Friday, 22 April 2016

A LEXICON COMPARING WORDS OF EUROPE AND ASIA Comparison of some Chinese words with words of Russian and Finnish languages, and words common in TEUTONIC languages; also noticing some Old Greek words of interest. by Pasi K Pohjala First Edition, of April 16, 2016. Articles of MAA (horse); PAOBU (run); ZHI (sticks and logs); YU (fish); TAIYANG (sun); ZIJI (self) and ZHU (live, dwell); HUNLI (wedding); GAI (build); KAI (to burn); GAO (warm); LIFU (cloth); YANJING (eyes); PENGYOU (friends); QU (come, go); LAOSHI (clever); HAO and HUAI (good and not good); LONG (dragon); WOSHI (a dwelling, a room); BIAOGE (cousin); QUN (measuring group); SHAN (mountain); SHU (tree); CAO (grass, lawn); HUA (flowers); HU (river); HAI (ocean, sea); NAO (brain); MEI (every); KU (bitter); SUAN (sour); TIAN (sweet); CHUANTONG (tradition); DONGSI (something); WEN (question); WAI (other); WEI (someone); SHENG (body); YING (win); SHOU (writings); LIANG (travel); and comparisons of numerals one to ten; and CONCLUDING SUMMARY. The main aim for this lexicon survey is to clarify and manifest similarities of many usual words in modern TEUTONIC languages, with Chinese words. Regrettably, their similarities with Chinese words often remains unrecognised in surveys of linguistic history of usual words; but this study aims to manifest in this question much more clarities in apparent form. Thus are also similarities of such Chinese words noticed with words in Russian and Finnish languages, Chinese neighbouring cultures in this large Eurasian continent. FIFTY ARTICLES, by Pasi K Pohjala. Chinese MAA word for HORSE is very similar to modern English MARE for fem horses (and in Swedish marr although HAST is there more general) and Finnish HUMMA word for horses; and historically Old TEUTONIC MARHOZ noticed fem horses, also apparently similar. In Hebrew RKB words notice riding, and noun formation MARKHAVA notices chariots in Old Hebrew. In older times, horses were all important and usual, and thus this vocabulary IS particularly important. Chinese PAOBU and MANPAO words notice running activity, and there are apparently similar with Finnish verbs PAKO; PAETA (to flee from) and PIKA; PIKAINEN (quick). Importantly thus is Russian BEGAT (to run) also apparent similar (resembling Turkish BEYGIR notices horses, quick runners). Notoriously, for PAOBU and MANPAO verbs we detect similarity with very usual Old Hebrew BA verb (to come; to go); and even similarity with old Greek BAINOO verb for coming and going. Chinese ZHI measure word notices long and thin objects, eg chopsticks; and in Finnish similar are TIKKU (a stick) and TUKKI (woodlog) words; and Old Hebrew TQY verb notices to drive a peg in when setting up a tent. Old Greek ZUGOS notices also yokes, special wooden stick too; the KSULOS being more general Greek word for wood and trees. Importantly, Turkish CIVI notices nails and pegs and CIVILEMEK to nail. Modern English knows usual STICK word that is usual TEUTONIC word; old TEUTONIC root STIK noticed to pierce and to prick (in Sanskrit, root tij notices to be sharp); similarly with Greek STIZEIN, to prick. Notably, TIKKU, TUKKI and ZUGOS rather notice all kinds of wooden sticks and rods, not with particular regard to pricking. Chinese YU word notices fishes generally. Notably, Finnish JUO verb notices to drink, well relevant for swimming fish. And German Kabeljau notices cod fish; and German das Juchten notices watertight leathern things, also well similar with Chinese YU for fish. In Russian language, we find many interestingly similar words, RYBA for fish and PLYT verb notices swimming. Russian BYI word notices floating thing; all these Russian words interestingly recall that Chinese YU word for fish. In Turkish is the BUYU for magic and incantations, and YUZMEK verb notices in Turkish to float. Hebrew BYH notices to bubble, and to reveal, and is used in reference to waters, too. In ancient times, rivers, waterways and coastal routes were very important routes for travelling and transportation, and many people were thereby active and in such areas resident, so that similarity in these words is especially important. (Worthy mention is also English JUG word, for a liquid container, although its origination is regarded unclear). Chinese TAIYANG notices sun; and this is notoriously similar with usual Finnish word TAIVAS that generally notices heavens; and Finnish TAVATA notices encounters and appearances generally. In Russian is DAVAT usual verb for giving; apparently important earlier was hope for providential sustenance from heavens, for good weather of seasons. Notably thus is similar the usual Old Hebrew TOV for good and Hebrew JOM TOV notices religious festival days. And in Hebrew NTH notices to spread, similarly how heavens is spread; and Hebrew NTY notices to plant and to set up, also noticing how the heavens were regarded having been set up and established. Old Greek AKTIS generally notices light and light rays and sparkles. Importantly, in terms of geography, old name of central Finland was TAVAST-LAND, and it is important to recognise how vast areas of Siberia were (and are) known as TAYGA area. In older times, comprehension of geography was of course not so distinctive, so that similarity of names of Russian TAYGA area and old name of central Finland TAVAST-LAND is especially noteworthy. Chinese ZIJI notices SELF; and ZHU notices activity of living in and lodging. These are notoriously similar with Old Greek ZAO (ZEIN) noticing to live; and also similar with Greek OIKIDZEIN noticing dwelling in habitation or in a house. Russian usual verb ZIT notices both being alive and inhabiting in; inhabitants are ZITELEI. Apparently similar with Chinese use are Finnish nouns SIJA and SUOJA, words for place of something or place of someone. Thus it is interesting to compare with common TEUTONIC word SELF (German selber, Swedish sjalv) that is common TEUTONIC and is in Old TEUTONIC found in selbo words. In Old Norwegian found form SIALF is notably similar with the SIJA word, continuously usual in Finnish. But etymology of this common TEUTONIC self words is continuously regarded obscure. Thus it is surely worth comparison with these Chinese ZIJI and ZHU words, that find so remarkable comparison in continuously usual Finnish SIJA and SUOJA words, and also in Russian usual ZIT verb, especially with regard to geography and population movements during decades. Chinese HUNLI notices wedding; this is apparent similar with usual Finnish JUHLA (a festival) and JUHLIA (to celebrate); and modern German knows of JAUCHZEN loud celebrating. Also is similar Old Greek GELAOO to laugh and be happy; and in Russian is ULIBKA noticing smile. Remarkably is similar here Turkish GULUMSEME for smile and GULUMSEMEK to smile. Notoriously similar is English noun HALL that is common TEUTONIC word (German Halle and Swedish hall), and is in old TEUTONIC found in HALLA form; this noticing generally large places with some roof. Apparently, festival gatherings usually were gathering under some roofed area, or under tents. Thus we also remind of old Hebrew AKL verb noticing eating, and celebrating; and AHL noticing tents in Old Hebrew. Chinese GAI word notices to build. In Finnish usual word KATTO notices a roof or a roofed place (cf also Turkish CATI for roof), thus place established for settled inhabitation. Notably similar thereby is old Hebrew GAG noticing a roof, and roofed place, a built place; and GAR is in Hebrew usual verb for inhabiting and dwelling in. This Hebrew GAR also is similar with Old Greek AGORA the public square of cities and AGORADZEIN. In Russian is word GOROD usual for cities and towns. These are built and well established places of human habitation; and AGORA, for public activities in cities. Chinese KAI word notices to burn and to boil; such are important activities in human habitation and settling. Remarkably similar is old Greek KAIOO and KAUSIS, for kindling and burning. (In Greek is of course the KAI word for AND in writings really usual too). Turkish word GOK notices sky and heavens; that is also place of bright stars and lights; and in Swedish we recognise ETT KOK noticing kitchen area of a house where is the fireplace operated; in German, word Kuche notices a kitchen. And in Finnish is KOKKO usual word for large bonfires; but it is notable that poetic Finnish also reminds of huge KOKKO that specifically is particular kind of bird or flying being. Chinese GAO word notices warm. Apparently similar word is Greek KAIOO, KAUSIS that notice warming, burning and boiling. Also Turkish KAYNATMAK noticing to boil, appears similar; in Finnish language word KIAHUU notices boiling (this is usual dialect form; but literary correct Finnish nowadays is KIEHUA; such smaller changes in vowels have been introduced into literary Finnish language- so that Finns have to remember such details when writing grammatically correct text, even if in everyday speaking apparently more using familiar dialect forms). Apparently, descriptions of warm and cold are not objectively determined and thus can much show variation in different places and for different people. Thus we, indeed, find in TEUTONIC languages resemblances in words for COLD. The COLD is common TEUTONIC word (German kalt, Kalte and Swedish kall); in Old TEUTONIC was verb stem KAL noticing to be cold, also old TEUTONIC KALDOZ. Notably, this old TEUTONIC forms is not too different from Old Hebrew words QAR, QARIR for cold (and actually, old Hebrew letters R and L are so remarkably similar that QAL forms in old Hebrew writs also may have occurred too, noticing cold!)And thus, we also recognise similar Russian GALODNO noticing cold. In Finnish, most similar is verb KALISTA that often describes body shivering amidst freezing weather of Finnish winter, and this is, remarkably, similar with old TEUTONIC root KALDOZ. Chinese LIFU word notices cloths; apparently similar with Finnish noun LIPPU that notices specific kind of clothes, flags. In Turkish, word LAF notices words and remarks, being relevant here because usually flying flags were signals for some remarks. Old Hebrew knows verb LBS to wear clothes, and its Hifil form also being very usual too. This Hebrew LBS is general word for wearing clothes; it is not appearing for flags. (It is worthy here noticing also the usual English word FLY; this is common TEUTONIC word, and in Old TEUTONIC appearing in FLEUGON and FLEUGAN forms. Modern German writes of fliegen and Flug, and Swedish writes of flyga (to fly) and flagg (a flag). Chinese YANJING notices an eye; and this is remarkably similar with old Hebrew AJIN or YJN word usual in old Hebrew. Thus it is really notable that similar words are in TEUTONIC languages usual. German finden, fand verb is usual and in Swedish is finna, fann verb usual nowadays, and the noun fynd of Swedish. In English, is TO FIND usual and indeed, this is common TEUTONIC word, that in OLD TEUTONIC appears in find and findan forms. Interestingly, in modern Russian is UMNYI word for clever people; and in Finnish notice words YNNA and YNNATA doings of mathematics (notably noticing of F-YNN and thus of fynd and German finden). In Turkish is similar word UYANIK more noticing of watchful and vigilant people. Chinese word PENGYOU is usual for friends. The Old Hebrew PQH notices to care, to guard; and to open eyes. Similar Turkish BEKCI notices guards and watchmen, and BAKICI notices more nurses and guards. In Old Greek such meanings also are central, although FEUGOO and FUGAS notice fleeing from and escaping from (also usual Greek FEGGOS word for flame and light is notably similar too). Thus we interested notice that in Finnish is PEKKA usual first name (and appearing in Finnish surnames in forms PEKKA-NEN and PEKKA-LA, these notifying of reference to particular activity). Chinese word QU usually notices to come and to go. This is apparent similar with Russian GULJAT verb noticing comings and goings (more indefinite that ITI verb); and similar is in Finnish found verb KULKEA, and noun KULKU. In Finnish, the noun KUU notices The Moon. In Old Hebrew, the QUM is usual word noticing going and Hebrew QWH verb is more of directing towards specific place. It is thus remarkable noticing that this Hebrew QUM actually is really similar with famous old Greek GUMNAZOO verb that earlier more noticed of doing physical training (and GUMNOS). In old Greek worth mention here are also KHUOO and KHEOO verbs. Importantly, also such Turkish verbs start with G, there GITMEK noticing to go, and GELMEK noticing coming. English speakers thus prompt recognise also the GO (gone) verb; this is common TEUTONIC (German gehen, gang and Swedish ga, gick), and in Old TEUTONIC appearing in GAE and GANGG stems. In this discussion, it is worth noticing that Finnish noun KUU notices The Moon; the periodical movements of the Moon were of central importance for peoples following lunar calendar, and these peoples very carefully were observing movements of The Moon. Chinese word LAOSHI notices cleverness and clever people. Worth is thus reminding that old Hebrew LHS is firmly word of oracles and uttering charms and spells; and LHS also notices hissing, also important in many oracles. Similar word in Finnish is LAISKA, and similar is Turkish LACKA for slack people. In Turkish LOS notices gloomy and murky and this is more relevant to places and rituals of many oracles. In Old Greek is LEETHEE hiddenness and being concealed and veiled; and A-LEETHEES notices true and becoming revealed (ALEETHEES and ALEETHEIA). (Similarity with LHS is also here apparent, recognising usual S and T changes in Aramaic). Thus it is also interesting to recognise development F-LS that we, apparently, recognise also nowadays in common TEUTONIC word FALSE noticing something wrong and not true (English false, German falsch Falschung and Swedish falsk words). Interesting similarity is found regarding Chinese usual word HAO for good. This is remarkably similar with usual Russian word HAROSI for good, and with usual Finnish HIANO word for good. Notably, we can also here detect a similarity with Old Greek word AGATHOS of good, especially in AKHATHOS spelling. And Chinese usual word HUAI for not good is also similar with usual Finnish word HUANO for not good; also Russian comparative form HUSHE (worse) is similar here. Chinese word LONG notices dragon. Every English speaker well recognises word LONG noticing extended objects and beings; indeed, we regard a dragon as a being of some considerable length too. Finnish word LANKKU notices lengthier wooden logs and rods. Such words appear in Russian; DLINNYI notices long and DOLGO notices of much duration. Notoriously important is found in German language that noun SCHLANGE is usual noun for snakes and apparently comparable with the Chinese LONG word too. (German TILGEN notices to wipe off; apparently quite descriptive of snake movements upon the ground too). Also is word LANGE in German very usual. And thus we conclude reminding the usual important old Greek word LOGOS. The LOGOS word in Greek includes multitudes of meanings, noticing utterances, words, writings, and generally wisdom. In Hellenistic Stoicism was LOGOS especially important philosophical concept noticing in world inherent reasonable order that was organising word to better organised. In early Hellenised Christianity too, and especially in Alexandria, there was very developed religious cult of LOGOS and much philosophical and religious writings concerning divine LOGOS. And Greek LIGUS notices burning flames (also burning life principle was one central topic of Hellenistic Stoicism). We conclude this discussion noticing that the nowadays usual English word LONG is, indeed, common TEUTONIC word, and in old TEUTONIC appearing in forms LANGGO and LONGHO. Thus we, apparently, remind that the LONG word in Chinese denotes the dragon; this is well relevant for modern TEUTONIC comprehensions too, especially noticing the modern usual German noun SCHLANGE for snakes. (A small concluding notice: the chevalier St GEORGE and dragon- theme conceals the important idea, that previously, the horses of chevaliers were actually compared with dragons- thus: in certain sense, that St. George was himself riding on dragon, because horses of chevaliers were compared with dragons; this merely, as a small concluding notice here). Chinese word WOSHI notices room, living place. This is apparently important word. In Finnish language, word SAVU notices concretely smoke, and earlier, residence houses were named as SAVU because of the fireplace located in house for warming house. Thus it is notable that old Hebrew OZ notices generally strength, and especially strongly built places, even fortified strongholds and citadels. Similarly in Russian language, ZAMOK notices castles, and locks, thus secured and fortified places of inhabiting (also German castle word Schloss is similar with verb for locking, schliessen). It is thus notable that Turkish YASAMAK word generally notices to inhabit, and to dwell (and resembling Turkish word SOMINE notices fireplace). Chinese word BIAOGE notices COUSIN. This appears really interesting in these comparisons. Finnish noun POIKA is usual noun for a son (male descendant). In Russian notices BOG word God; and generally notices BOGATYI rich and wealthy people; in Russian folklore is BOGATYR popular figure too. In Old Hebrew notices the PQD especially events of sexual intercourse, thus making fertile. In older societies, indeed, very essential richness was the ability of procreation. Also, Turkish language knows BITEK noticing fertile and GEBE noticing pregnant. Old Greek word BIOS and BIAIOS for life are very usual. These words are apparently really similar. (We remind also of BEN word for sons, in old Hebrew; and words bin and bint in Arabic; it is, indeed, notable to consider German sein verb: ich bin, du bist usw). Chinese word QUN is measure word for crowds and large groups. The word is similar with usual Finnish word KUNTA for smaller towns; and also apparently with German Gegend word for areas and districts. Important parallels in old Greek are GENOS and GENEA also for important groups; and GENNAOO; these manifest giving birth and groups of thus related people. (Russian KUTSA notices heaps and piles; and this more parallels Finnish KUTSU, KUTSUA, inviting people to gather together.) In old Hebrew is apparent parallel to QUN the KNS word that notices gathering, gathering together; and such is also Finnish word KANSA (folk). Chinese word SHAN notices mountain. In northern Finland there is located one high mountain and it is called SAANA, this word being the proper name of that mountain (noun VUORI is the usual Finnish noun for a mountain). Russian word VERSHINA notices the summit of a mountain, and this Russian VERSHINA and name SAANA apparently are similar with that Chinese SHAN word for mountains. Importantly, mountains are in regions steady geographical places of continuous duration in the region and being massive and visible and thus usually famous: thus their nomenclature has much important continuity during several generations and their nomenclature thus can steadily attest much from older cultural comprehensions too. Thus we find notoriously also in TEUTONIC the usual word TO HANG; continuously in modern German the HANG and ABHANG notice the side of a mountain, the slope of mountain. Also these German HANG and ABHANG apparently are similar with Chinese SHAN for mountain. We thus notice that the word HANG in English indeed is interesting old TEUTONIC word; old English knows forms heng and hangian, older German the hengen and old TEUTONIC form was HANGHAN. These show notable similarity with the Chinese SHAN word too. (For comparison, in Turkish is US word for summits and DAG word for a mountain.) Chinese word SHU notices a tree. Apparently this word is notably similar with usual old Greek word KSULOS for a tree (and KSULINEE). Finnish language uses noun KUUSI specifically for spruce tree; and in Russian language the SOSNA notices pine trees. Russia and Finland are northern areas with severe winters, and conifer trees are in those regions thus more usual thriving, thus understandably we find such references to pine and spruce trees. So we find more interesting geographical details, because similar German word BUCHE notices there really thriving leafy beech tree. The usual English word BUSH also appears resembling; also this word is common TEUTONIC word (Swedish buske, German Busch and German Buche). These style of names yet in our times continuously manifest remembrances of older cultures and then usual practises. Chinese word CAO notices grass. Apparently similar is usual Finnish word AHO noticing lawns and grassy fields; and word KATO notices in Finnish results of harvest. Russian word LUSHAIKA notices grassy areas, and Turkish CAYIR notices a pasture area (cf. Finnish SORJA, SOREA noticing plentiful and Finnish SARJA noticing a series). These words show remarkable similarity indeed; and in Old Hebrew word AHW, pronounced AHU, notices green areas. Certain styles of cultures were more active in pasturing liveforms, and this remarkable similarity of words thus is also historically important in regarding strata of developments of societies and activities. Chinese word HUA is usual for flowers. Flowers are known for their pleasant scents, and thus is here notable German RAUCH for smoke and scents, and the verb RAUCHEN to smoke and to give fumes and odours. Indeed, in Old Hebrew we find the REACH word for scents and aromas (Hebrew RUACH more being for wind breeze generally). Old Hebrew NHH also is word for scents and aromas, and also resembling that HUA word. Thus we also notice in Russian language the word DUHA for smells and scents, and BLAGOYHANIE notices good scents. And in Finnish language the usual noun HAJU notices various odours and scents. (An interesting linguistic detail is found in Old Hebrew, where the PRJ word notices usually fruits and produces of vegetation, and noun PRH is in Old Hebrew usual specifically for flowers; the H is thus interesting here in this discussion of HUA word). Chinese word HU notices river. Apparently we can compare with German FLUSS word for rivers and streams (and German verb fliessen). And similar Finnish word UI (form of verb noticing to swim) is important for HU comparisons. (Such words in Finnish notice various river activities, the UI noticing swimming and UITTO noticing floating; also Chinese YU word for fish here is apparently recalled). Culturally it is also remarkably important that in Turkish language word CAY notices rivers, streams and brooks. And word RUTSEI in Russian language notices streams; this Russian word appears especially near to German FLUSS when changes of L and R letter pronouncing is recognised. The rivers and streams were in older times major traffic connections and thus for those societies and their activities especially important; such similarity of river words thus is historically particularly important. Chinese word HAI notices seas and oceans. Thus we notice WATER in English; especially because the water also notices larger places of waters, geographical places of waters. The WATER is common TEUTONIC word (German Wasser, Swedish vatten and English water and else); in old TEUTONIC were forms of WATAR and WAT usual. Amidst historic slight changes of pronouncing, also WHAI and WHAITH forms are apparently near, importantly for the HAI word comparisons. And in Finnish language the noun VATTA (dialect; formally, VATSA) notices human stomach that is, well known, also place of liquid containing too. We here also refer to the famous Old Greek THALASSA that specifically notices open seas, and this old Greek word indeed starts with the THA, also reminding of HAI word; in comparison esp with LAKKOS. (And in Turkish language notices the word YAGIS raining and snowing and is also connected with waters, although not apparent with seas). Chinese word NAO notices brain. Apparently similar is the Old Greek word NOUS for human comprehension and wisdom, and the famous old Greek noun GNOOSIS for knowledge (of usual Greek verb GIGNOOSKOO, to know). (Greek NAOS is, rather, noticing temples and shrines; places of ancient practises of culture and education). In Russian language are apparently similar the usual verbs ZNAT (to know) and YZNAT (to get to know). These prove remarkable similarities between these Chinese, Russian and Greek words. Discussions concerning knowing and knowing faculty attest remarkably developed abstract thinking in stages of progressing stages of ancient cultures, and thus these similarities are really important. In Finnish language is usual word NAKO but this word usually is more specific for faculty of seeing and observing; but Finnish NAKO words also prove certain developments of considerations of epistemology, such as usual NAHTAVASTI that states probably and also apparently, and NAETTEKOS that means do You comprehend that. And, in Old Hebrew there is the usual BINA word for understanding and faculty of understanding (with that, similar Turkish BEYIN notices brain) also this old Hebrew word shows interesting similarity with Chinese NAO word. (Also, it is here worth noticing that Russian NOS word notices a human NOSE; and in older Swedish is known NOS and older English NOSU; and German NASE and NAS. And in Russian, NOSIT verb notices to carry and to bear, and NOSITEL noun in Russian also notices bearers and a repository; these also are interesting amidst different cultural developments). Chinese word MEI notices every. This is remarkably similar with the ME pronoun in Finnish for WE, and Russian MYI pronoun for WE, thus we especially regard manifestation of every one of our group pronounced in these references to WE in Russian MYI and Finnish ME. (Interesting reference to own group is Turkish word MENSE noticing roots, and place of origins; and in Turkish the word KAMU notices more generally the people and the public). In old Greek language, we prompt recognise the usual word formations with META, that META noticing with, and together. Another detail in old Greek here particularly relevant is the usual MEN…DE that notices in Greek usual expression of alternatives. In old Greek the similar HEEMEN is pronoun for WE, and HUMEN is pronoun for plur.2. These similarities in pronouns in these languages is really interesting detail. (Compare with English WE, German wir and Swedish vi pronouns for plur.1). And it is also interesting that old Hebrew often write pl. 3 pronoun HEM to notice THEY. Such pronouns for WE especially manifest certain symbolic manifestation of THAT GROUP, the pronoun utters certain self comprehension of the group of speaker. Thus it appears remarkably interesting that pronouns for WE in Finnish, Russian and old Greek languages so apparently are similar with Chinese MEI word of every, these pronouns recognising every of us. Chinese word KU notices something bitter. In Finnish language, we find numerous interesting comparisons in words KURJA (wretched), MYRKKY (poison), KYY (poisonous snake) and also KUSI. Remarkably similar there is also the Russian word GORKII that notices bitter; and Russian verb KURIT notices smoking, smoke often being bitter and irritating. Turkish KOTU notices something bad and evil, and CURUK is something unworthy too. German KUMMER are sorrows and problems, and kummern is that verb. In old Greek, thus are notable words OKSUS, KAPNOS and KHUMOS. And in old Hebrew, NGY (nega) are various defects and negative qualities and damages. Similarities of such estimations and descriptions of qualities in these cultures, are indeed interesting cultural character. Chinese word SUAN notices something sour. Usual Finnish words SURU (sorrow) and SURKEA (wretched) also appear similar; and in Russian is SUROVYI word noticing grim and severe. In Turkish, CURUK notices something rotten and decayed; and Finnish language knows word SURMA for death generally, and for assassinations, severe and grim events. And common TEUTONIC is word SOUR, appearing in older English SUR and older German SYR; although the etymological origination of this SOUR word is regarded unclear. Comparison with Chinese SUAN appear important. Chinese word TIAN notices sweet. Such is positive description, and it is worth regarding English EAT (IIT) word; this is common TEUTONIC word; and older English wrote in ETAN forms; in TEUTONIC are various ETA forms usual, found in Swedish ATA verb; the Older TEUTONIC form was ETAN. Also old Hebrew knows of TYM describing something tasty. Chinese word CHUANTONG notices tradition. Finnish language knows similar word KANTO for stump of a tree, and word KIANTO, and word KANTO-LA noticing such larger place. In Turkish, similar COKUNTU word notices wreckages. Notably, in old Hebrew the ZQN ziqne word notices more generally something or someone old and of old age. And in old Greek, the similar word ANTHOS rather, however, notices new buds and new growths. Chinese word DONGSI notices thing. Comparisons of this word involve many difficulties; but the following remarks here can be presented. Stated some more abstract, a thing is a something (Ding an sich); and a thing is something when it appears to others (Erscheinung); but here we avoid too difficult remarks and keep these comparisons simple and straightforward. Especially, no remark is here made concerning epistemic nuances of that Chinese word. We notice that DONGSI word appears similar with famous Greek DOKSA word (in epistemology well defined, noticing appearances and epistemic situation of mere DOKSAZEIN). At least, visual appearance of some-thing is here notable. And in Turkish, word DUS notices dreams and appearances, and TASAVVUR notices imaginations and plans. But in Russian language, word DEISTVIE notices effects and acts. These apparently are apprehensions of some-thing, although slightly differently, apprehensions of effects and acts, or apprehensions of its appearance and apparition (Erscheinung). For the second, Chinese DONGSI is similar with the word THIS. The word THIS is importantly, common TEUTONIC word (THIS, DAS, DIESE, and others) and in old TEUTONIC in forms of DESSE, DESSI. And such older TEUTONIC words notably are similar with such Chinese DONGSI statements. And in Finnish, we find similar word TOSI; and that Finnish word means true and genuine (and more abstract, truth of claims and propositions). (We here make also important remark of history of usual English word THING. This is also one common TEUTONIC word, but the older form is TING in TEUTONIC; and TING was assembly and public council for judicial and deliberative purposes; in TEUTONIC culture the word thus has those quite particular and specific connotations. Ancient Icelandic TINGVILLITH place of millennium old Icelandic parliamentary gatherings, and Norwegian LAG-TING parliament, continuously attest these meanings; and modern German word das Ding has meanings noticing affairs and various matters, also thus belonging to such judicial and communal fields of meaning. This remark was made for the particular help for English speakers when they may consider comparisons with word THING and its older forms and older uses). Chinese word WEN notices to ask questions and inquiries. Similar meaning is found in Finnish word VENTO, there is word VENTO-VIERAS noticing someone unknown and complete stranger. Somewhat similar Swedish word VAN notices also someone else, especially some friend (also noticing verb VANTA in Swedish). In Russian, is similar word VAPROS. Especially important notice is that usual interrogatives in German language are resembling also; interrogatives wer, was, wie, wann, wieso, warum in usual German language (wen sahen Sie?) Many interrogatives in TEUTONIC languages also are much resembling, thus also English who, what, when, why words, and also Swedish forms vem, vad, varfor and others. We thus make important comparison when we recognise that Chinese word WEN notices problems, inquiries and asking questions. It is also of importance that old Hebrew word YNH (pronounced sounds quite similar with that Chinese word WEN) specifically notices making oracle inquiries, and inquiries with prophesies, and thus finding answers. It is thus remarkably important that such words in this vast region consequently notice making inquiries and uttering questions. Chinese word WAI notices otherness, being out, foreign countries and such meanings. Notably, in Finnish the word VAI is word OR (questioning THIS OR THAT, and similar); and Finnish VAIKKA word also notices otherness, noticing even if. In modern Finnish the VAI-NAJA notices deceased person, a profound otherness too. And considering Finnish geography, there is interesting detail that large VANAJA lake effectively establishes division between western coastal region of Finland, and areas east of that lake VANAJA. For Finnish language there is the important detail that wife is in Finnish called VAI-MO; also in this word we can hear notice of the Other. Such language uses attest old historical continuity and thus are of remarkable importance, making comparisons with the usual Chinese WAI word. Also in old Hebrew we may refer to AWON word and AWWA word that often are rendered to notice transgressions and distortion; also such old Hebrew words thus clearly notice situation being something OTHER that what was hoped for, or intended. Chinese WEI word is also usual, noticing someone. Similar word is also in Finnish found, VEIKKO and VEIJO that notice someone; and much resembling Turkish BEY notices Sir, and some gentleman. Almost similar Finnish noun VELI notices brother; and similar words with that are Russian VELIKI noticing grand and great; and Turkish VELI word that notices parents and guardians. Of much interest appears comparing this Chinese WEI with, apparently, English WE pronoun. Importantly, WE pronoun is word common in TEUTONIC languages (German wir, Swedish vi being pronouns of plur.1). Being oft used words, these words have very numerous historical forms and complicated developments; but in main lines, such pronouns are seen to go back to forms WEIS and WEI forms. Comparing such old developments of those WE pronouns, with usual Chinese WEI words, thus, appear of much importance. (Already before, here was Chinese MEI word compared with plural 1 pronoun of Finnish, Russian and Greek parlance). Chinese SHENG word notices body. Remarkably similar word is found in Finnish language, word HENKI that notices a living human being. This Finnish HENKI word appears in many formations, meanings including breath and breathing, individual human; and similar. This is indeed one remarkable similarity between Chinese and Finnish languages. In old Greek language is usual word KSENOS that notices human beings, although usually noticing someone not so well known. Turkish CENE word more specific notices a chin, and jaw (this Turkish form also reminds of old Hebrew SEN word for tooth, and some bone parts; here we find interesting difference because Finnish HENKI and its forms designate human being with regard to breath, but not with regard to bones). Chinese YING notices to win. Thus it is interesting that Finnish language knows word UKKO. This word has many meanings, designating men, usually in positive sense. Historically, UKKO was in Finnish folklore important weather deity and that also reflects meanings of YING noticing winners. From that meaning continuously is in Finnish language UKKO-NEN designating thundering. Usual Finnish word YKKO-NEN also designates the number one and winners; these sayings are actually well comparable with uses of Chinese YING that notice winning. It is also worth noticing that Russian language well recognises such nuances; the verb IGRAT notices doing sports, and Russian verb VYI-IGRAT specially notices winning a contest. Moreover. the TEUTONIC words for winning also appear resembling (English to win, German winnen, Swedish vinna and others). Chinese word SHOU is measure word for poems, and passages of texts. Such words appear to designate educated literates in many parlances in many languages. We really should remember that in older times, literacy was actually quite rare and thus earned specific titles too. This word notices similarity with Russian STIHH word for poetry and also with Russian verb PISAT to write. It appears important to compare this SHOU word also with very usual old Hebrew word HAZA or HAZON for observing, and observations; in Jewish congregations are CHAZZANS, at least, literate cantors, and in older times, also something else too; also they are competent in literacy. Finnish verb KATSO notices seeing and looking at. (And in Turkish, also similar word GOZCU notices observers and watchmen). Old Greek SKO-PEIN and SKO-POS and SKO-PIA are words for observing and viewing. Thus we also regard usual English word SHOW that appears indeed remarkably similar with the Chinese SHOU word. Importantly, the English SHOW word is common TEUTONIC word (German schauen and Schau, Swedish syn and syna and others), and in older times this also meant to look at; and old TEUTONIC root is SKAU. BUT NOW HERE WE NOTICE that indeed, such old TEUTONIC form SKAU is notoriously similar with that Chinese SHOU word. Chinese word LIANG notices a pair, number two, and also notices wheeled vehicles. Notably similar is Finnish word LIIKE and LIIKU noticing moving forwards, and proceeding. Similarity with numeral two is echoed in Finnish LIIKA (is there too much?); also name LIIKA-NEN is of some Finns. Importantly similar appear the famous old Hebrew word for walking and movements, is the HLK or HALAKH. Old Greek verb ERKHOMAI is usual word for coming and going; and for people confusing L and R pronouncing, such usual ERKHOMAI easily become ELKHOMAI, and thus is HLK movement also in this usual old Greek verb easily found! In Russia, we also recognise usual names OLGA and OLEG; and also famous stream VOLGA has name really resembling. LIANG and LIIKE and LIIKU and HALAKH and OLGA and OLEG and VOLGA and ELKHOMAI. And thus appear important comparison the usual English WALK verb. Also such words are in TEUTONIC languages usual; and in old TEUTONIC was usual root WALK that, although older etymology of that WALK root appears with questions. BUT NOW HERE WE NOTICE also in this case, apparently, we do cleverly when we compare with Chinese LIANG movement words. One special notice concerning NUMERALS. We can easily detect remarkable similarity of numerals in Chinese, Russian, German and Finnish languages (considering numerals from one to ten, noticing our decimal mathematics). Importantly, numeracy is actually very educated activity, result of very abstract thinking and numeracy was especially important amongst groups doing commerce and trade, and amongst levels of society organising. Comparing numerals, we thus recognise terms special to specially educated groups of society and thus we learn more evidence from unity of such cultural groups. Numerals are also important evidence for counting for ancient calendar, counting of times and time periods. Thus we list the following details of numbers in order listing Chinese-Russian-German-Finnish numerals, approximately how those sound: YI-ADIIN-EIINZ-YIIKSI (number one CRGF); LIANG-DVAA-ZWAA-KAAXI (number two CRGF); SII-TSIITIR-FIIR (number four CRG); WUU-WUUNF-VIISI (five CGF); LIU-KUUSI (number six where Chinese and Finnish are nearer); QII-SIIM-SIIBEN-SIITSEMA (seven; close similarity of all especially here IS notorious and may also notice calendrical questions to for counting of time periods); BAA-VAASIIM-AACT-KAAHDEXA (eight CRGF); QIU-NUUI-UUHDEXA (CGF nine; it IS notable that German numeral neun is in German language similar with neu, neues, New); SHII-DESHIIT-ZHIIN-KSIIMME (ten CRGF). Thus linguistically evidenced clear similarities of counting systems ARE important in regarding questions what sort of society organisation was realising organised society in these large areas. We can now here present important CONCLUSION: notoriously many common TEUTONIC words appear to have very close parallel in usual Chinese words; apparently, notoriously many common TEUTONIC words appear to be historically cultural developments from Chinese! Many TEUTONIC words are in western areas continuously living continuations of earlier much from Chinese culture informed cultural forms and words. Regarding the earlier history of this large continent, this result appears have very understandable motivations in relatively recent larger arrivals from eastern Asia regions toward Europe. Even a millennium of history involves in human society only small number of generations of people, so that language developments do show quite much stability even over time period of millennium. In TEUTONIC cultures, we are thus apparently surprisingly much using words and cultural concepts based on Chinese language and culture! It is just important to really recognise this remarkable cultural reality, that much of Chinese language and cultural words actually are well living in modern TEUTONIC languages! And the somewhat archaic Finnish language in notoriously many words, appears actually being sort of dialect of Chinese language. HERE IS THIS STUDY CONCLUDED.

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