v.11 writes of GWRL and v.7 writes of GBWL that unmistakably are in contexts describing divination, this emphasising following reading in Targumic translation the concluding WTTGLJ denoting revelations. Especially, attentive Readers find that here is written of WGLT HHL HZH, such HZH even echoing the first word of Book of Obadiah, the HZWN denoting visions of prophesy in the Hebrew Bible. This reading of WGLT HZH compared with HZWN in Hebrew Bible unmistakably emphasises reading of the GLT to denote GLL revelations and visual revelations. The context of THIS statement thus is very important for comprehending of this statement. Comprehension of WGLT HHL HZH thus further requires a study of the HHL, this word, importantly, having been noticed also by Rabbinical Scholars in Masora. Targumic translation of HHL is YMA and Greek translation is ARKHE, thus noticing “beginnings”. The parallels in Hebrew Bible, importantly, are found in notorious texts of prophesying. Rabbinical Scholars have thus referred to 1 Samuel 3 that records history of young Shmuel (=Samuel) in the sanctuary of Shilo. Beginning of this 1 Shmuel 3 notices the famous episode of Shmuel’s hearing voices in the Sanctuary, and thus learning to attentively hear to God- interestingly, also Book of Obadiah commences so importantly writing of SHEMA traditions in Obadiah 1. This episode in 1 Shmuel 3 notices the HHL in important text, the 3:1-3 writing (famously) of seeing of Eli
This notices in Hebrew Bible concerning Eli that WYJNW HHLW KHWT. This statement is usually comprehended to describe that Eli’s eyesight had been becoming dim (KH- but cf. that KH also denotes strength), this text noticing that visions then only seldom were occurring. Importantly, this statement also writes of divine lamp, the NR. Thus attentive Readers consider very importantly, that the Obadiah 20 writing of WGLT HHL HZH actually describe visions, revelatory visions in divination; and the 1 Shmuel 3:12 writes of HHL WKLH WHGDTJ LW where is HGJD telling of prophesies noticed. This is emphasised reading further the context of book of Obadiah, the v.8 writing concerning divination and prophesy HLWA BJWM HHWA NAM (neum) JHWH, the v.11 writing of HJLW, the v.13 writing of WAL TSLHNH BHJLW BJWM AJDW where unmistakable reference to prophetic SLH in Obadiah 1 is seen. Thus also the CONTEXT of Book of Obadiah so clearly specifies such HHL being connected with prophesies and utterances of prophesies. It is also important to remember that Philo of Alexandria in the book Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit (=Quod Deus) makes many unmistakable references to Book of Obadiah. Thus it is important, that Philo in this Book also refers to traditions concerning prophet Samuel and also quotes some text from 1-2 Samuel in Bible. Importantly, in Quod Deus 139 Philo quotes from 1 Samuel 9:9 stating that
Here Philo notices that people of previous times sometimes called prophets “men of God” and sometimes called them “seers” (the LXX of 1 Sam 9:9 writes DEURO POREUTHOMEN PROS TON BLEPONTA OTI TON PROFETEN EKALEI O LAOS EMPROSTHEN O BLEPON). This Philonic quoting from 1 Samuel 9:9 noticing BLEPEIN seeing and O BLEPON seer much emphasises the tradition of 1 Samuel 3 noticing rarely occurring visions and quality of eyes of Eli, this statement in Hebrew Bible writing of the HHL that Rabbinical scholars found being paralleling this word in here in Obadiah 20. Philo writes in Quod Deus Immutabilis Sit very important Midrashic interpretation of Hannah and Samuel, in Quod Deus 5-15 describing Hannah’s having become pregnant of divine seed (EPEIDE GAR EGKUMON EGENETO PARADEKSAMENE THEIAS GONAS) and then Hannah’s having completed pregnancy and her giving birth to Samuel. These emphasise Philonic writing of Samuel and seeing and visions, so important for the here studied HHL traditions in 1 Samuel 3 and Obadiah 20. This is actually futher emphasised in the Hebrew text itself, because this CONTEXT writes in Obadiah 19-20 words
Thus this CONTEXT also writes word AT denoting OT visual signs before word HGLYD and this WGLT, this very much emphasising this CONTEXT writing of visual signs and appearances. Furthermore, Rabbinical Scholars find further parallel to such HHL in Deut 2, the Deut 2:31 writing such HHL word in statement specifically denoting seeing and attentive observing
Also this context of Deut 2 thus emphasises such HHL to be specifically connected to seeing and attentive observations, the Deut 2 specifically writing of Esau and mountain of SEIR that is very important for Book of Obadiah for its very often noticing Esau and traditions concerning Esau.

Readers of this Obadiah 20 in its ancient Greek translations much also ponder concerning this text writing concerning visions and revelations. Here is thus written (in ed. Gottingensia) KAI TEN GALAADITIN KAI TES METOIKESIAS E ARKHE AUTE TOIS HUIOIS ISRAEL GE TON KHANANAION EOS SAREPTON KAI METOIKESIA IEROUSALEM EOS SEFRADA. Greek Translations here thus preserve the GALAADITIN that for multilingual Semitic speakers unmistakably refer to GLL words and also their well known meaning concerning revelations. Greek readers here also notice this referring to MET’ IKESIAS, thus referring to some occurrences after prayers and petitions, thus probably referring to occurrences of revelations and divinations, the IKETEUO well known denoting prayers and petitions and rituals. For the Greek Readers, such words of METOIKESIA here refer specifically also to settlements. Well known in Ancient Greek literature describing the Greek and Hellenistic POLEIS and their settlements in foreign places and countries, the METOIKOS usually denotes “settler from abroad, alien resident in a foreign city, one, who has settled in a country” (L-S 1121), and the METOIKESIA (=METOIKIA) denotes in Greek and Hellenistic literature “change one’s abode, remove to a place, settle in, to be a settler, reside in a foreign city” and it also is translated, curiously enough, in renderings of Jewish writings with “captivity of Jews” (thus L-S 1121), although reading this word in accordance with usual renderings would rather describe in numerous Old Testament texts Jewish settlements and trade stations established and living in different important ancient centra and regions, also this reading well in accordance with known realia (actually, thus is called for meticulous reading of texts where Greek Bible writes concerning METOIKESIA and similar words that often denote settlements and trade stations, a study far beyond the scope of this commentary of Book of Obadiah; thus, many texts of Greek Bible rather notice life of ancient Jewish settlements in different countries- in fact, to be confined to reading these words to denote “captivity of Jews” is itself an unnecessary captivity of OUR current comprehension of ancient history that should be promptly amended!) Ancient Readers of such Greek translations of this text of Obadiah 20 thus considered here also denoted living as settlers, founding of settlements in foreign countries- notably this text thus more describing voluntary pursuits and activities of some people, their living as settlers and founding settlements. THIS reading for ancient Readers considering the context of the Book of Obadiah in culture of PETRA-REQEM thus easily emphasised their having founded settlements in Jerusalem. This use of word METOIKESIA in this Obadiah 20 thus emphasises the context of the whole Book of Obadiah in culture of Reqemite settlers in Jerusalem; but writing this word with the GALAADITIN emphasises to ancient Readers that important for these settlements was activity of prophesies and revelatory visions. Easy reading following the normal use of METOIKESIA in Hellenistic times thus corrects the interpretation of these words- they denote life and status of REQEMITE SETTLERS IN JERUSALEM. Clearly, this has been their voluntary activity (and notice that Syriac here rather writes of WSBJTA QDMJTA considering SWB and SBH words)- and some of them are among the Temple musicians in the Temple of Jerusalem, this emphasising the comprehending of musician Obadiah and these traditions of choirmaster Jeduthun. Especially, we find reference to this exactly in these words, GALAADITIN KAI TES METOIKESIAS H ARKHE where more scrupulous ancient Readers found reference to Semitic GLL words denoting revelations AND also clear reference to “ADITIN” where the name JEDUTUN is unmistakably found- thus is this METOIKESIA concerned with GLL revelations and connected with JEDUTUN traditions; and the ARKHE here can have actually specified that this Choirmaster JEDUTHUN (or some member of family with this name) actually was founder of this settlement (this does not seem to be any exceeding interpretation of these details of this text; for example, Symmachus here does not write such detail but merely DE TEN GALAAD). This reading of METOIKESIA to denote voluntary activities of living as settlers is here emphasised by the fact that in Greek translations, the GLH words often are translated also with AIKHMALOTEUEIN and AIKHMALOTIZEIN and AIKHMALOSIA (see the Hatch-Redpath) that more emphatically denote captivity and use of coercion, motivating more writing of “capitivity (of Jews)”- but importantly, here no Manuscript supports reading in this Obadiah 20 such words. Also translating GLH words with APOIKIZEIN and APOIKIA more emphasises movement “from somewhere”- but neither the Mss. preserve here any such reading. Here the Greek Mss. support reading of the METOIKESIA and this word denotes in Greek and Hellenistic literature usually voluntary doings, founding of settlements in foreign places and life as settlers. We find, importantly, that METOIKESIA in Greek Bible translations translates GLH word in Judg 18:30, 2 Kings 24:16, 25:27, 1 Chr 5:22, Jer 50 (43):5, Lam 1:7 and Nah 3:10 and here in Obad 20. Considering that much of Book of Obadiah so closely parallels writings in Jeremiah 49, it is here truly important to notice that such writing in Jer 43:5 denotes clearly voluntary activities and attempts of finding rescue based on own choice, rather than “captivity” imposed by coercion. Importantly also, the S supports here reading EIS METOIKESIAN and the A and B support here in Jer 43:5 reading KATOIKEIN that emphasise clearly somewhat voluntary character of such activities. Importantly and notoriously, the Mss. of Lam 1:7 also preserve such details, the A supporting EPI METOIKESIAS and B and S supporting the KATOIKESIA. The METOIKEIN translates GLH in 2 Samuel 15:19 and also here such doings have clearly voluntary character. Importantly, occurrences of METOIKESIA in Ezekiel 12 preserve notorious traditions. The Ezek 12:11 writes ON TROPON PEPOIEKA OUTOS ESTAI AUTOIS EN METOIKESIA where is unmistakably also Obad 15 also recalled (ON TROPON EPOIESAS, OUTOS ESTAI SOI), the METOIKESIA translating GLH word. Attentive Readers also then notice that Translation of Aquila writes of METOIKESIA also in Ezekiel 3:11, important MERQABA text, and also here in Ezekiel 12 Aquila translates so in 12:3 where Hebrew text writes of VESSELS, writing YSH LK KLJ GWLH WGLH and 12:2 emphatically writes of eyes and seeing- this attests importance of considering ideas of revelations and divination when reading these texts. It is truly notorious that Greek translation of Book of Obadiah often finds parallels in Greek Ezekiel- and Midrashic interpretations of Obadiah very often comment these statements with texts from Book of Daniel. These ancient tendencies are for attentive Readers very clear and indicate that Book of Obadiah had important and notorious place in ancient discussions of prophesying. Importantly, in Greek Bible translations another tendency of translating the GLH words is translating these often with words denoting revelations and visions, such as words APOKALUPTEIN, EKFAINEIN, FAINEIN, DEIKNUEIN (see Hatch-Redpath), and ancient multilingual Readers here pondered such meanings because the Greek text so notably here writes of TEN GALADITIN KAI TES METOIKESIAS where are so interestingly compared Semitic reading of GLL word with its meanings and one usual translation of such word with Greek word METOIKESIA. Ancient Readers actually reading this context pondered the meanings of GLH words especially with comparing this word with thereafter written AT YRJ HNGB in Hebrew Bible writing of Obadiah 20. Well known is that YJR denotes cities but also revelations and visions of revelation (see e.g. BDB 735 and 746). Meanings thus resemble much translating of GLH words with METOIKESIA and METOIKEIN, noticing a place of settlement and activity of settlement, and also translating this GLH with noticing revelations and visions of revelation. Importantly, the ancient Midrashim attest very often interpreting and quoting writings in Obadiah in contexts where statements from Book of Daniel are quoted and interpreted. Important is now for this Obadiah 20 especially the ancient Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 121. Obadiah 18 and 21 and Obadiah 5-6 with its parallel text in Jeremiah 49:10 are interpreted in Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 121. It is further truly notable that here Midrash Tehillim also comments Daniel 4, clearly writing comparisons of Obadiah 21 and Daniel 4:13 and 14. This further emphasises that in Midrashim surprisingly often texts of Obadiah are written with quotations from Book of Daniel. This Midrashic interpretation appears importantly commenting the word YJR (and some resembling words)- it is to be remembered that YJR words denote cities and towns and they also denote revelations and visions, these interesting details are in this Midrashic interpretation well noticed. This Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 121 now especially notices Daniel 4:13-14 that writes of YJR WATCHERS. It is now to be remembered that Obad 20 writes of JRSW AT YRJ HNGB; the Modern Translation now written notices here the AT (denoting visual signs) and the Obad 21 much writing of GLL words of revelation and seeing- thus this AT YRJ further motivates reading YRJ in context of seeing and revelations. This interpretation of Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 121 thus importantly describes Obadiah 5-6 and 18 and 21 to be texts concerning observations and visions, importantly, thus also quoting Daniel 4:13-14 for emphasising YR Watchers and seeing; and this Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 121 places such discussion in context of liturgy quoting of the Shmoneh Esreh WLJRWSLJM YJRK BRHMJM TSWB. Furthermore, here written concerning Negev is also very important, in this statement of JRSW AT YRJ HNGB, this comparably with Obad 19 writing concerning H’ DBR WJRSW HNGB AT. These statements in the Hebrew Bible both write concerning the NGB, word AT and JRSW, the Obad 20 writing concerning YRJ and this statement in Obad 19 preceded by H’ DBR that refers to divine revelation and divine prophesies. For writing concerning NGB are notable the mentions of NGB in prophesy of Ezekiel 21, thus writing in 21:1-5 (in Hebrew Bible). Thus writes 21:2-3 concerning WHNBA AL JYR HSDH NGB WAMRT LJYR HNGB SMY DBR H’ where the NGB occurs with JYR words, similarly to here Obadiah 19-20 mentioning of YJR words. The Ezekiel 21:3-4 continues KL PNJM MNGB ZPNWH WRAW KL that emphasises PNJM visual appearances and RAH seeing; and this prophesy in Ezekiel concludes notoriously referring to MSL riddles and allegories HMH AMRJM LJ HLA MMSL MSLJM HWA in 21:5. The NGB thus is in traditions well connected with YJR visions and prophesies. This is much emphasised by comments of this text and following Obadiah 21 in Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 121 where this is commented with notice of WATCHERS YJR in Daniel 4:13-14. (Such Midrashic commenting of statement of Obadiah comparing with statement in Daniel is surprisingly usual in Midrash that shows clearly ancient well established and widespread tradition of commenting statements of Obadiah with comparing with writings in Daniel). Also the ZRPT mentioned here in Obad 20 refers in Hebrew Bible to notoriously important prophetic traditions, recalling 1 Kings 17 of the widow of Zarepta and miraculous containers- and notably, Philo of Alexandria makes rare reference to this tradition of 1 Kings 17 exactly here in Quod Deus 136-138 (and see the comments in “Two Treatises” by Winston and Dillon, p.47 and 340, here Nikiprowetzky commenting in p.47 with more ethical interpretation). Here the Greek texts preserve reading of NAGEB; but also is attested form NAGETH in 534 and 544 where attentive Reader might find reference to EN-GEDI; understandably thus could some group more specify such southern place with referring to one more specific well known place in those southern regions. Also in the Book of Joshua are found important writings mentioning NGB, thus in Joshua 10:40, 11:16, 12:8 and importantly in Joshua 15:19- this statement notices NGB and GLT word writing concerning TNH LJ BRKH KJ ARZ HNGB NTTNJ LJ GLT MJM WJTN LH AT GLT YLJWT WAT GLT THTJWT where are notorious writing of NGB and GLT MJM. (In the current scholarly discussions are, especially, studies of Avraham Negev concerning archaeology and excavations in Negev region very important, and concerning Nabataean - Reqemite presence in Negev region, especially important for their borders, he has written summarising “The Negev and the Nabataeans” in Petra Rediscovered- Lost City of the Nabataeans (2003). The archaeology of Negev being very important with many important finds, however, the current text of Obadiah mentioning YR and AT substantially refers to visual revelations and prophesies, thus so importantly noticed in Midrashim).

OBADIAH v.21 New, Modernised Translation of Pasi K. Pohjala 2008, with detailed Commentary by Pasi K. Pohjala 2010
“and liberators will ascend to mountain of Zion, to make discerning (or inquiries in lecanomancy, attempts to understand concerning future events) such visual sign in white cavity of reflections of Esau style- and the kingdom will be God’s.” (Translation of Obadiah 21 by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008)
COMMENTARY The Obadiah 21 concludes the whole book of Obadiah and thus importantly summarises much of central content of the Book of Obadiah. Thus this concluding text is to be understood in close comparison with texts of Book of Obadiah, and especially seen how this text of Obadiah 21 develops ideas and words written in the introduction of Obadiah 1-2. Especially important is to notice that the v.21 thus concludes the Book of Obadiah with a Zion tradition, writing in Hebrew Bible the words
In the Book of Obadiah the Zion traditions are rarely written, thus this statement directly referring to Obadiah 17 writing of Zion traditions in words WBHR ZJWN THJH PLJTH WHJH QDS, these words already studied here in Translation and Commentary. It is notable that writing of Zion traditions in words of Hebrew Bible of Obadiah in these texts writes of BHR ZJWN, such word BHR only written here with ZJWN, the HR YSW written in statements of other wording. Attentive Readers notice that Greek translation write in v.17 the EN DE TO OREI SION, but here in v.21 is attested the EKS OROUS SION, such words well attested in Greek Mss. (see ed. Gottingensia). Targumic translation of Obadiah writes in these both statements of BTWRA, thus following the Hebrew Bible, this wording in Targumic translation especially echoing the specific connection of the TARGUMIC translation of Obadiah to PETRA-REQEM and Nabataean culture- in v.21 is written MSJZBJN BTWRA where is found the letters N-B-T unmistakably referring to Nabataeans, thus also in the v.17 writing WBTWRA refers to N-B-T for Nabataeans. Reference to N-B-T and HBJT (that denotes seeing and observing) is, of course, very notorious considering that the TWR denotes mountain AND consulting divination and augury and that the BHR also refers to the notorious Bahir traditions and Book of Bahir. The tradition of mountain of Zion is in Greek Bible much connected to SOZO, this v.21 writing of KAI ANABESONTAI ANDRES SESOSMENOI EKS OROUS SION, and the v.17 writing of EN DE TO OREI SION ESTAI E SOTERIA, these statements in Greek Bible thus comparing OROS and SOZO/SOTERIA. The beginning of this statement in Hebrew Bible notices the WYLW MWSYJM BHR and Targumic translation noticing the WJSQWN MSJZBJN BTWRA. Rabbinical Scholars of Masora refer to parallel in Nehemiah 9:27 for the word MWSYJM, this importantly preceding the WBKL TAT ANHNW KRTJM AMNH WKTBJM WYL HHTWM noticed in Nehemiah 10:1. Often Targumic translation follows much the Hebrew Bible, thus such Targumic writing of WJSQWN for WYLW in this concluding v.21 is notable. Attentive Readers aim to comprehend these words in their OWN contexts in Book of Obadiah in Hebrew Bible and in targumic translation, and thus make reference in Targumic translation to v.7 writing of SKLTNW and in v.8 continuing such writing noticing WKL GBR DBJH SWKLTNWTA that clearly echo such WJSQWN. Importantly, these words in v.7-8 refer to Wisdom and Wisdom traditions (see the commentary of 7-8 before); the SKL word generally noticing “to be bright” and “to look at, observe” and “to reflect, to see clearly” (see J 990). Considering that Targum here writes of WJSQWN BTWRA where even the NBT is echoed, it is truly important to notice that in Targum of XII Prophets actually SKL words do translate NBT words (esp. HBJT) thus in Habakkuk 1:3, 1:5, 1:13, Jonah 2:5 and Zephaniah 12:10 (see Concordance Houtman II, 293-4; and they also there translate BJN words concerning understanding, so in Micah 4:12 and Hoshea 4:14 and 7:9). Such Targumic translation in v.21 WJSQWN BTWRA thus appears to be careful and detailed composition noticing Nabataeans and specifically good and bright seeing and reflecting- importantly, the very name Esaw (YSW) important in the whole Book of Obadiah so much also referring to reflecting, reflectors and visual reflections (cf. thus also the SQR denoting seeing and observations, shining and looking, so in J 1021). Importantly, in Targumic language SQR notices to espy, similarly to TWR, and ASQRJA denoting places of espying and places of observations (see J 97). Thus is easily seen that Targumic translation of Obadiah 21, the important conclusion of Book of Obadiah, clearly notices activities of prophesy, augury, observations and visual observations, this importantly translating the WYLW in Hebrew Bible. Targumic translation emphatically concludes WTTGLJ MLKWTA DJWJ YL KL JTBJ ARYA, translating thus MT words WHJTH LH’ HMLWKA; thus Targumic translation emphasises revelation and becoming revealed, promising that to all inhabitants of earth then will be revealed the reign of JWJ, the Hebrew text writing of WHJTH, Greek translation following this writing the future ESTAI. Targumic translation thus emphasises WTTGLJ revelation, this coherently with the emphasising in beginning of Obadiah 21 the WJSQWN BTWRA noticing observations and seeing. Comparison with YSW the Esaw traditions here in v.21 is emphasised in the Hebrew Bible here writing of WYLW MWSYJM BHR...AT HR YSW where the HR is connected to YSW Esaw and MWYSJM, this emphasising in this book of Obadiah to Readers to make comparisons of WYLW MWSYJM and name YSW Esau, the name Esau referring so importantly to visual reflections, seeing visual reflections and reflectors. Furthermore, following Rabbinical traditions of study of this text of Obadiah 21 is in the Masora found important reference to parallel in 1 Chronicles 10:13-14 where is negatively emphasised Saul and his consulting divination wrongly, this emphasising to considerations of rightly consulting of divination and augury. Furthermore, the traditions of gathering of remnant much are to be compared with traditions of Book of Baruch in literature connected with Book of Jeremiah, the most important references, of course, found in Isaiah 46-60. Already many statements of Book of Baruch have been found to parallel statements in Book of Obadiah (especially Greek translation of Obadiah). Thus are noteworthy statements of Baruch 4-5 where Sion traditions and traditions noticing gathering of remnant are so much stated. Especially, Baruch 5:5-6 writes of ANASTETHI IEROUSALEM KAI STETHI EPI TOU HUPSELOU KAI PERIBLEPSAI PROS ANATOLAS KAI IDE SOU SUNEGMENA TA TEKNA APO HELIOU DUSMON EOS ANATOLON TO REMATI TOU HAGIOU KHAIRONTAS TE TOU THEOU MNEIA. EKSELTHON GAR PARA SOU PEZOI AGOMENOI HUPO EKHTRON, EISAGEI DE AUTOUS O THEOS PROS SE AIROMENOUS META DOKSES OS THRONON BASILEIAS. This tradition of Book of Baruch, so centrally connected to Book of Jeremiah, is especially important for comparisons with Book of Obadiah, because Jeremiah 49 does not record obvious parallel to this conclusion of Book of Obadiah, although the Jer 49 writing many almost exact parallels to many statements in Book of Obadiah. This tradition of Baruch 5:5-6 thus writes of gathering of the remnant, their coming and notoriously, notices that “Jerusalem” is SEEING attentively their coming and their glorious approaching. Thus this text writes of Jerusalem’s PERIBLEPSAI and IDE thus exhorting to attentive seeing, and their KHAIRONTAS happiness in their approaching with glory (META DOKSES). Thus are emphasised attentive seeing and situation of gathered remnant. The Baruch 4 more writes of Sion traditions, thus in 4:9, 4:14, and importantly the 4:24 writes of Sion tradition and seeing and observation, writing OSPER GAR NUN EORAKASIN AI PAROIKOI SION TEN HUMETERAN AIKHMALOSIAN OUTOS OPSONTAI EN TAKHEI TEN PARA TOU THEOU HUMON SOTERIAN E EPELEUSETAI HUMIN META DOKSES MEGALES KAI LAMPROTETOS TOU AIONIOU. Also this statement of Baruch 4:24 thus emphasises ORAO seeing by Sion (or inhabitants of Sion) and thus their seeing the divine rescue coming to them with glory and brightness from the Eternal. (Importantly, in the Book of Baruch often are emphasised the “hearing”, this already studied in comparison with statements in Book of Obadiah, thus writing of “seeing” and attentive observing of glorious and happy coming are also emphasised in the Book of Barcuh). These statements thus emphasise Jerusalem and Sion traditions, noticing rescue and clear seeing of their glorious coming. These texts of Book of Baruch provide unmistakable parallels to Sion traditions in Book of Obadiah, these both books so importantly connected to Jeremiah. These easy considerations lead to the New and Modernised Translation of Obadiah 21.

The Greek translations of this conclusion of book of Obadiah here make interesting reference to their context by selecting the EKDIKESAI for translating the SPT. In the Greek Bible, the SPT usually is rendered with words KRINEIN, DIKAZEIN and DIAKRINEIN, although in these Mss. of Obadiah the EKDIKEIN is well attested. This selection of word EKDIKESAI for thus translating Hebrew SPT is a tendency usual in Greek translations of Book of Ezekiel (see Hatch-Redpath). This is especially important, because usually the EKDIKEIN in Greek translations of Bible translates Hebrew words PQD and NQM. Importantly, in Greek Translations of Jeremiah, the EKDIKEIN usually translates PQD word, this following more usual tendencies of Greek Bible translating. In this Obad 21 such well attested translating of Hebrew SPT with this EKDIKEIN is actually one further attestation that the Greek Translation of Obadiah surprisingly often makes references to details known in Greek translations of Ezekiel. These details of detailed comparisons of Greek translations do interestingly specify the meaning of the EKDIKEIN written in this Obadiah 21. Easy study finds especially important writing of EKDIKEIN in Book of Ezekiel in Ezek 25:8-17 that much discusses, importantly, Moab and Idumaea, areas well noticed also in Book of Obadiah. This text, especially, connects EKDIKEIN with knowledge, writing thus of EPIGIGNOSKO. Thus writes Ezek 25:11 that EIS MOAB POIESO EKDIKESIN KAI EPIGNOSONTAI; and 25:14 writes KAI EPIGNOSONTAI TEN EKDIKESIN MOU, LEGEI KURIOS; and concluding writes 25:17 KAI POIESO EN AUTOIS EKDIKESEIS MEGALAS KAI EPIGNOSONTAI. These Greek translations in Ezekiel connect this EKDIKESIS with knowledge EPIGIGNOSKO, the concluding 25:17 even writing of huge (or severe) in stating EKDIKESEIS MEGALAS. In this important text are SPT and NQM in Greek Bible translated with these EKDIKESIS words, the 25:11 writing in Hebrew text of WBMWAB AYSH SPTJM WJDYW. Importantly, this text is clearly addressed to Moab and Seir, the 25:8 writing clearly of MWAB WSYJR in Hebrew Bible. This emphasises details of translating of EKDIKESAI and EKDIKESIS words in contexts of discussing Moab, Seir (and Edom); for the current study this emphasises importance of reading idea of knowledge with reading of the EKDIKESAI. Actually we remember that idea of revelation is well noticed in Targumic translation of this conclusion of Book of Obadiah, there being written of LMDN JT KRKA DYSW WTTGLJ, also this Targumic notice of LMDN being thus connected with revelations TTGLJ. Also can be noticed Ezek 24:7-8 writing TOU KALUPSAI EP’ AUTO GEN TOU ANABENAI THUMON EIS EKDIKESIN EKDIKETHENAI DEDOKA where is also the EKDIKEIN connected with KALUPTEIN revelations- this text is, IMPORTANTLY, explicit description of practises of Lecanomancy, the Ezek 24:3 writing of this practise TADE LEGEI KURIOS EPISTESON TON LEBETA KAI EKKHEON EIS AUTON HUDOR. Thus is in Greek translation of Ezekiel such EKDIKEIN firmly connected to practises of LECANOMANCY, this also making more substantiated the specific connecting of EKDIKEIN with EPIGIGNOSKO in these noticed statements in Ezekiel 25. Furthermore, the EKDIKESIS written in Ezekiel 9:1 is also substantially connected to vessels and utensils, writing in Greek translation that EGGIKEN E EKDIKESIS TES POLEOS KAI EKASTOS EIKHEN TA SKEUE TES EKSOLETHRESEOS EN KHEIRI AUTOU where the SKEUE can denote utensils, vessels or some devices. Worth considering are also Num 31, Ps 93:1 and LXX of Jer 20:12. This unmistakably also is specifying also the context of this TOU EKDIKESAI in conclusion of Obadiah 21, this text conveying to Readers more specifically practises where Lecanomancy was practised (also for aiding discernment). This Modernised Translation now attempts to reflect such details with selecting word “discern” for translating SPT of the Hebrew text. Such “discern” does include certain reference to “judgment” bur rather in context of epistemology than in juridical context. The context of lecanomancy is clear in many preceding statements in Book of Obadiah, there appropriately noticed in these current Translations, and in the translation of this Obad 21 noticed in words “and liberators will ascend to mountain of Zion, to make discerning (or inquiries in lecanomancy, attempts to understand concerning future events) such visual sign in white cavity of reflections of Esau style- and the kingdom will be God’s.” (Translation of Obadiah 21 by Pasi K. Pohjala 2008). The Obadiah 18 and 21 are importantly interpreted in Deuteronomy Rabbah 1:17-20. This Midrash interprets the very central text concerning Israel’s encounter with Edomites after their coming from Egypt in Deut 2. The Deut 2 is very central text concerning Edomites and Edom, notoriously thus being part of the Deuteronomy. Rabbinical interpretation in this Midrash notices similitude of HR and HWR (parent), saying of R. Hanina noticing Esau and his parent HRW, thus quoting Gen 25:28. This Midrash notices actually many HR words. Now it is truly important that before quoting Obad 18 and Obad 21 also this Midrash quotes Daniel, finding the Dan 1:4 important. This text emphasises very much wise and wisdom. Secondly, the Obadiah 21 concludes the Book of Obadiah and it is quoted also in Leviticus Rabbah 13:5 that concludes these interpretations of Parashat Shemini. The Obadiah 21 writes of WYLY MSYJM BHR ZJWN LSPT AT HR YSW WHJTH LH’ MLWKH, this concluding word being now central in this Midrashic interpretation. In this Midrash a list of ancient famous empires is followed by quotation from Obad 21 that concludes with the MLWKH- thus this Midrash emphasises this MLWKH (“kingdom”) here being very concretely comprehended. Interestingly, this Midrash much writes of GRR that unmistakably alludes to Targumic translation of Obadiah 20-21 where is written GLWT...GLWT (v.20) and WTTGLJ (v.21)- this WTTGLJ being Targumic interpretation in v.21. Thirdly, Obadiah 18 and 21 are quoted in Zohar 1:143-144 that are interpreting the Blessing of Jacob. Zohar here notices concerning the inheritances that “Jacob, above and below; Esau, below...when Jacob and Esau began to receive their blessings, Jacob obtained his share above, while Esau obtained his share below” (thus Pritzker ed.). Here is, interestingly, also mentioned Rabbi Shimon son of LEKONYA. Fourth, Obadiah 2, 18 and 21 are quoted interestingly in Zoharic interpretation of texts concerning Jacob’s wrestling, change of his name to Israel, his encounter with his brother Esau and thereafter his journeying towards Succoth. These are very fundamental Scriptural texts concerning Jacob and Esau, and therefore it is of special importance that Zohar quotes often texts from Book of Obadiah in writing interpretation of these very important histories, thus written in Zohar 1:170-173a. We remember that the Book of Obadiah emphatically begins with HZWN, vision, that is actually only seldom occurring beginning in books of Prophets. Thus it is interesting that this Zoharic interpretation so clearly compares Moses’ specially good seeing through SPECULUM and good seeing and comprehending of Prophet OBADIAH. Importantly, also another description of seeing through clear Speculum in Zohar 1:172a explicit writes in that context reference to Obadiah, quoting the Obadiah 21.Fifth, Obadiah 21 is also quoted in Genesis Rabbah 78:14 that interprets the Gen 33:14 WYBR NA ADNJ LPNJ YBDW WANJ ATNHLH LATJ LRGL. The Rabbinical interpretation also here notices the YBD word and thus concludes this interpretation quoting Obadiah 21; the Midrash here notices Esau’s having suggested their being co-operators, but the answer recorded in Scriptures rather emphasises the YBDW. Sixth, Obadiah 21 is interestingly interpreted in Genesis Rabbah 83:1-3 in sayings that unmistakably show the interpreters having thus considered then prosperous and famous trade center Bozrah. This is very important attestation that in the times of important Rabbis, the Book of Obadiah was well considered to describe then the ancient Nabataean areas, thereafter areas of Provincia Arabia, and especially the important city Bozrah there. The Gen R 83:1 studies the important Gen 36 that records histories of Edomite rulers and Edomite genealogies. Here is also quoted Ezek 27:6 noticing “oars” that are parts of a ship, and this prophesy of Ezek 27 notices Zor describing it as an affluent centre of maritime trade. Attentive Readers thus notice that in these LATER times when these Rabbinical interpretations were formed, so also this interpretation by R. Isaac, in the Edomite area the trade centre BOZRAH was affluent and flourishing and conducted much maritime trade e.g. via Trajan’s Road. The Genesis Rabbah 83:1 concludes interpretation quoting Obadiah 21, this attesting clearly that these ancient Rabbinical interpreters clearly knew to apply the Book of Obadiah when considering Edomite areas and Edomite centra of the Rabbinical times. This emphasises that connection of Book of Obadiah to Edomite trade centra was well known also in Rabbinical times. Seventh, Obadiah 4, 18 and 21 are very importantly all quoted and commented in Midrash Tanhuma on Leviticus 6:1. This is very important interpretation of these texts- and thus, of the whole book of Obadiah- especially because here the Midrash Tanhuma also writes quotations and comments of DANIEL, thus quoting texts from Daniel 3. Daniel 3:15 here quoted questions WMN HWA ALH DJ JSJZBNKWN MN JDJ. Also this text emphasises the official character of thus founded religiosity. This is also connected to fire, here quoted Dan 3:22 noticing exceedingly hot fire flame. But importantly also is noticed here Dan 3:32 ATWHJ KMH RBRBJN WTMHWHJ KMH TQJPJN thus wondering how great are the divine signs (OT) and how astonishingly-large are his miracles (TMH often in OT referring to astonishment when something very magnified and numerous is observed). Thus the quotations of Daniel 3 here notice public practises of cult where also fire-flame was present; and also are magnified divine miracles and signs thus noticed. Eighth, Obadiah 18 and 21 and Obadiah 5-6 with its parallel text in Jeremiah 49:10 are interpreted in Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 121. It is further truly notable that here Midrash Tehillim also comments Daniel 4, clearly writing comparisons of Obadiah 21 and Daniel 4:13 and 14. This further emphasises that in Midrashim surprisingly often texts of Obadiah are written with quotations from Book of Daniel. This Midrashic interpretation appears importantly commenting the word YJR and some resembling words. Here Midrash quotes the concluding of Obadiah 21 WYLW MWSYJM BHR ZJWN LSPT AT HR YSW WHJTH LH’ HMLWKH. This text clearly writes the YLH word, WYLW MWYSJM BHR; thus it is here interesting to notice that this Midrash Tehillim here records tradition that interprets this relatively usual Hebrew word YLH with quoting specifically THIS statement in Obadiah 21 WYLW MWYSJM. Later it will be argued that very important reason for such selection of commenting here with Obad 21 is found in the Targumic translation of Obadiah that emphasises revealing and revelations, this important also for here interpretations of the YJR words. Here are statements commented with Daniel 4:13 and 14, the 4:13 writing HZH HWJT BHZWJ RASJ YL MSKBJ WALW YJR WQDS. This statement writes of YJR WQDJS “a watcher, a holy one” (thus RSV translation). Importantly, here is written concerning the YJR, “a watcher”; and thus writes also here quoted Dan 4:14 BGZRT YJRJN PTGMA of “watchers”. Especially, this Midrash does emphatically comment Obad 20 noticing also YJRJN Watchers in DANIEL 4:13-14, thus emphasising descriptions of visual observations and revelations. Actually such emphasising of revelations in Obadiah 21 is clearly expressed in Targumic translation writing here WTTGLJ MLKWTA DJWJ YL KL JTBJ ARYA whose TTGLJ is Targumic interpretation, actually much in accordance with here in Midrash Tehillim on Ps 121 emphasised visual revelations.


Philo of Alexandria wrote mainly commentaries to Torah, writing very important allegorical commentaries for texts

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