Tuesday, 12 February 2013
Verre et Bible 14 by Pasi K Pohjala Feb2013 described with this HABAISHAZE word, leads thoughts to the HAIBES Shadows that are also in this ancient Coptic Hypostasis of Archons described. We think thus quite much of such houses that we in modern times more designate as Cinemas or Picture Houses. This formulation is here in Haggaj 2 specifically emphasised because here 2:7 writes also WMLATJ AT HBJT HZH KBWD AMR JHWH ZBAWT In this very similar formulation are similarly KBWD (KABOD) and HBJT HZH written, this indicating here clear formulation. Indeed, here in 2:7 is the Tetragrammaton JHWH written, this detail much supporting comparisons of JHJH and JHWH in writing of 2:9. The Greek Septuagint translation here writes concerning 2:7 KAI PLEESOO TON OIKON TOUTON DOKSEES LEGEI KURIOS PANTOKRATOOR and 2:9 DIOTI MEGALEE ESTAI E DOKSA TOU OIKOU TOUTOU E ESKHATEE HUPER TEEN PROOTEEN LEGEI KURIOS PANTOKRATOOR The current writer Pasi K Pohjala in recent Commentary on Book of Haggaj (Verre et Bible Eleve, of March 2012) commented this statement by describing production of visual appearances of God in Temple, quite much in style of projecting pictures in cinemas: ”thus is divine Lord here describing how He appears in enormously large visual appearance in Temple, in so enormous appearance that the appearance actually seems to fill the whole Temple (PLEESOO). It is truly notorious that this Greek translation of prophesy of Haggai is indeed very descriptive and specific concerning the magnitudes of that enormous divine appearance in writing MEGALEE ESTAI E DOKSA E ESKHATEE HUPER TEEN PROOTEEN, this noticing that the latter visual DOKSA appearance is much larger than the first visual DOKSA appearance- and this notoriously well describes visual magnification. Ancient priests were quite specialists of arranging diverse visual tricks and miracles (see e.g. many descriptions by Th. HOPFNER). Enormously large, vivid and certainly visually impressive visual appearance of Deity could easily be arranged for some smaller group gathering in a dark temple by placing a bright candle behind a colourful glass mosaic where some ‘picture of deity’ is formed of pieces of colourful glass, and then projecting this colourful light figure through a magnifying glass bowl- this produces indeed, impressive colourful and large visual apparition of Deity, certainly for ancient people awe inspiring apparition.” (Pasi K. Pohjala: Verre et Bible Eleven, p.7). In this Commentary Verre et Bible Eleven also were much then discussed use of glass bowls such as currently known MOSQUE LAMPS in this picture projecting for making the magnification. Currently are preserved numerous beautifully decorated MOSQUE LAMPS that are quite large and nicely partly globular and thus also act as powerful magnifying lenses when water filled (and not decorated but merely of clear white glass). Thus could “prophets” successfully and cleverly arrange visual impressive appearances of “god”, with a miniature glittering colourful glass figurine, by placing that figurine appropriately beside that magnifying globular water bowl, so that huge magnified colourful picture was promptly projected onto Temple Veil! Apparently powerful “prophet”, powerful prayers, helped with some mastery of arrangements of ancient vision technology! Thus we quite much better comprehend these descriptions in Haggaj; and so have rendered to Readers of our times in English formulating that “The Kavod appearance is so magnified (GDL) in he House for Observing (HZH) in the Aaron style, the qualities that it is showing in doubles (SN) in the lamp vessel (AM,NR) of God of magnified visual signs, this place of magnifying (maqom, QM) is for observing visual sign (AT) miraculous (NS) in completeness (SLM)- that is prophesy from God of magnified visual signs” (New and Modernised Translation of Haggai 2:9 by Pasi K. Pohjala in Verre et Bible 2, 2008). Chapter Six. Many Prayers to Mighty Typhoon in Greek Magical Papyri In the magical rituals described in Greek Magical Papyri notably many ritual prayers are said to divine Typhoon serpent. Important prayer is written in the Great Magical Papyrus IV, notably in ritual of LECANOMANCY bowl divination. Thus we read in PGM IV.154ff that “NEPHOTES TO PSAMMETICHOS, immortal king of Egypt…You will observe through bowl divination (SKEPSEE DIA LEKANEES AUTOPTOU) on whatever day or night you want, in whatever place you want, beholding the god in the water (THEOOROON TON THEON EN TOO HUDATI) and hearing a voice from the god which speaks in verses in answer to whatever you want. You will attain both the ruler of the universe and whatever you command, and he will speak on other matters which you ask about You will succeed by inquiring in this way: First, attach yourself to Helios in this manner (SUSTATHEIS PROS TON HELION TROPOO TOUTOO)…” Thus here in the PGM IV.154-170 is described ritual of bowl divination, lecanomancy, and thereby observations of appearances of the god in the waters, and hearing his answers to questions. This ritual involves importantly recitation of prayer “O Mighty TYPHON, ruler of the realm (KRATAIE TUPHOON, TEES ANOO SKEEPTOUKHIAS SKEEPTOUKHE) Above and master, god of gods, O lord ABERAMENTHOOU O dark’s disturber, thunder’s bringer, whirlwind Night-flasher (NUKTASTRAPTA), breather forth of hot and cold, Shaker of rocks, wall-trembler, boiler of The waves, disturber of the sea’s great depth (BUTHOTARAKSOKINEESE)…” (PGM IV.180-185, in Translation of E.N. O’Neil, in Ed. H.D.Betz) Thus is to Typhon prayed, noticing that Typhon in various situations brings light, in form of thunders and during night; and Typhon also disturbs the sea and boils the waves. Another ritual of bowl divination is thereafter described here in IV.224ff, ritual of bowl divination. In the bowl is poured rainwater if heavenly gods are called, or seawater if gods of earth are called, or river water if Osiris or Sarapis are called, or springwater if the dead. The PGM IV.235-242 then writes the spell spoken over that vessel, and divine name of hundred letters. This is then commented “but you are not unaware, mighty king and leader of magicians, that this is the chief name of TYPHON, at whom the ground, the depths of the sea, Hades, heaven, the sun, the moon, the visible chorus of the stars, the whole universe all tremble, the name which, when it is uttered, forcibly brings gods and daimons to it” (PGM IV.244-249, in Translation of E.N.O’Neil in Ed. Betz). Here is then also third important prayer to mighty TYPHON written, prayer said towards the rising sun: “I call you who did first control gods’ wrath You who hold royal sceptre o’er the heavens You who are midpoint of the stars above You, master TYPHON, you I call, who are The dreaded sovereign o’er the firmament… (SE KALOO TON PROOTA THEOON OPLON DIEPONTA SE TON EP’OURANIOON SKEEPTRON BASILEION EKHONTA SE TON ANOO MESON TOON ASTROON TUFOONA DUNASTEEN SE TON EPI TOO STEREOOMATI DEINON ANAKTA…) TYPHON, in hours unlawful and unmeasured, You who’ve walked on unquenched, clear-crackling fire, You who are over snows, below dark ice, You who hold sovereignty over the Moirai, I invoked you in pray’r, I call, almighty one…” (PGM IV.261-272 in Trl. E.N.O’Neil and Greek text from the Ed. of Karl Preisendanz. The Magical Papyri are in their terminology difficult and mysterious and in formulating their prayers mystical. Thus modern discussions better quite much follow the serious attempts in Ed. Karl Preisendanz and Ed. Betz to bring these very difficult and mystical texts somewhat comprehensible to readers of modern times. Readers do, of course, some own translations but public discussion better is much based on these very learned Editions.) Secretive astronomical speculations and descriptions are of course numerous; but worth noticing here are SE KALOO…SE TON EP’ OURANIOON SKEEPTRON BASILEION EKHONTA SE TON ANOO MESON TOON ASTROON TUFOONA as the TUFOON indeed was more widely noticed in astronomical descriptions also as part of the Great Bear; we thus more comprehend also this mention ANOO MESON TOON ASTROON TUFOONA. We also here make important notices concerning cult of Asclepios. It is very important to be well knowledgeable of this ancient important and widespread religious cult, and it is likewise important to make distinctions of different rituals and cults were snake staffs and religion of snakes are mentioned; generally, in much of ancient religions snakes were positively noticed. But one important religious cult where snakes were centrally important was the cult of Asclepios. One quite comprehensive recent study is by C. Kerenyi “Asklepios. Archetypal Image of the Physician’s Existence” (1960, the Bollingen edition). It is quite worth mentioning that name Asclepios for that famous Hellenistic god of healing and medicine is notably similar with the usual Arabic TABIB (in Semitic languages the T and S often are changed so that we easily recognise how similar is name Asklepios to usual Arabic TABIB noun designating physicians. We may suppose certain, or quite much, Oriental influence; somehow similar what we notice in name Archimedes whose Principle is important for scientific study of floating objects- essentially important for designing BOATS and SHIPS- because in Greek language the name ARCHIMEDES actually means “Median Prince” (of the usual Greek verb ARKHEIN noticing ruling and reigning and ARKHEE noticing leading offices and ruling activities. Understandably, the ancient Median culture had certainly much and comprehensively studied floating objects and made more scientific theories of floating objects. The Archimedes’ Principle in purely descriptive terms notices the essential condition of any floating objects and thus is truly the fundament for successful boat construction (the famous principle noticing when a body is partly or completely immersed in a fluid the apparent loss of weight is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced). Thus such “Archimedes’ Principle” in Greek Science understandably is old Median or Babylonian tradition learned via some “Median Prince” or “Median nobleman”.) And notably the name Asclepios is in developments of Semitic languages notoriously similar to word TABIB for physicians. And important episode in the quite popular Biblical book of Tobith is finding medicine cure against eye infection, after a long search in distant travel. Many statues of Asclepios usually represent him with his snake staff. In the Greek world, the main sanctuary of Asclepios was in Epidaurus, although quite little is known of the details of the religious cult. Some notices by Pausanias emphasise that snake was considered a form of epiphany of Asclepios (II.10.3). Usually is regarded that the sacred snake of Asclepios was the coluber longissimus, quite lengthy tree snake whose head is, importantly, of brass colour. The Hebrew NAHAS word, of course, denotes both snakes and copper and brass; but specifically identifying thus the snake sacred to Asclepios should certainly be quite restricted especially to avoid too hasty comparisons with Hebrew NAHAS. The religious cult of Asclepios had interesting connections also with cult of sun. Near to city KOS in grove of Apollo Kyparissios was built temple of Asclepios, and in that temple also Helios and Hemera (Sun and Day) were worshiped. Indeed, in several inscriptions is Helios mentioned together with Asclepios, the name Helios usually there mentioned first (Kerenyi 1960, 55-56). Moreover, in Hellenistic religion, Asclepios has certain connections to sunrise “the morning song of Asklepios was incised on marble tablet in the Asklepeion at Athens “Awaken, Paieon Asklepios,” it begins and the closing words are: “Awaken and hear the hymn!” This god’s relations to the sunrise, his appearance as a kind of solar epiphany, could scarcely be made clearer” (Kerenyi 1960, 59). Indeed, also is known some medals of Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-35) from Nikaia, Asia Minor, where Asclepios is depicted on a winged snake as a sun god flaring up out of darkness (Kerenyi 1960, 99). Indeed, the cult of Asclepios could be founded where the sacred snake staff of Asclepios was present. Thus has cult of Asclepios apparent connections with solar cult and especially rituals at sunrise. It is important to remember Greek popular cult of Asclepios when considering Greek texts that consider healing or that notice snake staffs; but cult of Asclepios was, ONLY ONE widespread and popular cult where snakes and snake staff were centrally important symbols. Another very important religious cult is the cult of Hermes, and soon we make more notices of Hermes and his Caduceus snake staff that is also famous solar symbol. The cult of HERMES was (and is) of enormous religious importance and included important traditions of alchemy and cosmology, especially in Hellenistic Egypt the Hermetic religion developed intriguingly much. Haggaj 2:6-7 important detail: RYS words in Old Testament for Harbours and safe havens; “Jerusalem” not name for one city but old noun for safe harbours We study now details of Haggaj 2:6-7, especially the Hebrew RYS word; and thus we encounter one very large and important question of Old Testament study, namely question concerning meaning of the numerous RYS words in Hebrew Bible. We shall notice that often these words importantly notice anchorage, safe havens and safe harbours. In Quran we remember the Sura HUD where the safe anchorage is noticed MURSAHA. Thus we encounter the quite big question of Biblical research, to what extent Old Testament and especially Apocrypha of Old Testament describe reality of ancient maritime empire. Of course Readers much consider that mostly Old Testament describes events in ancient times in the area that we currently know as Palestine (or Israel), and many happenings generally in regions of modern areas of Jordania, Syria, Egypt and especially Lebanon. But we shall see that notoriously much Old Testament describes reality of such regime and rule that was a naval trade empire, stretching from East to West. Thus one important detail is that we notice reality typical of such naval empires- and thus are questions of harbours and safe havens of very big importance. The current writer Pasi K Pohjala also recently has discussed previously question of distant ancient trade settlements and trade voyages between these trade stations in discussing writings of the GOLA in Old Testament. Usually is GOLA seen as quite hapless and unhappy exile, and pious are looking forward to divine help to gather together pious from such bad situation. But I have recently put forward important argumentation in the tradition that comprehends such GOLA rather as description of reality of maritime trade empire whose trade posts and trade settlements are located in distant areas and much of activity of that regime is concerning the successful voyages between these settlements, so that trade, commerce and cultural exchange are reality. Now we more study the question of HARBOURS in Old Testament, studying RYS words in Old Testament, also in Haggaj 2:6-7. We first notice the currently understood usual lexical meanings of RYS words (and some similar words) in Hebrew Bible. Marcus Jastrow translates RYS with “to tremble, be in commotion, rage” and the Hifil as “to shake, disturb”. And Marcus Jastrow notices the noun RYS with “commotion, earthquake” (p. 1489). Everyone who has been in a boat or travelled in a smaller ship well knows who much these are shaking and are trembling. Boats and ships in anchorage especially much are shaking and are in disturbance. And the BDB (that is fundamentally continuing and developing the Gesenius) notices the RYS “quake, shake” and “tremble, quake, toss rage (of sea)” (BDB 950). It is now really important to notice that the BDB that is based on Gesenius and is thereby developed during generations of Biblical scholars here indeed notices RYS ALSO as “toss, rage (of sea)”. this important notice of RYS having circumstance in seafaring and seas is now noticed as actually quite usual in Old Testament, so that RYS quite often notices trembling and quaking on seas, amidst waves, and importantly, also in the situation that boat or ship is anchored in a harbour. In the Ezekiel 27:28 we read LQWL ZYQT HBLK JRYSW MGRSWT “at the outcry of your pilots the billows shall heave” (Tanakh) Thus is noticed a kind of strong cry from captains and that then in MGRSWT areas shall be quaking. The RYS word is here explicit describing situation of seafaring, and thus it is in these widely received translations such as Tanakh rendered. The Septuagint tradition indeed translates here the HBL as KUBERNEETAI. And description of circumstances of harbours and naval affairs is important also in Ezekiel 26:15 that in Hebrew Bible states of TYRE that KH AMR ADNJ JHWH LZWR HLA MQWL MPLTK BANQ HLL BHRG HRG BTWKK JRYSW HAJJM “Thus said the Lord God to Tyre: The coastlands shall quake at the sound of your downfall, when the wounded groan, when slaughter is rife within you” (Tanakh) The word AJJM also may be translated as islands or isles (see BDB)- thus is noticed the RYS doing and AJJM isles and islands that clearly thus specifies RYS being importantly relevant also in context of maritime culture and seafaring. Following the Tanakh translation we then question HOW such isles and islands might tremble or quake? Obvious answer of course is that they look somehow like seen from a boat- seen from the quaking boat the islands indeed seem quite much trembling (even if the islands themselves are strong and stable), the quaking and tossing of those islands is caused by the quaking of place of observer, that the islands are seen from a boat or ship that is in midst of sea quaking and tossing. And thus Ezekiel 26:18 concludes that YTH JHRDW HAJN JWM MPLTK WNBHLW HAJJM ASR BJM MZATK “now shall the coastlands tremble on the day of your downfall and the coastlands by the sea be terrified at your end” (Tanakh). Also interesting notices are in the following prophecy concerning Tyre in Ezekiel 27 where the 27:4-5 notice “your frontiers were on the high seas, your builders perfected your beauty. From cypress trees of Senir they fashioned your planks;they took a cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for you” (Tanakh) BLB JMJM GBWLJK BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM MSNJR BNW LK AT KL LHTJM ARZ MLBNWN LQHW LYSWT TRN YLJK This prophesy is concerning Tyre, the important ancient naval centrum. Appropriately thus is noticed BLB JMJM GBWLJK, that the frontiers of Tyre were on seas. And then we notice in Hebrew stated BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM and ask what, then, is this BRWSJM. Preceding words BLB JMJM GBWLJK refer clearly to situation or place beside high sea, that is, harbour. Thus we now render this BNJK KLW JPJK BRWSJM so that this statement refers to RWS HARBOUR, thus rendering that “your builders perfected your beauty IN THE HARBOUR”. Of course, this is really appropriate description of that ancient famous flourishing Tyre, appraisal of that magnificent beautiful harbour of Tyre. Now the BDB translating tradition, of course, does render this BRS as denoting cypress or fir (BDB 141) but there also acknowledging that the specific meaning of BRS root is, however, unknown. We notice that even if BRS in some statement indeed notices cypress or fir trees, attentive Readers of Hebrew Bible shall specifically notice the B-RS where the meaning of noun RS (or RYS) is central; THUS reading now B-RS we indeed find reference here to the RS harbour and can thus render here IN THE HARBOUR. This is of course specially appropriate because this statement immediately before writes of place being the frontier beside the high seas- and harbour is exactly such place, built by builders. Then this statement continues noticing that plank structures in that harbour were of planks from Senir; and strctures of poles and masts were of poles of cedar trees.